Green Lantern in other media
|Adaptations of Green Lantern in other media|
|Created by||Bill Finger
|Original source||Comics published by DC Comics|
|First appearance||All-American Comics #16 (July 1940)|
|Novel(s)||Sleepers, Vols. 1-3 (2004–2005)
JLA: Exterminators (2004)
Green Lantern: Hero's Quest (2005)
|Films and television|
Green Lantern: Emerald Knights (2011)
The Lego Movie (2014)
|The Superman/Aquaman Hour of Adventure (1967–1968)
Super Friends (1977–1985)
Justice League (2001)
Green Lantern: The Animated Series (2011)
|Video game(s)||Justice League Heroes (2006) Green Lantern: Rise of the Manhunters (2011)|
- 1 Novels/audios
- 2 Television
- 2.1 Animation
- 2.2 Live action
- 3 Films
- 4 Video games
- 5 Green Lantern parodies/references
- 6 References
Pocket has published a series of Justice League of America novels. Of these, Exterminators by Christopher Golden includes Hal Jordan as part of the team, and Hero's Quest by Dennis O'Neil is a solo Green Lantern story.
All of these stories have been made into full-cast dramatizations released by GraphicAudio.
The Superman/Aquaman Hour of Adventure
Hal Jordan was the featured character in a solo series which was part of The Superman/Aquaman Hour of Adventure (1967) as well as part of the Justice League segments. These would be the character's first animated appearances. Gerald Mohr is the voice of Green Lantern.
In addition, Hal Jordan's Green Lantern was an occasional supporting character in the various Super Friends incarnations: Challenge of the Super Friends, Super Friends, Super Friends: The Legendary Super Powers Show, and The Super Powers Team: Galactic Guardians. Michael Rye provided the voice of the Green Lantern for these appearances.
John Stewart is a member of the Justice League in the Justice League animated series. In this series, Stewart's ring was initially constrained to permitting him to fly, generating a protective force field, creating walls, and firing energy blasts; this limitation was established as being due to Stewart's mindset, not an inherent limitation of the ring itself (the series' version of John Stewart is a former U.S. Marine, not an architect). After being berated by Katma Tui for his unimaginative use of the ring, Stewart has learned to generate complex tools (to defuse a bomb in one instance) and weapons (He was also shown to be more creative when transformed into a child in the episode "Kids Stuff"). In a development not seen in any other version of the Green Lantern mythos, Stewart's eyes glow green when wearing his charged power ring. The glow fades when the ring runs out of power. The series has been inconsistent about the ring's effectiveness against yellow; Stewart is seen fighting Sinestro in one episode, and the yellow energy does not prove to be a significant problem for the Lantern, although in a later episode of Justice League Unlimited, the Flash threw yellow Jell-o at him, breaking his force field. Stewart's voice is provided by Phil LaMarr.
While specific details have been vague at best, much of the history of this version of John Stewart can be determined through various comments and revelations over the course of the series. Stewart grew up in a predominantly black, urban neighborhood of Detroit. He rents a room from a Korean landlady, having declined the offer of private housing on the Justice League Watchtower.
He enlisted in the Marine Corps as a young man. His service dates are unknown, but it can be assumed it was at least for several years, given how much he absorbed the military's demeanor and methods into his own. It was here that Stewart learned how to fight and strategize, as well as becoming a good friend of fellow Marine Rex Mason. After his service ended, he was chosen to be a Green Lantern, and trained in ring usage with Katma Tui, with whom he developed a romantic relationship. The relationship has since ended.
Because Sector 2814—the one that includes Earth—had a Green Lantern already (Abin Sur), Stewart spent fifteen years patrolling another sector in the universe. It was during this time when, pursuing space pirate Kanjar Ro, Stewart believed himself to be responsible for the destruction of the planet Ajuris 4—later revealed to be a falsehood concocted by the Manhunters.
When Abin Sur was murdered by Sinestro and passed his ring on to Kyle Rayner, Stewart was transferred to take over 2814 so that Rayner could train with Katma. It is at this point that Justice League joins John's story, when he answers a telepathic call from the Martian Manhunter, which leads him to join a battle against an alien invasion force, with the help of four other heroes.
