Greek diaspora

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Map showing the countries with the largest Greek population around the world.

The Greek diaspora or Hellenic diaspora, also known as Omogenia[1][2] (Greek: Ομογένεια) refers to the communities of Greek people living outside the traditional Greek homelands, but more commonly in other parts of the Balkans, in southern Russia and Ukraine, Asia Minor, the region of Pontus (Pontic Greeks), as well as Georgia and northeastern Anatolia/the southern Caucasus (Caucasus Greeks). Members of the diaspora can be identified as those who themselves, or whose ancestors, migrated from the Greek homelands.[3]

History[edit]

Ancient times[edit]

A map showing the Greek territories and colonies during the Archaic (800 BC – 480 BC) period.

In ancient times, the trading and colonising activities of the Greek tribes from the Balkans and Asia Minor spread people of Greek culture, religion and language around the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, establishing Greek city states in Sicily, southern Italy, northern Libya, eastern Spain, the south of France, and the Black Sea coasts. Greeks founded more than 400 colonies.[4] Alexander the Great's conquest of the Achaemenid Empire marked the beginning of the Hellenistic period, which was characterized by a new wave of Greek colonization in Asia and Africa, with Greek ruling classes established in Egypt, southwest Asia and northwest India.[5]

Many Greeks migrated to the new Hellenistic cities founded in Alexander's wake, as far away as what are now Uzbekistan, the northern Indian subcontinent (including modern-day Pakistan),[6] and Kuwait.[7] The Hellenistic cities of Seleucia, Antioch and Alexandria were among the largest cities in the world during Hellenistic and Roman times.[8] Under the Roman Empire movement of people spread Greeks across the Empire and in the eastern territories Greek became the lingua franca rather than Latin. The Roman Empire became Christianized in the fourth century AD, and in the late Byzantine period practice of the Greek Orthodox form of Christianity became a defining hallmark of Greek identity.[9]

Middle Ages[edit]

In the seventh century, Emperor Heraclius adopted Medieval Greek as the official language of the Byzantine Empire. Greeks continued to live around the Levant, Mediterranean and Black Sea maintaining a Greek identity amongst local populations as traders, officials and settlers. Soon after, the Arab-Islamic Caliphate conquered the Levant, Egypt, North Africa and Sicily from the Byzantine Greeks during the Byzantine–Arab Wars. The Greek populations generally remained in these areas of the Caliphate and helped translate ancient Greek works into Arabic, thus contributing to early Islamic philosophy and science in medieval Islam, which in turn contributed to Byzantine science. Members of the Greek diaspora living under Islamic rule occasionally converted to Islam, most notably Al-Khazini in the 12th century.

Fall of Byzantium and exodus to Italy[edit]

A street of Cargèse (Karyes) in Corsica, which was founded by Maniots refugees, with the Greek church in the background.

After the Byzantine–Ottoman Wars, which resulted in the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and the Ottoman Empire's conquest of Greek lands, many Greeks fled Constantinople and found refuge in Italy, bringing with them many ancient Greek writings that had been lost in the West. These helped contribute to the European Renaissance. Most of these Greeks settled in Venice, Florence and Rome.

Modern times[edit]

View of the Greek Orthodox church of Vienna.

Ottoman Empire[edit]

Greeks were spread through many provinces of the Ottoman Empire and took a major role in its economic life, particularly through the Phanariots who emerged as a class of moneyed ethnically Greek merchants (they commonly claimed noble Byzantine descent) in the latter half of the 16th century and went on to exercise great influence in the administration in the Ottoman Empire's Balkan domains in the 18th century - some of them settling in the territory of the present-day Romania and considerably influencing its political and cultural life.

19th century[edit]

During and after the Greek War of Independence, Greeks of the diaspora were important in establishing the fledgling state, raising funds and awareness abroad. Greek merchant families already had contacts in other countries and during the disturbances many set up home around the Mediterranean (notably Marseilles in France, Livorno, Calabria and Bari in Italy and Alexandria in Egypt), Russia (Odessa and St Petersburg), and Britain (London and Liverpool) from where they traded, typically in textiles and grain. Businesses frequently comprised the whole extended family, and with them they brought schools teaching Greek and the Greek Orthodox Church.[10] As markets changed and they became more established, some families grew their operations to become shippers, financed through the local Greek community, notably with the aid of the Ralli or Vagliano Brothers. With economic success the diaspora expanded further across the Levant, North Africa, India and the USA.[11]

After the Treaty of Constantinople the political situation stabilised somewhat, and some of the displaced families moved back to the newly independent country to become key figures in cultural, educational and political life, especially in Athens. Finance and assistance from overseas were channelled through these family ties, and helped provide institutions such as the National Library, and sent relief after natural disasters.

