Greek mythology in popular culture
Elements of Greek mythology have appeared many times in culture and pop culture. The Greek myths had originally been adopted into the culture of ancient Rome, and have been frequently incorporated by Western cultural movements since then, particularly since the Renaissance. Mythological elements have been used in Renaissance art and English poems, as well as film and literature, and songs and commercials. Along with the Bible and the works of Shakespeare, the myths of Greece and Rome have been the major "touchstone" in Western culture for the past 500 years.
These elements include the gods of varying stature, humans, demigods, titans, giants, monsters, nymphs, and famed locations. Their use can range from a brief allusion to the use of the actual Greek character as a character in a work. Some types of creatures—such as centaurs and nymphs—are used as a generic type rather than individuated characters out of myth.
The retelling of the myths "always [sit] in relation to older stories through audience memory" which creates a "jostling [of] knowledge" because there will "always be numerous older versions and related stories, even if not all of them exist today."
- 1 Use by governments and public institutions
- 2 In science and technology
- 3 In film and television
- 4 In video games
- 5 In marketing
- 6 In sociology and psychology
- 7 In painting and sculpture
- 8 In literature
- 9 In geography
- 10 In music
- 11 In architecture and other constructions
- 12 Rejection of use
- 13 See also
- 14 References
Use by governments and public institutions
Roman conquerors allowed the incorporation of existing Greek mythological figures such as Zeus into their coinage in places like Phrygia, in order to "augment the fame" of the locality, while "creating a stronger civil identity" without "advertising" the imposition of Roman culture. In modern times, the initial Greek 2 Euro coin featured the myth of Zeus and Europa, and sought to connect the new Europe through Western history to the ancient culture of Greece. As of December 2012, the European Central Bank as plans to incorporate Greek mythological figures into the designs used on its bank notes.
The medical profession is symbolized by the snake--entwined staff the god of medicine, Asclepius. Today's medical professionals hold a similarly honored position as did the healer-priests of Asclepius.
The Pegasus appears frequently on stamps, particularly for air mail. In 1906, Greece issued a series of stamps featuring the stories from Hercules' life. Australia commemorated the laying of an underwater cable linking it to the island of Tasmania through a stamp featuring an image of Amphitrite.
The United States military has used Greek mythology to name its equipment such as the Nike missile project and the Navy having over a dozen ships named from Greek mythology. There have been a number of ships in the British navy as well as the Australian Royal Navy which has also named a training facility in Victoria called HMAS Cerebus. The Canadair CP-107 Argus of the Royal Canadian Air Force is named in honor of both the hundred eyed Argus Panoptes the "all seeing" and Odysseus' dog Argus who was the only one who identified Odysseus upon his return home.
In science and technology
Many celestial bodies have been named after elements of Greek mythology. The constellation of Scorpius represents the scorpion that attacked Hercules and the scorpions that spooked the horses when Phaëton was driving the sun-chariot; while Capricorn may represent Pan in a myth that tells of his escape from Typhon by jumping into the water while turning into an animal - the half in the water turned into a fish and the other half turned into a goat. 1108 Demeter, a main-belt asteroid discovered by Karl Reinmuth on May 31, 1929, is named after the Greek goddess of fruitful soil and agriculture.
The elements tantalum and niobium are always found together in nature, and have been named after the King Tantalus and his daughter Niobe. The element promethium also draws its name from Greek mythology, as does titanium, which was named after the titans who in mythology were locked away far underground, which reflected the difficulty of extracting titanium from ore.
Oceanographer Jacques-Yves Cousteau named his research ship, a former British Royal Navy minesweeper, RV Calypso after the sea nymph Calypso. The ship later inspired the John Denver song "Calypso".
The Gaia hypothesis proposes that organisms interact with their inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a self-regulating, complex system that contributes to maintaining the conditions for life on the planet. The hypothesis was formulated by the scientist James Lovelock and co-developed by the microbiologist Lynn Margulis and was named after Gaia, the mother of the Greek gods.
In film and television
The use of Greek mythology in children's television shows is credited with helping to bring "the great symbols of world literature and art" to a mass audience of children who would otherwise have limited exposure. Children's programming has included items such as a recurring segment on CKLW-TV where Don Kolke would be dressed up as Hercules and discuss fitness and Greek mythology.