During the course of the series, Stewart would be the main focus in more stories than any of the seven members of the League: "In Blackest Night", "Legends", "Metamorphosis", "The Savage Time", "Hearts and Minds", "Secret Society", and "Starcrossed" (though he shares the focus with Wonder Woman in "Savage" and with Hawkgirl in "Starcrossed").
The most crucial development during this time was the love story between him and Hawkgirl (real name: Shayera Hol). Shortly after they admitted their feelings for each other, "Starcrossed" occurred, revealing that Hawkgirl was a spy for the Thanagarian forces, and that she has betrayed their secrets to her home Thanagarians. Worse than that, she’d been promised/engaged to the leader, Hro Talak (whose name is an anagram for that of the Silver age Hawkman Katar Hol), before she even came to Earth. Over the course of the three-part Justice League finale "Starcrossed", Shayera and Hro fell out of love with each other and Shayera helped save Earth from destruction. After the battle (end of part three), the League votes on whether to allow her back, but she resigns and flies off into the sunset without John ever telling her that he still loved her.
During Shayera's self-imposed exile, the League expands to 57 members (in the retitled Justice League Unlimited) and Stewart gets a new girlfriend: superheroine and supermodel Mari Jiwi McCabe/Vixen. At first he treats this as a rebound relationship, but once Shayera returns to the League, he is conflicted by feelings for both women. These feelings are exacerbated in "The Once and Future Thing", when he travels to the future and meets his son with Shayera, Warhawk. He does not immediately share this revelation with her. In "Ancient History", after working with Carter Hall (the would-be Hawkman) to defeat Shadow Thief, John makes the decision to inform Shayera of the son he met in the future. However, as his relationship with Mari had advanced (and Mari had been quite seriously injured before), he makes the decision to not leave Mari just because destiny would seem to decree it. At the end of "Ancient History" he tells Shayera that whatever happens needs to happen because of how they feel now.
In the episode "In Blackest Night", Stewart resigns himself to the treatment of the residents of Ajuris 4, believing he has destroyed a planet (unaware that he has been framed), claiming that superheroes need to be held accountable for their actions. In "Metamorphosis", he deals with the opposite problem, noting how wealthy and carefree his old Marine pal Rex Mason is, and wonders if being a Lantern has cost him social and romantic opportunities. The episode "Only a Dream" explores Stewart's fears over how his hometown has become as alien to him as the farthest reaches of the galaxy, and how he worries about the Lantern energy being the only thing of focus in his life.
Other DCAU appearances
- Kyle Rayner appeared as Green Lantern in "In Brightest Day...", an episode of Superman: The Animated Series. This incarnation appeared to be a hybrid of Kyle Rayner, John Stewart, and Hal Jordan, since he was recruited by Abin Sur, and fought Jordan's old enemy Sinestro (voiced by Ted Levine). He looked more like Jordan than Rayner (although Hal Jordan's name is clearly visible, painted on the nose of an airplane at a military base). The tie-in with John Stewart is due mainly to the fact that Rayner's Green Lantern "uniform" is the uniform donned by Stewart in the comic series (this is, perhaps, after the fact, as Stewart did not resume his role as Green Lantern in the League until after he was incorporated in the JL animated series, however his costume had for some time been unique and distinctive). Rayner was later inducted into the Green Lantern Corps. Guy Gardner makes a cameo as the mugger who steals Jimmy Olsen's camera. Rayner is voiced by Michael P. Greco.
- Rayner is briefly mentioned in one episode of Justice League and appears as one of the Green Lanterns attending Superman's funeral in "Hereafter". He later reappears after the series became Justice League Unlimited in "The Return", bearing a far greater resemblance to his comics counterpart. Rayner's appearance (where he and the Corps unsuccessfully attempted to defend Oa from Amazo) finally explains why John Stewart is the Green Lantern of Earth; Rayner had been stationed on Oa all along. Will Friedle provides Rayner's voice in "The Return".
- A character known as Green Guardsman (whose real name was Scott Mason) appears in the two-part Justice League episode "Legends", in which John Stewart and several other members travel to a parallel universe. This other universe has its own superhero group, the Justice Guild of America, whose members are modeled on Golden Age versions of the Justice Society of America characters. Green Guardsman is an homage to the Golden Age Green Lantern. His power ring is unable to affect aluminum. The voice of the Green Guardsman is provided by William Katt.