20th century[edit]

In the 20th century, many Greeks left the traditional homelands for economic reasons resulting in large migrations from Greece and Cyprus to the United States, Great Britain, Germany, Belgium, Australia, Canada, Georgia, Armenia, Italy, Russia, Chile, Argentina, Mexico and South Africa, especially after World War II (1939–45), the Greek Civil War (1946–49) and the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus in 1974.[3]

After World War I most Greeks living in the territory of modern Turkey were forced or coerced into leaving their homes as part of the population exchange programs between Turkey and Greece. Many came to modern Greece, but The Russian Empire (later USSR) was also a major destination.

After the Greek Civil War many communist Greeks and their families were forced to flee to neighboring Yugoslavia and the Soviet dominated states of Eastern Europe, especially the USSR and Czechoslovakia. Hungary even founded a whole new village, Beloiannisz for Greek refugees, while a large concentration of such Greeks were resettled in the former Sudeten German region of northern Czechoslovakia centred around Krnov (Jegendorff).

Another country to admit Greeks in large numbers was Sweden, where today over 15,000 Greek-Swedish descendants live (see Greeks in Sweden). While many immigrants returned later, these countries still have numerous first and second generation Greeks who maintain their traditions.[3]

The Arab nationalism of President Nasser of Egypt led to the expulsion of a large Greek population from that country in the 1950s. Until that point Alexandria had been an important centre of Greek culture since antiquity, with the business life of the city dominated by Greeks.

With the fall of Communism in eastern Europe and the USSR, numbers of Greeks of the diaspora whose Greek ancestry was "removed" for many generations, immigrated to modern Greece's main urban centres of Athens and Thessaloniki, and also to Cyprus. Movements from Georgia were most numerous.[3]

The term Pontic Greeks is used to refer to those who have come from the countries around the Black Sea.

Greek nationality[edit]

Any person who is ethnically Greek born outside Greece may become a Greek citizen through naturalization, providing he/she can prove a parent or grandparent was born as a national of Greece. The Greek ancestor's birth certificate and marriage certificate are required, along with the applicant's birth certificate, and the birth certificates of all generations in between until the relation between the applicant and the person with Greek citizenship is proven.

Greek citizenship is acquired by birth by all persons born in Greece, and all persons born to at least one parent who is a registered Greek citizen. People born out of wedlock to a father that is a Greek citizen and a mother that is a non-Greek automatically gain Greek citizenship if the father recognizes them as his child before they turn 18.[12][13]

Today[edit]

Important centers of the Greek diaspora today are the New York City metropolitan area,[14][15][16][17] Chicago, Boston, London, Melbourne, Sydney, Montreal and Toronto.[3]

The SAE - World Council of Hellenes Abroad is a dependency of the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and has compiled several studies on the Greeks of the diaspora.

The total number of Greeks living outside Greece and Cyprus today is a contentious issue. Where Census figures are available it shows around 3 million Greeks outside Greece and Cyprus. Estimates provided by the Council of overseas Greeks {SAE} put the figure at around 7 million worldwide. The Greek diaspora is also very active as a lobby defending Greek interests, especially in the USA.[18] Integration, intermarriage and loss of the Greek language also influence the definition and self-definition of Greeks of the diaspora.

To learn more about how factors such as intermarriage and assimilation influence self-identification among young Greeks in the diaspora, and help clarify the estimates of Greeks in the diaspora, the Next Generation Initiative is currently conducting an academically-supervised research study that began in the United States in 2008.