The Battlestar Galactica franchise (particularly the 2004 television series) developed from concepts that utilized Greek mythology and the series Heroes, played on the concept of the new generation of gods overthrowing the old. The television series Lost used Greek mythology primarily in its online Lost Experience. During its six season run, the television series Xena: Warrior Princess is set in a fantasy world "dominated by Greek gods and mythological creatures", but it also "plays with Greek legends" re-writing the historical stories. In the series, the god Ares (played by Kevin Tod Smith) makes several appearances attempting to lure Xena back to a life of spreading chaos and destruction.[relevant? ]
Amazons, prior to their appearance in American Hollywood films where they have been presented in "swimsuit-style costume without armor" and "Western lingerie combined with various styles of 'tough', male" clothing, had been traditionally depicted in classical Greek warrior armor.
Jean Cocteau regarded Orpheus as "his myth", and used it as the basis for many projects, including Orphee The film Orfeu Negro is Marcel Camus' reworking of the Cocteau film. The film Moulin Rouge! is also based on the Orpheus story, but set in 1899, and containing modern pop music.
The 1997 Disney production of Hercules was inspired by Greek myths, but it "greatly modernizes the narrative, ... going to great lengths to spice up its mythic materials with wacky comedy and cheerfully anachronistic dialogue," which, Keith Booker says, is playing a part in the "slow erosion of historical sense." 
In video games
The 1996 video game Wrath of the Gods was an adventure game set in mythical Greece, and had an educational component where players could learn about Greek myths and history and see images of Greek art in cut-a-ways.
In 2003, Gamespy remarked that the 1986 video game Kid Icarus, which had become very popular and then faded to relative obscurity, had followed a trajectory similar to its namesake from Greek mythology, Icarus, who had escaped imprisonment when his father created wings from feathers and wax, but ignoring his father's advice, Icarus flew too close to the sun so that the wax melted and Icarus fell to his death in the sea.
The God of War franchise of video games is set in a land of Greek mythology, with the main character being named after Kratos from Greek mythology who is the son of the river nymph Styx and is the personification of power.
Corporations have used images and concepts from Greek mythology in their logos and in specific advertisements.
The wine Semeli is named after Semele, who was the mother of the god of wine Dionysus, drawing on the associations to give the product credibility. The sports apparel company Nike, Inc. is named after the Greek goddess of "victory". TriStar Pictures, Readers Digest and Mobile Oil have used the Pegasus as their corporate logos.
In sociology and psychology
In psychoanalytic theory, the term Oedipus complex, coined by Sigmund Freud, denotes the emotions and ideas that the mind keeps in the unconscious, via dynamic repression, that concentrate upon a child's desire to sexually possess his/her mother, and kill his/her father. In his later writings Freud postulated an equivalent Oedipus situation for infant girls, the sexual fixation being on the father. Though not advocated by Freud himself, the term 'Electra complex' is sometimes used in this context. A "Medea complex" is sometimes used to describe parents who murder or otherwise harm their children.
In painting and sculpture
Percy Shelley had been working on a translation of Aeschylus' Prometheus Bound for Lord Byron in 1816. That summer, Shelley and his lover, Mary Shelley (at the time, 18 year old Mary Godwin), and others stayed with Lord Byron in Switzerland. As a contest, Byron suggested that they each write a ghost story. Mary Shelley began writing her Gothic novel Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus, which was declared the winner of the contest. The fact that she overtly subtitled the novel shows that she wished to show that she was inspired by the story of Prometheus and wanted to draw attention to the "metaphorical parallels".
In C. S. Lewis's retelling of Cupid and Psyche, Till We Have Faces, the narrator is Psyche's sister. Roberta Gellis's Shimmering Splendor is a retelling of Cupid and Psyche.[unreliable source?]