- The Justice League version of John Stewart appeared in several episodes of Static Shock, both as a member of the League and in a solo appearance. Phil LaMarr reprises his Justice League role as Green Lantern, as well as providing the voice for Static.
- "The Call", a two-part episode of Batman Beyond, features a future Justice League that includes a Green Lantern who was an eight-year-old Asian child; he later appears as a young adult in the Justice League Unlimited episode "Epilogue". His name was Kai-ro, a tribute to Kairo, Green Lantern's alien sidekick on The Superman/Aquaman Hour of Adventure. Kai-ro is voiced by Lauren Tom.
- Hal Jordan appears briefly in the Justice League Unlimited episode "The Once and Future Thing, Part 2: Time, Warped" in which the time-traveling villain Chronos causes the timeline to become unstable, with characters changing or disappearing as their history is altered. At one point, John Stewart morphs into Jordan, who aids the other characters for several minutes before changing back into Stewart. Jordan is voiced by Adam Baldwin.
- On the animated TV series Duck Dodgers, the episode entitled "The Green Loontern" includes appearances by many members of the Green Lantern Corps. In this episode, a mixup at the dry cleaners results in Dodgers (Daffy Duck) getting Hal Jordan's outfit and ring. Filmmaker and comics fan Kevin Smith provided the voice of Jordan for this cameo. Other Green Lanterns that appear in this episode are Kilowog (voiced by John DiMaggio), Katma Tui (voiced by Tara Strong), Boodikka (voiced by Grey DeLisle), Ch'p (voiced by Frank Welker), and Sinestro (voiced by John de Lancie), as well as nonspeaking appearances by John Stewart, Arisia Rrab, G'nort, and Guy Gardner.
In the fourth season finale of The Batman, "The Joining", the Justice League is introduced. Hal Jordan is included among its members, in a non-speaking cameo. He next appears in the fifth season episode "Ring Toss", voiced by Dermot Mulroney and again in the 2-part series finale, "Lost Heroes".
Batman: The Brave and the Bold
Guy Gardner appears in multiple episodes of Batman: The Brave and the Bold, voiced by James Arnold Taylor. He appears briefly in the pre-title segment of "Day of the Dark Knight!", in which he ignores Batman's advice and accidentally frees an imprisoned alien by pouring coffee on him.
In the episode "The Eyes of Despero!" Gardner, G'nort, Sinestro and Mogo join forces with the Batman to stop the villain Despero from using his mental powers to turn the Green Lantern Corps into an army of mind controlled slaves. Other members of the Lantern Corps are seen, including Ch'p, Kilowog, Medphyll, and Hal Jordan. Hal later makes a cameo appearance as a member of the original Justice League of America in "Sidekicks Assemble!", and is mentioned in "Darkseid Descending!" when Guy joins the Justice League International. A heroic version of Sinestro (clad in a Sinestro Corps uniform) briefly appears "Deep Cover for Batman!", where he is shown as one of the superheroes being held captive by the Injustice Syndicate. In this series Hal is voiced by Loren Lester, Sinestro is voiced by Xander Berkeley, G'nort is voiced by Alexander Polinsky, and the Guardians are voiced by J. K. Simmons and Armin Shimerman.
Hal Jordan, John Stewart, Guy Gardner and Alan Scott appear in the Young Justice animated series. Jordan and Stewart appear as members of the Justice League, while Alan Scott appears as a member of the Justice Society. Jordan and Stewart make their first appearances in the episode "Fireworks", Gardner appears in "Revelation" in a cameo to help the Justice League, and Scott appears in the episode "Humanity" in a flashback. None of them are voiced except for Stewart, who was voiced by Kevin Michael Richardson in the episode "Failsafe". In episode "Agendas", Hal and John were convenes recruitment for the Justice League new members, both Hal and John were immediately dismiss Guy from the Flash's idea.
Green Lantern: The Animated Series
Hal Jordan appears as the main character in Green Lantern: The Animated Series, voiced by Josh Keaton. Other characters include Kilowog, the Guardians of the Universe, Carol Ferris, Salaak, Sayd, Saint Walker, and Zilius Zox, among others. The main antagonists of the first arc of the show are the Red Lantern Corps, led by Atrocitus, as well as the Manhunters. Guy Gardner appears as a recurring character while John Stewart is also mentioned.