Demographics[edit]

List of countries and territories by Greek population
Rank Country/territory Official data Estimations Article
1  United States 1,280,777 (2011 ACS est.)[19] 3,000,000[20] Greek American
2  Cyprus 29,321 (2011 census - Holders of Hellenic Republic passports) 700,000[21]
3  Australia 400,860 (Greek Ancestry-2011 census) 700,000[21] Greek Australians
4  United Kingdom 31,000 (2011, Greek-born)[22] 400,000[23] Greek Britons
5  Germany 296,307 (2011, Greek citizens)[24] 320,000,[25] 370,000[21] Greeks in Germany
6  Canada 242,685 (2006 census)[26] 72,000[21] Greek Canadians
7  Albania 24,243 (2011 census)[27] 590,000[28] Greeks in Albania
8  South Africa N/A 50,000-60,000[29] 120,000[21][30] Greeks in South Africa
9  Russia 97,827 (2002 census)[31] Greeks in Russia
10  Ukraine 91,500 (2001 census)[32] Greeks in Ukraine
11  Chile 8,500 (2012 census) 90,000-120,000[33] in Santiago and Antofagasta Greeks in Chile
12  Brazil N/A 25,000[34][dead link] – 30,000[35] 50,000 in Sao Paulo[36] Greeks in Brazil
13  France 5,747 (2005, Greek citizens)[24] 35,000[37] Greeks in France
14  Argentina 2,196 (2001, born in Greece)[38] 35,000,[39] 50,000[40] Greeks in Argentina
15  Italy 7,250 (2011, Greek citizens)[24] 20,000,[21] 30,000[41] Greeks in Italy
16  Mexico N/A 25,000 [42] Greek Mexican
17  Belgium 14,799 (2011, Greek citizens)[24] Greeks in Belgium
18  Georgia 15,166 (2002 census)[43] Greeks in Georgia
19  Serbia 725 (2011 census)[44] 15,000[45] Greeks in Serbia
20  Kazakhstan 12,703 (1999 census)[46] Greeks in Kazakhstan
21  Sweden 4,824 (2011, Greek citizens)[24] 12,000–15,000[47] Greeks in Sweden
22  Uzbekistan 10,453 (1989 census)[48] 9,500 [49] Greeks in Uzbekistan
23   Switzerland 7,014 (2010, Greek citizens)[50] 8,340,[21] 11,000[51] Greeks in Switzerland
24  Romania 6,513 (2002 census)[52] Greeks in Romania
25  Austria 2,535 (2009, Greek citizens)[24] 5,000 [53] Greeks in Austria
26  New Zealand N/A 4,500,[54] 10,000[21] Greeks in New Zealand
27  Netherlands N/A 4,000,[21] 12,500[55] Greeks in the Netherlands
28  Egypt N/A 3,000,[56] 5,000[34] Greeks in Egypt
29  Bulgaria 3,408 (2001 census)[57] 28,500[58] Greeks in Bulgaria
30  Czech Republic 3,231 (2001 census)[59] 7,000[60] Greeks in the Czech Republic
31  Moldova N/A 3,000[61] Greeks in Moldova
32  Hungary 2,509 (2001 census)[62] 6,000[63] Greeks in Hungary
33  Turkey N/A 2,500[64] Greeks in Turkey
34  India N/A 1,900[citation needed]
35  Norway 1,671[65] Greeks in Norway
36  Lebanon N/A 1,500-2,500[21][66] Greeks in Lebanon
37  Denmark 1,678[67] Greeks in Denmark
38  Oman N/A 1,500[21]
39  Poland 1,404 (2002 census)[citation needed] Greeks in Poland
40  Saudi Arabia N/A 1,300[21] Greeks in Saudi Arabia
41  Luxembourg 1,571 (2009)[68]
42  Cameroon N/A 1,200[21]
43  Venezuela N/A 1,148[69]
44  Zimbabwe N/A 1,100[70] Greeks in Zimbabwe
45  Uruguay N/A 1,000,[21] 2,000[71] Greeks in Uruguay
46  Syria N/A 1,000 [21] Greeks in Syria
47  Armenia 900 (2011 census)[72] Greeks in Armenia
48  Panama N/A 800,[21] 1,000[71]
49  Zambia N/A 800[73] Greeks in Zambia
50  Kyrgyzstan N/A 650–700[74] Greeks in Kyrgyzstan
51  Finland N/A 500[75]
52  Ethiopia N/A 500[76] Greeks in Ethiopia
53  Uganda 426 (1991, Greek citizens)[77]
54  Republic of Macedonia 422 (2002 census)[78] Greeks in the Republic of Macedonia
55  Jordan N/A 400,[21] 600[79]
56 Democratic Republic of the Congo DR Congo N/A 300[80] Greeks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
57  Spain N/A 300,[21] 1,500–2,000[81]
58  Bahamas N/A 300[21]
59  Nigeria N/A 300[82]
60  Tanzania N/A 300[21]
61  Barbados N/A 300[83]
62  The Gambia N/A 300[84]
63  Costa Rica N/A 80,[21] 290[85]
64  Israel N/A 250 (non-Jewish Greek only)[86]