The Italian poet Dante Alighieri used characters from the legend of Troy in his Divine Comedy, placing the Greek heroes in hell to show his contempt for their actions. Poets of the Renaissance began to widely write about Greek mythology, and "elicited as much praise for borrowing or reworking" such material as they did for truly original work. The poet John Milton used figures from classical mythology to "further Christianity: to teach a Christian moral or illustrate a Christian virtue." Euphrosyne, Hymen and Hebe appear in his L'Allegro.Alexander Pope's works, such as The Rape of the Lock parodied the classical works, even as the income from his translations of Homer allowed him to become "the first English writer to earn a living solely through his literature.
In Ode To A Nightingale John Keats rejects "charioted by Bacchus and his pards." In his poem Endymion, the "Song of the Indian Maid" recounts how "Bacchus and his crew" interrupted her in her solitude. He titled an 1898 narrative poem Lamia.
In his poem, The Wasteland, T. S. Eliot incorporates a range of elements and inspirations from Greek mythology to pop music to Elizabethan history to create a "tour-de-force exposition of Western culture, from the elite to the folk to the utterly primitive". The Indian poet Henry Louis Vivian Derozio's work was heavily influenced by Greek mythology.
Nina Kosman published a book of poems inspired by Greek myths created by poets of the twentieth century from around the world which she intended to show not only the "durability" of the stories but how they are interpreted by "modern sensibility".
The Fortunate Isles and Their Union is a Jacobean era masque, written by Ben Jonson and designed by Inigo Jones, which was first performed on January 9, 1625. In William Shakespeare's Macbeth, Hecate appears as the queen of witches, uniquely placing the Anglo-Saxon witches under a Greek goddess's control. Hymen appears as a character name in his As You Like It.
Hugo von Hofmannsthal, in 1903, adopted Sophocles' version of the story of Electra for the stage. Hofmannsthal adapted his work to become the libretto for Richard Strauss' opera Elekra in 1909. The opera, although controversial for both its "modern" music and its depiction of Elektra through "psycho-sexual symbolism", inspired many more adaptations of Electra by other writers and composers during the twentieth century.
Sartre and Jean Anouilh used Greek myths as inspiration for their plays during the Nazi occupation of France, as the "distancing effect" of the ancient settings allowed their critique to by-pass censors. Later, Heiner Müller also used the coding of Greek mythology to disguise his commentaries calling for reform within the German Democratic Republic.
The 2012 play The Architects, by the London based Shunts, is based on the myth of the minotaur and is about a "return to when Greece was the cradle of civilisation and not about riots on the streets".
In children's literature
In the 19th century, Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote children's versions of the Greek myths, which he intended to "entirely revolutionize the whole system of juvenile literature." His work, along with the works of Bulfinch and Kingsley, have been credited with "recast[ing] Greek mythology into a genteel Victorian subject." The Percy Jackson and the Olympians series by Rick Riordan stars Percy Jackson the son of Poseidon. Riordan states that he created the character of Percy when trying to tell a story to help his son who has ADHD get interested in reading. In the stories, Percy's ADHD characteristics are explained as being caused by his Olympian blood, thus Riordan was "us[ing] Greek mythology as it has always been used: to explain something that is difficult to understand."
In comics and graphic novels
In the opera within Girl Genius, the Heterodyne daughter who falls in love with the Storm King is Euphrosynia. The amazon queen Hippolyta was used as the mother of Wonder Woman in the DC comic book line.
At Niagara Falls, the Bridal Veil Falls had previously been called Iris Falls, and Goat Island had previously been called Iris Island as namesakes of the Greek goddess of the rainbow, Iris, because of the rainbow effects that appear in the mists at the falls. A local newspaper which was published from 1846-1854 was also called The Iris, and the publication The Daily Iris became the Bingham Daily Republican.
The Greek myths have been the inspiration for a number of operas. Claudio Monteverdi and Giacomo Badoaro used a Greek text about the homecoming of Odysseus as the basis for Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria over which they attempted to overlay Christian beliefs and create in Zeus an omnipotent and merciful being. Cherubini's Médée takes the story which had been portrayed in many version on the French stage as a melodrama, and instead portrays Medea as a tragic heroine who deserves the audiences' sympathy.
Dutch symphonic metal band Within Temptation chose Hydra as the title of their sixth studio album to represent the many different sides of their music, as well as the regenerating heads representing how the band grows stronger and stronger.