- Howard Murphy played Green Lantern in the live action Legends of the Superheroes TV specials in 1979. The role of Sinestro was played by comedian Charlie Callas.
- The unsuccessful 1997 pilot for a live-action Justice League of America television series included Matthew Settle as Guy Gardner, although the pilot's Green Lantern uses only the name and costume of the comic-book Gardner.
- Alan Scott briefly appears in the Smallville episode "Absolute Justice" which featured the Justice Society of America. He is a superhero in the 1970s and a CEO of an unnamed broadcasting company, who was arrested for fraud by the government in a mission to take down the Justice Society of America. He, like the others, tried to take the blame for all crimes, though he and the rest were never convicted. As the law was now aware of his superhero identity, Scott retired from heroics. In 2010, Clark Kent and Chloe Sullivan find old black-and-white footage of Alan (his power ring is visible on his left hand), along with his criminal record. Very little is said about him, other than that he is still alive and is the CEO of a broadcasting company, but it was confirmed that he was still alive by Stargirl and hinted at that he had children. His power ring and lantern battery are later shown, in a display case at the JSA Brownstone as well as in his portrait in the JSA painting. Alan Scott is played by Doug Pinton.
- Hal Jordan is one of the main characters featured in the DC Universe animated film Justice League: The New Frontier. He is portrayed by David Boreanaz
- Hal Jordan appears as the primary protagonist in the direct-to-video animated film Green Lantern: First Flight portrayed by Christopher Meloni. The film was released on July 28, 2009.
- Nolan North voices Hal Jordan in the 2010 direct-to-DVD animated film, Justice League: Crisis on Two Earths.
- A live-action film entitled Green Lantern starring Ryan Reynolds as Hal Jordan and directed by Martin Campbell was released on June 17, 2011. It was the character's first theatrical appearance.
- Hal Jordan appears as a member of the Justice League in Justice League: Doom, with Nathan Fillion reprising his role.
- Hal Jordan appears in The Lego Movie, voiced by Jonah Hill. The film marks Green Lantern's second theatrical appearance.
- The "Emerald Twilight" storyline was to be adapted into a video game for the Super Nintendo by game developer Ocean Software. The game would have allowed players to assume the role of Kyle Rayner and take on the threat of Hal Jordan as Parallax. The game was cancelled.
- John Stewart appears as a playable character in Justice League Heroes. Hal Jordan and Kyle Rayner are unlockable characters as well.
- Hal Jordan appears as a playable character in the crossover fighting game Mortal Kombat vs. DC Universe game. His special moves include a fist-shaped projectile, hammer constructs to smash foes, a large hand that slams foes to the ground, and a brick wall shield that absorbs projectiles. His heroic brutalities involve encasing the opponent in a force bubble and then rapidly contracting it, and crushing the opponent between two large hammers. In the game's trailer, Green Lantern is seen being beaten by Sonya Blade using martial arts and super strength before Captain Marvel saves him, and is seen defending a weakened Superman from Liu Kang (his counterpart from the Mortal Kombat Universe) in the Fortress of Solitude. Later, Sonya fights Green Lantern again and Green Lantern defeats Sonya Blade. He is also seen speaking with the Guardians of the Universe and being confronted by Lex Luthor, who is consumed by the "combat rage" and asserts that he deserves to have Hal's power ring.
- Guy Gardner appears as a playable character in the Wii version of the Batman: The Brave and the Bold video game, with Hal Jordan being playable in the DS version. Arisia Rrab and Kilowog make appearances as well. Also, a statue of Alan Scott can be seen in the Gotham City level of the Wii version.
- A Green Lantern video game based on the live-action film has been released under the title Green Lantern: Rise of the Manhunters for the Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, Nintendo Wii, Nintendo DS, and Nintendo 3DS.
- Hal Jordan, Guy Gardner, John Stewart, Kyle Rayner and Kilowog appear in DC Universe Online. John Stewart fights alongside the heroes against Sinestro and the Sinestro Corps, Hal Jordan and Green Arrow fight alongside the heroes against Eclipso and an out-of-control Spectre, Kilowog is the target of a bounty mission for villains and Kyle Rayner is a boss in the Coast City instance along with Amon Sur and Atrocitus. Finally, the player helps Hal Jordan and Kilowog, along with other unnamed Green Lanterns in the Star Labs instance, which also includes Sinestro and Arkillo. Alan Scott, the original Green Lantern, also appears in the game.