Greeks in Israel and Palestine

65  Sudan N/A 250[87]
66  Azerbaijan N/A 250–300[88] Greeks in Azerbaijan
67  Lithuania N/A 250[89]
68  Malawi N/A 200[90]
69  Colombia N/A 200[21]
70  Ireland N/A 200[21][91]
71  Kenya N/A 200[21]
72  United Arab Emirates N/A 200[21]
73  Morocco N/A 180[21]
74  Peru N/A 150,[21] 350[92]
75  Portugal N/A 150,[21] 240[93]
76  Botswana N/A 150[21]
77  Djibouti N/A 150[21]
78  Estonia 150 (2001 census)[94]
79  Hong Kong N/A 150[21]
80  Kuwait N/A 140[95]
81  Latvia N/A 100[96]
82  Japan N/A 100,[21] 300[97]
83  Bolivia N/A 100[98]
84  People's Republic of China N/A 100[99]
85  Philippines N/A 100[100]
86  Indonesia N/A 72[101]
87  Papua New Guinea N/A 70[21]
88  Iran N/A 60,[21] 80[102]
89  Ivory Coast N/A 60[21]
90  Madagascar N/A 60[21]
91  Slovenia 54 (2002 census)[103]
92  Croatia N/A 50[104]
93  Tunisia N/A 50[21]
94  Senegal N/A 50[21]
95  Thailand N/A 50[105]
96  Central African Republic N/A 40[21]
97  Qatar N/A 40[21]
98  Singapore N/A 40[106]
99  Malta N/A 500[107] Greeks in Malta
100  Cuba N/A 30[21]
101  Algeria N/A 30[21]
102  Eritrea N/A 30[21]
103  Slovakia N/A 100[108]
104  Paraguay N/A 20,[21] 25[106]
105  Chad N/A 20[21]
106  Ecuador N/A 20[21]
107  Guatemala N/A 20[21]
108  Mozambique N/A 20[21]
109  Namibia N/A 20[21]
110  Togo N/A 20[21]
111  Taiwan N/A 20[21]
112  Republic of the Congo N/A 10[21]
113  Belarus N/A unknown – for further information, see [2]
114  Dominican Republic N/A 14[109]
115  Vietnam N/A 10[110]

Notable Greeks of the diaspora[edit]

Notable people of the Greek diaspora (including also of Greek ancestry):