In architecture and other constructions
The original interior of the Glyptothek, the first public sculpture museum was adorned with frescoes of Greek mythology by Peter Cornelius and his students which provided a "lively dialogue" between the building and its contents. When the building was repaired after war-time damage, the frescoes were not restored.
Brookside, also known as the John H. Bass Mansion, has the Muses decorating the ceiling around the skylight in its ballroom. In Philadelphia, the Masonic Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania's Corinthian Hall is decorated with references to Greek mythology.
Hydra the Revenge is a Bolliger & Mabillard designed floorless roller coaster at Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom in Allentown, Pennsylvania with a Lernaean Hydra theme. The name of the ride pays tribute to the "Hercules" wooden roller coaster that once stood on the same spot. The theme itself is the Hydra coming back to life and seeking revenge over Hercules.
Rejection of use
During the Middle Ages, writers disdained the use of "pagan" influences such as Greek mythology which were seen to be a "slight to Christianity." From a current cultural perspective, the Greek Orthodox metropolitan Agustinos Kantiotis has denounced the use of Greek mythology such as the use of Hermes on a postage stamp and the incorporation of images from Greek mythology into universities' logos and buildings.
Within the cultures of Latin America, beginning in the 19th Century, the inspiration for culture has been dominated by elements from the native American cultural myths, rather than those of the Greco-Roman inspiration.
Greek women poets of the modern era; such as Maria Polydouri, Pavlina Pamboudi, Myrtiotissa, Melissanthi and Rita Boumi-Pappa; rarely use mythological references, which Christopher Robinson attributes to the "problem of gender roles, both inside and outside the myths."
Martin Winter says that the idea that many commentaries about the widespread use of Greek myths throughout Western culture does not take into account the vast difference between what a modern viewer takes from the story and what it would have meant to an ancient Greek.
- Ares in popular culture
- Hades in popular culture
- Hephaestus in popular culture
- Circe in popular culture
- Morpheus (mythology)#Appearances
- Muses in popular culture
- Pan in popular culture
- Iris (mythology)#Fictional adaptations
- Persephone in popular culture
- Proteus in popular culture
- Achilles#Achilles in later art
- Hercules in popular culture
- Iphigenia#A modern viewpoint
- Jason in popular culture
- Maenad#Later culture
- Paris (mythology)#Later treatments
- Philoctetes#Modern literature
- Titans in popular culture
- Centaurs in popular culture
- Harpies in popular culture
- Cultural depictions of Medusa and Gorgons
- Pegasus in popular culture
- Elysium in popular culture
- Schwartz, Vanessa R.; Przyblyski, Jeannene M. (2004). The Nineteenth-century Visual Culture Reader. Psychology Press. pp. 176–. ISBN 9780415308663. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- Roger D. Woodard, ed. (2007-11-12). The Cambridge Companion to Greek Mythology. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521845205. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- Burn, Lucilla (1990). Greek Myths. University of Texas Press. pp. 75–. ISBN 9780292727489. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- Fong, Timothy P. (2008-04-30). Ethnic Studies Research: Approaches and Perspectives. Rowman Altamira. pp. 281–. ISBN 9780759111424. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- Batchelor, Stephen (2011-02-15). The Ancient Greeks For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781119998143. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
- Garland, Robert (2008-12-30). Daily Life of the Ancient Greeks. ABC-CLIO. pp. 306–. ISBN 9780313358159. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
- Clark, Matthew (2012-03-02). Exploring Greek Myth. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 148–. ISBN 9781444362138. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- Osborn, Kevin; Burgess, Dana (1998-07-01). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Classical Mythology. Penguin. pp. 270–. ISBN 9780028623856. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- Perlich, John R.; Whitt, David (2010). Millennial Mythmaking: Essays on the Power of Science Fiction and Fantasy Literature, Films and Games. McFarland. pp. 144–. ISBN 9780786445622. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- Katsari, Constantina; Lightfoot, Christopher S; Özme, Adil (2013-01-30). The Amorium Mint and the Coin Finds: Amorium Reports 4. Akademie Verlag. pp. 38–. ISBN 9783050058283. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- Morales, Helen (2007-08-23). Classical Mythology: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 27–. ISBN 9780192804761. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
- "Cold, hard cash may soon be dead & buried". The Budapest Times. 6 December 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- Ashley, Benedict M.; O'Rourke, Kevin D. (2002-08-01). Ethics of Health Care: An Introductory Textbook. Georgetown University Press. pp. 75–. ISBN 9780878403752. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- Revolutionary Founders: Rebels, Radicals, and Reformers in the Making of the ... By Alfred Fabian Young, Gary B. Nash, Ray Raphael
- The Classical World. Classical Association of the Atlantic States. 1952.