- Hal Jordan appears in Lego Batman 2: DC Super Heroes.
- Hal Jordan appears as a playable character in the fighting game Injustice: Gods Among Us, as both a Green Lantern and a Yellow Lantern. Yellow Lantern Hal Jordan is from a parallel Earth and fights for Superman's Regime, after becoming a member of the Sinestro Corps. Green Lantern Hal Jordan defeats both his counterpart and Sinestro on occasion and in the end they are forced to stand down when the heroic Superman defeats his villainous counterpart and his regime. Yellow Lantern and Sinestro are taken to Oa by Green Lantern to stand trial for their crimes. John Stewart is also featured as a downloadable alternate skin for the character.
- Hal Jordan will appear as a playable character in the multiplayer battle arena game Infinite Crisis.
Green Lantern parodies/references
- John Stewart was portrayed by Tim Meadows, wearing his Green Lantern: Mosaic costume, in a Saturday Night Live sketch inspired by the then-recent The Death of Superman comic storyline.[date missing]
- The American sitcom Seinfeld made references to Green Lantern in three episodes: "The Barber" (November 11, 1993), "The Stand In" (Feb. 25, 1994) and "The Strong Box" (Feb. 5, 1998).
- In the TV series Bones Agent Booth is seen reading an issue of Green Lantern in his bathtub during the season 3 finale "Pain in the Heart". Boreanaz supplied the voice of Hal Jordan in Justice League: New Frontier.
- In the episode of Duck Dodgers "The Green Loontern", Duck Dodgers has his dry cleaning mixed with a Green Lantern's and joins the Green Lantern Corps.
- On the reality animated TV parody show Drawn Together, Captain Hero (when he is under stress) makes a reference that he wishes that the Green Lantern were there because "he always knew how to help me relax."
- In 2007, ls:tv (Leeds Student Television, a member of the National Student Television Association) aired a short sketch series entitled "The Green Intern" in a comedy program called "Bits".
- In the English TV series Whoops Apocalypse, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, the Chancellor of the Exchequer and the Home Secretary briefly dress up as Green Lantern, Hawkman and the Flash.
- In the second episode of The Big Bang Theory, entitled "The Big Bran Hypothesis", when asked by Leonard if he has any ideas as to how to get a large piece of furniture up four flights of stairs Sheldon replies "Yes, but they all involve a Green Lantern and a Power Ring". In Season Three's "The Psychic Vortex", he's constantly seen with a replica Green Lantern and Power Ring. In "The Justice League Recombination", the gang attend a New Year's Eve Festival at the comic book shop dressed as the Justice League with Howard as Batman, Raj as Aquaman, Zack as Superman, Penny as Wonder Woman, Leonard as Green Lantern, and Sheldon as The Flash.
- In an episode of Grey's Anatomy Season 3 "Sometimes A Fantasy" (10/05/06) A little girl is taken in who believes that she is a super hero as she cannot feel pain. There are several references to super heroes including Green Lantern with George telling Alex about the Hal Jordan Green Lantern and Alex later saying to the patient "But take away Green Lantern's ring, guy's still a superhero, right?"
- On Lost, the first issue of Green Lantern/Flash Faster Friends (in Spanish) is seen in the episodes "Pilot Part 2", "Special", and "Exodus Part 2".
- On Fringe, a variation of the cover Green Lantern #70 is shown from the alternate universe and is titled Red Lantern/Red Arrow in the second season finale.
- The Alan Scott Green Lantern appears on the cover of a comic book in the Watchmen tie-in Under the Hood.
- A trailer for The Muppets released on June 16, 2011 parodies the trailer for the Green Lantern feature film.
- Green Lantern is mentioned in the 1966 song "Sunshine Superman" by folk musician Donovan.
- The English band Camberwell Now released a song, "Green Lantern", on their 1986 album The Ghost Trade.
Its lyrics feature a variant of the Green Lantern Oath.
- The New Zealand band The Mutton Birds has a song called "Green Lantern", about someone whose status in life has diminished. The refrain has the narrator assuring the subject, "you're still the Green Lantern to me."
- HipHop DJ DJ Green Lantern named himself after the character and is wearing a green hooded sweater with the Green Lantern insignia on the chest on the cover art for his Alive On Arrival CD.