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Anagnostou, Yiorgos (2009). Contours of white ethnicity popular ethnography and the making of usable pasts in Greek America. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press. p. 174. ISBN 9780821443613. "...providing an alternative to ascription omogenia (of the same race)—a term widely used by state representatives as well sectors of the ethnic media—to refer to Greek populations outside Greece." 
  2. ^ Tziovas, Dimitris (2009). Greek diaspora and migration since 1700 society, politics and culture. Farnham, England: Ashgate Pub. p. 125. ISBN 9780754693741. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Richard Clogg, The Greek diaspora in the twentieth century, 2000, Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-60047-9
  4. ^ Jerry H. Bentley, Herbert F. Ziegler, "Traditions and Encounters, 2/e," Chapter 10: "Mediterranean Society: The Greek Phase" (McGraw-Hill, 2003)
  5. ^ Hellenistic Civilization[dead link]
  6. ^ "Menander became the ruler of a kingdom extending along the coast of western India, including the whole of Saurashtra and the harbour Barukaccha. His territory also included Mathura, the Punjab, Gandhara and the Kabul Valley", Bussagli p101
  7. ^ Failaka Island
  8. ^ "Growth of the Greek Colonies in the First Millennium BC (application/pdf Object)". www.princeton.edu. Retrieved 2009-01-02. 
  9. ^ Peregrine Horden, Nicholas Purcell, The Corrupting Sea: A Study of Mediterranean History,2000, Blackwell Publishin, ISBN 0-631-21890-4
  10. ^ Ina Baghdiantz McCabe, Gelina Harlaftis, Iōanna Pepelasē Minoglou, Diaspora Entrepreneurial Networks: Four Centuries of History, 2000, p.147, Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-60047-9
  11. ^ Vassilis Kardasis, Diaspora Merchants in the Black Sea: The Greeks in Southern Russia, 1775-1861,2001, Lexington Books, ISBN 0-7391-0245-1
  12. ^ "Citizenship". allthegreeks.com. 
  13. ^ "Loss of Citizenship". allthegreeks.com. 
  14. ^ "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2012 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 2013-04-01. 
  15. ^ "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2011 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 2013-04-01. 
  16. ^ "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2010 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 2013-04-01. 
  17. ^ "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2009 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved 2013-04-01. 
  18. ^ Alexander Kitroeff & Stephanos Constantinides, 'The Greek-Americans and US Foreign Policy Since 1950' Etudes helléniques/ Hellenic Studies, vol.6,no.1, Printemps/Spring 1998
  19. ^ "Total ancestry categories tallied for people with one or more ancestry categories reported 2011 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  20. ^ "Greece (08/09)". United States Department of State. August 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-01. "An estimated three million American residents in the United States claim Greek descent." 
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az Greeks around the Globe (they are quoting the statistics of the General Secretariat for Greeks Abroad as on October 12, 2004)
  22. ^ http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/taxonomy/index.html?nscl=International+Migration
  23. ^ Duff, Oliver (3 April 2008). "Pandora: It's all Greek to Boris". The Independent. Retrieved 12 February 2013. "...Mediterranean nation's estimated 400,000-strong British diaspora." 
  24. ^ a b c d e f "Population by sex, age group and citizenship". Eurostat. Retrieved 4 February 2013. 
  25. ^ Germany: Greek population in Germany
  26. ^ "Ethnic Origin (247), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses (3) and Sex (3) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census - 20% Sample Data". Statistics Canada. 7 April 2011. Retrieved 5 January 2013. 
  27. ^ Albanian census 2011
  28. ^ "Albania," The World Factbook, CIA (24 August 2012). Ethnic groups: (…) Greek 3% (…) note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization).
  29. ^ Greek Foreign Ministry
  30. ^ http://www.mfa.gr/www.mfa.gr/en-US/Policy/Geographic+Regions/Sub-Saharan+Africa/Bilateral+Relation/South+Africa/
  31. ^ Norwegian Institute of International Affairs: Centre for Russian Studies: 2002 census
  32. ^ State Statistics Committee of Ukraine: 2001 census
  33. ^ (Spanish) Embajada Griega en Chile.
  34. ^ a b Γενικα Στοιχεια Διασπορασ[dead link]
  35. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Brazil: The Greek Community
  36. ^ "Histórico de Hospedaria" (in portuguese). Memorial do Inmigrante, government of Sao Paulo. (click on "Estatísticas Gerais: Imigrantes e Descendentes")
  37. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: France: The Greek Community
  38. ^ (Spanish) Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INDEC): Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas 2001: País de nacimiento. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
  39. ^ ONI: Colectividad Griega (Spanish)
  40. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Argentina: The Greek Community
  41. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Italy: The Greek Community
  42. ^ Comunidad Helenica de Mexico: The Greek side of Mexico
  43. ^ Eurominority: Greeks in Georgia
  44. ^ "Попис становништва, домаћинстава и станова 2011. у Републици Србији Становништво према националној припадности" [Census of Population, Households and Dwellings for 2011. in the Republic of Serbia Population by ethnicity]. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 27 January 2013. 
  45. ^ Glas Javnosti: Nama su samo Srbi braća
  46. ^ Japan External Trade Organization: Institute of Developing Economies: Ethnodemographic situation in Kazakhstan