- New England Stamp Monthly. 1913. pp. 35–.
- Inc., Boy Scouts of America, (July 1936). Boys' Life. Boy Scouts of America, Inc. pp. 46–. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
- Berhow, Mark (2012-09-18). US Strategic and Defensive Missile Systems 1950-2004. Osprey Publishing. pp. 18–. ISBN 9781782004363. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- The ships include:
- USS Castor (AKS-1)("Urwin2002")
- USS Nereus (AC-10)(Neeser 1921)
- USS Nereus (1863)(Neeser 1921)
- USS Arethusa (AO-7)(Neeser 1921)
- USS Prometheus (1814)(Neeser 1921)
- USS Prometheus (AR-3)(Neeser 1921)
- USS Jason (1862)(Neeser 1921)
- USS Jason (AC-12)(Neeser 1921)
- USS Galatea (1862)(Neeser 1921)
- USS Galatea (SP-714)(Neeser 1921)
- USS Medusa (AR-1)(Neeser 1921)
- USS Medusa (1869)(Neeser 1921)
- USS Triton (YT-10)(Neeser 1921)
- USS Amphitrite (BM-2)(Neeser 1921)
- USS Iris (1847)(Neeser 1921)
- USS Iris (1863),(Neeser 1921)
- USS Iris (1869),(Neeser 1921)
- USS Iris (1885).(Neeser 1921)
- Urwin, Gregory J. W. (2002-06-01). Facing Fearful Odds: The Siege of Wake Island. U of Nebraska Press. pp. 13–. ISBN 9780803295629. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- Neeser, Robert Wilden (1921). Ship names of the United States navy: their meaning and origin. Moffat, Yard and company. pp. 16–. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- The ships include:
- HMS Phaeton (1782) (BrownWhite2006)
- HMS Arethusa (1781) (BrownWhite2006)
- HMS Amphion (1798) (BrownWhite2006)
- HMS Alcmene (1794) (BrownWhite2006)
- HMS Argus (I49) (BishopChant2004)
- Brown, Anthony Gary; White, Colin (2006-07-30). The Patrick O'Brian Muster Book: Persons, Animals, Ships And Cannon in the Aubrey-Maturin Sea Novels. McFarland. pp. 28–. ISBN 9780786424825. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- Bishop, Chris; Chant, Chris (2004-10-15). Aircraft Carriers: The World's Greatest Naval Vessels and Their Aircraft. Zenith Imprint. pp. 48–. ISBN 9780760320051. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- Pigott, Peter (2005-03-01). On Canadian Wings: A Century of Flight. Dundurn. pp. 167–. ISBN 9781550029963. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- Inc, Merriam-Webster, (2000-10-01). Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Encyclopedia: The Ultimate Desk Reference. Merriam-Webster. pp. 1445–. ISBN 9780877790174. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names. Springer. ISBN 3-540-00238-3.
- Emsley, John (2011-08-25). Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford University Press. pp. 355–. ISBN 9780199605637. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- Quadbeck-Seeger, Hans-Jürgen (2008-01-08). World of the Elements. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 51–. ISBN 9783527611584. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- Leyens, Christoph; Peters, Manfred (2006-03-06). Titanium and Titanium Alloys. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 1–. ISBN 9783527605200. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- Byrnes, Mark E. (1994). Politics and Space: Image Making by Nasa. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 63–. ISBN 9780275949501. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- TICHI, Cecelia; Tichi, Cecelia (2004-04-30). Embodiment of a Nation: Human Form in American Places. Harvard University Press. pp. 128–. ISBN 9780674013612. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- Olmstead, Kathleen (2008). Jacques Cousteau: A Life Under the Sea. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. pp. 56–. ISBN 9781402760587. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
- Kumar, Satish; Whitefield, Freddie (2007). Visionaries: The 20th Century's 100 Most Important Inspirational Leaders. Chelsea Green Publishing. pp. 30–. ISBN 9781933392530. Retrieved 19 March 2014.