- The disco singer Earlene Bentley used portions of the Green Lantern oath in her 1984 song "Caught in the Act".
- The pop/rock band The Roy Clark Method released "Sector 2814", a song about Hal Jordan's fall after the Reign of the Supermen! series, on their 2002 album Mild-Mannered Supermen. A second version of the song appeared on their eponymous second album in 2005.
- Seattle indie rock band Kirby Krackle's "Ring Capacity" covers the hero faltering then regaining his power. The song was released on the Rock Band Network.
- Liberal pundit and blogger Matthew Yglesias has ascribed to conservative advocates of United States military intervention in the Middle East the "Green Lantern Theory of Geopolitics." Yglesias characterized adherents to this "theory" as people who believe "American military might" is like a Green Lantern's power ring, "that, roughly speaking, we can accomplish absolutely anything in the world through the application of sufficient military force. The only thing limiting us is a lack of willpower." "The Green Lantern Theory" has since become a meme among liberal bloggers.
- The fan-trailer for the non-existent movie Grayson includes a brief appearance of Green Lantern.
- Green Lantern is portrayed by Dylan Saunders in the web-musical Holy Musical, B@tman!
- In Legion of Superheroes in the 31st Century, a comic series based on KidsWB show Legion of Superheroes, issue 6, a main character, Jordana Gardner is a young female Green Lantern. She has a mask, red hair tied off in various places with rope, and the traditional Green Lantern uniform. In this issue, she, along with all the other Green Lanterns are being mind controlled by Star Conquerors, vicious starfish-esque creatures that attach to the face and brainwash their host into helping them conquer other planets. We find out later that Jordana is Green Lantern One of Sector 2814. She is called the "Teen Lantern" because she is the youngest person to ever be recruited by the Corps. She says that she comes from a long line of Lanterns on both sides of her family, referring to Guy Gardner on one side. However, her other origin remains unclear. Perhaps the "Jordan" in her name refers to a descendant of Hal Jordan eventually married a descendant of Guy Gardner. She states also that Superman will work (his future, her past) with both of her ancestors.
- Green Lantern also made a guest appearance in Garth Ennis and John McCrea's Hitman series, during the "Local Hero" (issues #9 to #12) arc. Kyle Rayner arrives at Gotham City to apprehend killer-for-hire Tommy Monaghan, later finding himself involved, along Monaghan, in a struggle against a clandestine government agency dedicated to kill and control metahumans.
- The 1980s series Captain Carrot and His Amazing Zoo Crew presented the parallel Earth of "Earth-C-Minus", a world populated by funny animal superheroes that paralleled the mainstream DC Universe. Earth-C-Minus features the superheroic Green Lambkin, a male sheep with a power ring and costume similar to that of Hal Jordan's.
- "''Animated "Green Lantern: First Flight" Release Pushed Forward; New Image Released'' ''The World's Finest'' (April 6, 2009)". Worldsfinestonline.com. Retrieved 2010-09-13.
- Rob Keyes (2010-03-04). "Green Lantern Production Begins Today!". Screen Rant. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- First Look: Grey's Anatomy Stars Get Animated for Justice League
- "Green Lantern [SNES - Cancelled]". Unseen64.net. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- "Kitana, Jax, The Joker, and Green Lantern Confirmed". Kotaku.com. 2008-07-25. Retrieved 2010-09-13.
- "Batman: The Brave And The Bold: The Videogame Trailer". Leagueofcomicgeeks.com. 2010-06-01. Retrieved 2010-09-13.
- "Boss Says BATMAN: BRAVE & BOLD Game is Just Like the Show". Newsarama.com. 2010-08-26. Retrieved 2010-09-13.
- "Tonight’s Fringe to feature Red Lantern/Red Arrow cover". Robot 6. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- Muppet Studios YouTube Channel
- Green Lantern article on Muppet Wiki
- "Sector 2814 by The Roy Clark Method.". Retrieved 2010-09-13.
- "The Roy Clark Method official website". Freewebs.com. Retrieved 2010-09-13.
- Yglesias, Matthew. "Triumph of the Will." The American Prospect, 18 July 2006.
- Quiggin, John. "The Empirical Basis of the Green Lantern Theory." Crooked Timber, 21 December 2006.
- Captain Carrot and His Amazing Zoo Crew #14-15, April–May 1983