  47. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Sweden: The Greek Community
  48. ^ (Russian) "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года. Национальный состав населения Узбекской ССР" [1989 all-Soviet census: Ethnic structure of Uzbek SSR]. Demoscope Weekly. Retrieved 27 January 2013. 
  49. ^ Central Asia – Caucasus analyst: Greeks in Uzbekistan
  50. ^ (German) "Ständige und nichtständige Wohnbevölkerung nach detaillierter Staatsangehörigkeit". Swiss Federal Statistical Office. Retrieved 27 January 2013. 
  51. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Switzerland: The Greek Community
  52. ^ ClubAfaceri: 2002 (Romanian) census
  53. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Austria: The Greek Community
  54. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: New Zealand: The Greek Community
  55. ^ According to the Netherlands Statistical Service, quoted by: Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Netherlands: The Greek Community[dead link]
  56. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Egypt: The Greek Community
  57. ^ Republic of Bulgaria: National Statistical Institute: 2001 census
  58. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Bulgaria: The Greek Community
  59. ^ Office of the Czech Republic Government: Report on the Situation of National Minorities in the Czech Republic in 2001
  60. ^ According to the Association of Greek Communities in the Czech Republic quoted by the Office of the Czech Republic Government: Report on the Situation of National Minorities in the Czech Republic in 2001
  61. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Moldova
  62. ^ Hungarian Central Statistical Office: 2001 census
  63. ^ Eurominority: Greeks in Hungary
  64. ^ However according to the Human Rights Watch the Greek population in Turkey is estimated at 2,500 in 2006. "From “Denying Human Rights and Ethnic Identity” series of Human Rights Watch" Human Rights Watch, 2 July 2006.
  65. ^ Statistics Norway: Norway: The Greek Community
  66. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Lebanon
  67. ^ "BEF5: Folketal pr 1 januar efter køn, alder og fødeland". Danmark statistik. Danmark statistik. Retrieved 23 July 2012. 
  68. ^ Gouvernement du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg - Etat civil et population du Luxembourg [1]
  69. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Venezuela: The Greek Community
  70. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Zimbabwe: The Greek Community
  71. ^ a b Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Uruguay: The Greek Community
  72. ^ National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia: 2011 census
  73. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Zambia
  74. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Kyrgyzstan: The Greek Community
  75. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Finland: The Greek Community
  76. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Ethiopia: The Greek Community
  77. ^ Census 2002
  78. ^ State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia: Total population, households and dwellings according to the territorial organization of the Republic of Macedonia, 2004.
  79. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Jordan: The Greek Community
  80. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Democratic Republic of Congo: The Greek Community
  81. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Spain: The Greek Community
  82. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Nigeria: The Greek Community
  83. ^ Greek ethnic populations in all countries
  84. ^ Ethnic people groups of the Gambia
  85. ^ Los Griegos en Costa Rica
  86. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Israel: The Greek Community
  87. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Sudan: The Greek Community
  88. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Azerbaijan: The Greek Community
  89. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Lithuania: The Greek Community
  90. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Malawi: The Greek Community
  91. ^ http://www.mfa.gr/www.mfa.gr/en-US/Policy/Geographic+Regions/Europe/Relationships+with+EU+Member+States/Ireland/
  92. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Peru: The Greek Community
  93. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Portugal: The Greek Community
  94. ^ Estonian Statistical Office: Estonia: The Greek Community
  95. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Kuwait: The Greek Community
  96. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Latvia: The Greek Community
  97. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Japan: The Greek Community
  98. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Bolivia: The Greek Community
  99. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: China: The Greek Community
  100. ^ "BILATERAL RELATIONS GREECE-PHILIPPINES". www.mfa.gr. Retrieved 2009-01-02. 
  101. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Indonesia: The Greek Community
  102. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Iran: The Greek Community
  103. ^ Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia: Census of population, households and housing 2002
  104. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Croatia: The Greek Community
  105. ^ Greece-Thailand relations
  106. ^ a b Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Singapore: The Greek Community
  107. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Malta: The Greek Community
  108. ^ Hellenic Republic: Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Slovakia
  109. ^ Dominican Republic-Greece relations
  110. ^ Greek-Vietnamese relations

External links[edit]