- Lovelock, J.E. (1 August 1972). "Gaia as seen through the atmosphere". Atmospheric Environment (1967) (Elsevier) 6 (8): 579–580. doi:10.1016/0004-6981(72)90076-5. ISSN 1352-2310.
- Lovelock, James E.; Margulis, Lynn (1 February 1974). "Atmospheric homeostasis by and for the biosphere: the Gaia hypothesis". Tellus. Series A (Stockholm: International Meteorological Institute) 26 (1–2): 2–10. doi:10.1111/j.2153-3490.1974.tb01946.x. ISSN 1600-0870. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
- Macauley, David (1996). Minding Nature: The Philosophers of Ecology. Guilford Press. pp. 91–. ISBN 9781572300583. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- Ec-Council (2009-09-07). Threats and Defensive Mechanisms: Ec-council Press. Cengage Learning. pp. 1–. ISBN 9781435483613. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- Singer, Jerome Leonard; Singer, Dorothy G. (1981). Television, Imagination, and Aggression: A Study of Preschoolers' Play and Television-viewing Patterns. Psychology Press. pp. 12–. ISBN 9780898590609. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- Kiska, Tim; Golick, Ed (2010-04-21). Detroit Television. Arcadia Publishing. pp. 63–. ISBN 9780738577074. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- López, Antonio (2008-05-01). Mediacology: A Multicultural Approach to Media Literacy in the 21st Century. Peter Lang. pp. 75–. ISBN 9780820497075. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- Storm, Jo (2007-10-01). Frak You!: The Ultimate Unauthorized Guide to Battlestar Galactica. ECW Press. pp. 67–. ISBN 9781550227895. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- Newcomb, Horace (2004). Encyclopedia of television: A-C. CRC Press. pp. 2603–. ISBN 9781579584115. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
- Westfahl, Gary (2005). The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy: Themes, Works, and Wonders. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 1355–. ISBN 9780313329531. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
- Schubart, Rikke (2007). Super Bitches and Action Babes: The Female Hero in Popular Cinema, 1970-2006. McFarland. pp. 35–. ISBN 9780786429240. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
- Hart, Stephen M. (2004). Companion to Latin American Film. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. pp. 43–. ISBN 9781855661066. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- Inc., Nielsen Business Media, (2001-12-08). Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. pp. 79–. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- Krenn, Sylvia (March 2012). Postmodern and Oriental Elements in 'Moulin Rouge!': Film Analysis. Diplomarbeiten Agentur. pp. 8–. ISBN 9783863411442. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- Booker, M. Keith (2010). Disney, Pixar, and the Hidden Messages of Children's Films. ABC-CLIO. pp. 63–. ISBN 9780313376726. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
- Inc., Nielsen Business Media, (1994-04-30). Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. pp. 70–. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
- William Cassidy (Sep 14, 2003). "GameSpy: Kid Icarus - Page 1". GameSpy. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
- Stang, Bendik; Osterholt, Morten A.; Hoftun, Erik (2007-10-28). The Book of Games Volume 2: The Ultimate Reference to Videogames. Book of Games. pp. 120–. ISBN 9788299737821. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- Bowcher, Dr Wendy L. (2012-07-24). Multimodal Texts from Around the World: Cultural and Linguistic Insights. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 107–. ISBN 9780230357808. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- Jandt, Fred E. (2003-08-14). Intercultural Communication: A Global Reader. SAGE. pp. 273–. ISBN 9780761928997. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- Wire, Elinor De (2002-10-01). The Florida Night Sky: A Guide to Observing from Dusk Til Dawn. Pineapple Press Inc. pp. 186–. ISBN 9781561642380. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- Nardo, Don (2011-08-01). The Epics of Greek Mythology. Capstone. pp. 29–. ISBN 9780756544829. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- Charles Rycroft A Critical Dictionary of Psychoanalysis (London, 2nd Ed. 1995)
- Joseph Childers, Gary Hentzi eds. Columbia Dictionary of Modern Literary and Cultural Criticism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1995)
- Freud S. An Outline of Psychoanalysis, pp. 193–194.
- Lucire, Yolande. Medea: Perspectives on a Multicide [online]. Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, The; Volume 25, Issue 2; Dec 1993; 74-82. Availability: <[dead link]> ISSN: 0045-0618.
- Kemp, Martín (2000). The Oxford History of Western Art. Oxford University Press. pp. 40–. ISBN 9780198600121. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- Wilk, Stephen R. Medusa: Solving the Mystery of the Gorgon, June 26, 2000, Front matter, ISBN 0-19-512431-6.
- Irwin, Robert (2004-01-17). The Arabian Nights: A Companion. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. pp. 216–. ISBN 9781860649837. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- Mellor, Anne K. (2012-08-06). Mary Shelley: Her Life, Her Fiction, Her Monsters. Psychology Press. pp. 235–. ISBN 9780415901475. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- Angelo, Joseph A. (2007). Robotics: A Reference Guide to the New Technology. Libraries Unlimited. pp. 81–. ISBN 9781573563376. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- Joshua, Essaka (2008). Mary Shelley: 'Frankenstein'. Humanities-Ebooks. pp. 23–. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- Joshi, S. T. (2007). Icons of Horror and the Supernatural: An Encyclopedia of Our Worst Nightmares. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 342–. ISBN 9780313337819. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- McLeod, John (2007). The Routledge Companion to Postcolonial Studies. Routledge. pp. 115–. ISBN 9781134344024. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- Matthew Hodgart, "The Witches’ Secrets" December 21, 1967
- Schakel, Peter. (2003) Till We Have Faces: A Myth Retold. Retrieved on August 5, 2008.
- "Shimmering Splendor"
- Osgood, Charles Grosvenor (1900). The classical mythology of Milton's English poems. William C. Brown Reprint Library n. d. pp. 9–. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- "Milton, L'Allegro and Il Penseroso"
- John Keats, Ode To A Nightingale
- "John Keats: Poetry, Song of the Indian Maid, from Endymion"
- http://www.bartleby.com/126/36.html Keats's poem Lamia
- "RPO -- Alfred, Lord Tennyson Oenone"
- Murray, Christopher John (2004). Encyclopedia of the Romantic Era, 1760-1850: L-Z. Index. Taylor & Francis. pp. 778–. ISBN 9781579584221. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- Bell, Michael; Poellner, Peter (1998). Myth and the Making of Modernity: The Problem of Grounding in Early Twentieth-Century Literature. Rodopi. pp. 164–. ISBN 9789042005839. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- Singh, Kanwar Dinesh (2004-01-01). New Explorations In Indian English Poetry. Sarup & Sons. pp. 1–. ISBN 9788176254458. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- Kosman, Nina (2001-03-22). Gods and Mortals: Modern Poems on Classical Myths. Oxford University Press. pp. 17–. ISBN 9780195133417. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- "The Cambridge History of English and American Literature in 18 Volumes (1907–21). Vol. 6. The Drama to 1642, Part Two"
- Shamas, Laura Annawyn (2007). "We Three": The Mythology of Shakespeare's Weird Sisters. Peter Lang. pp. 34–. ISBN 9780820479330. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "As You Like It: A Study Guide"
- Lloyd-Jones, Hugh (1991). Greek in a Cold Climate. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 155–. ISBN 9780389209676. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- Gassner, John (2002-05-09). The Reader's Encyclopedia of World Drama. Courier Dover Publications. pp. 201–. ISBN 9780486420646. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- Scott, Jill (2005). Electra After Freud: Myth And Culture. Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801442612. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- Miller, Ann Stamp; Miller, G. Ann Stamp (2004-05-30). The Cultural Politics of the German Democratic Republic: The Voices of Wolf Biermann, Christa Wolf, and Heiner Müller. Universal-Publishers. pp. 156–. ISBN 9781581124149. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
- "The Architects is a very modern play steeped in Greek mythology". Metro. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- Reid, Robin Anne (2009). Women in Science Fiction and Fantasy. ABC-CLIO. pp. 261–. ISBN 9780313335914. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- Keyser, Elizabeth Lennox; Pfeiffer, Julie (2002). Children's Literature. Yale University Press. pp. 22–. ISBN 9780300094893. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
- Reid, Rob (2009). Reid's Read-Alouds: Selections for Children and Teens. ALA Editions. pp. 77–. ISBN 9780838997512. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- Graves, Robert (2012-04-24). The Greek Myths: (Classics Deluxe Edition). Penguin. pp. 14–. ISBN 9781101580509. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
- "Annotations to the Girl Genius Comic"
- Littleton, C. Scott (2005). Gods, Goddesses, and Mythology: Gorgons-Inanna. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 688–. ISBN 9780761475590. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- Tieck, Sarah (2008-01-01). Niagara Falls. ABDO. pp. 7–. ISBN 9781599289380. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- Worcester, Joseph Emerson (1823). A Geographical Dictionary Or Universal Gazetteer, Ancient and Modern. Cummings & Hilliard. pp. 663–. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- Olmanson, Eric D. (2007). The Future City on the Inland Sea: A History of Imaginative Geographies of Lake Superior. Ohio University Press. pp. 50–. ISBN 9780821417072. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- Place, J. H. French, Frank. Gazetteer of the State o.... Genealogical Publishing Com. pp. 452–. ISBN 9780806314563. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
- Moores, Eldridge M.; Twiss, Robert J. (1995-11-15). Tectonics. Macmillan. pp. 360–. ISBN 9780716724377. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- Ewans, Michael (2007-10-30). Opera from the Greek: Studies in the Poetics of Appropriation. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 118–. ISBN 9780754660996. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
- Morford, Mark Percy Owen; Lenardon, Robert J. (1999). Classical Mythology. Oxford University Press. pp. 1–. ISBN 9780195143386. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- Schickele, Peter (1976). The definitive biography of P. D. Q. Bach, 1807-1742?. Random House. ISBN 9780394465364. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- "Slough Feg - Atavism - 2005 - Cruz Del Sur". maximummetal.com/. 27 June 2005. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
- Watkin, David (2010-06-09). A History of Western Architecture. Laurence King Publishing. pp. 484–. ISBN 9781856694599. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- "Wearing its holiday finest, former Bass Mansion on USF campus open to public -". News-Sentinel.com. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- Moss, Roger W.; Crane, Tom (2008-10-10). Historic Landmarks of Philadelphia. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 176–. ISBN 9780812241068. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- "‘Two leaves’ adorns facade of renovated MGR memorial". The Hindu. December 10, 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- Julie Mariappan (Sep 12, 2012). "MGR Memorial to wear a new look with added wings". Indiatimes. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
- Paulsen, Emily; Paulsen, Faith; O'Toole, Christine H. (2007-08-01). Insiders' Guide Fun With the Family Pennsylvania: Hundreds of Ideas for Day Trips With the Kids. Globe Pequot. pp. 66–. ISBN 9780762743971. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
- Makrides, Vasilios (2009). Hellenic temples and Christian churches: a concise history of the religious cultures of Greece from antiquity to the present. NYU Press. pp. 149–. ISBN 9780814795682. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Christopher Robinson. "Helen or Penelope? Women writers, myth and the problem of gender roles". In C. A.: Festschrift Trypanis, Peter A.. Mackridge. Ancient Greek Myth in Modern Greek Poetry: Essays in Memory of C.A. Trypanis. p. 109.
- Winkler, Martin M. (2001). Classical Myth and Culture. Oxford University Press. pp. 2–. ISBN 9780195130041. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
- Alexander, Heather; Hamilton, Meredith (2011-05-04). A Child's Introduction to Greek Mythology: The Stories of the Gods, Goddesses, Heroes, Monsters, and Other Mythical Creatures. Black Dog & Leventhal. ISBN 9781579128678. Retrieved 15 December 2012.