Green Mountain Boys
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (November 2010)|
|Green Mountain Boys|
The Flag of the Green Mountain Boys is still
used by the Vermont National Guard
|Active||October 24, 1764
– Spanish–American War
|Country||Kingdom of Great Britain
|Part of||Vermont Militia|
|Colors||Green, blue, white
(gold fringe is modern decorative)
The Green Mountain Boys were a militia organization first established in the 1760s in the territory between the British provinces of New York and New Hampshire, known as the New Hampshire Grants (which later became the state of Vermont). Headed by Ethan Allen and members of his extended family, they were instrumental in resisting New York's attempts to control the territory, over which it had won de jure control in a territorial dispute with New Hampshire.
When these disputes led to the formation of the Vermont Republic in 1777, the Green Mountain Boys became the state militia. Some companies served in the American Revolutionary War, including notably when the Green Mountain Boys led by Ethan Allen captured fort Ticonderoga on Lake Champlain on May 10, 1775; the invasion of Canada in 1775; and the battles at Hubbardton and Bennington in 1777.
Following Vermont's admission to the Union in 1791, the original organization essentially disbanded. The Green Mountain Boys mustered again during the War of 1812, the Civil War, and the Spanish-American War. Today it is the informal name of the Vermont National Guard which comprises both the Army and Air National Guards.
Historical unit 
The original Green Mountain Boys were a militia organized in what is now southwestern Vermont in the decade prior to the American Revolutionary War. They comprised settlers and land speculators who held New Hampshire titles to lands between the Connecticut River and Lake Champlain, an area then known as the New Hampshire Grants, that is now modern Vermont. New York was given legal control of the area by a decision of the British crown and refused to respect the New Hampshire titles and town charters. Although a few towns with New York land titles, notably Brattleboro on the Connecticut River, supported the change, the vast majority of the settlers in the sparsely populated frontier region rejected the authority of New York.
With several hundred members, the Green Mountain Boys effectively controlled the area where New Hampshire grants had been issued. They were led by Ethan Allen, his brother Ira Allen, and their cousins Seth Warner and Remember Baker. They were based at the Catamount Tavern in Bennington. By the 1770s, the Green Mountain Boys had become an armed military force and de facto government that prevented New York from exercising its authority in the northeast portion of the Province of New York. New York authorities had standing warrants for the arrest of the leaders of the rebellious Vermonters, but were unable to exercise them. New York surveyors and other officials attempting to exercise their authority were prevented from doing so and in some cases were severely beaten, and settlers arriving to clear and work land under New York–issued grants were forced off their land, and sometimes had their possessions destroyed. At the same time, New York sought to extend its authority over the territory. During an event once known as the Westminster massacre, anti-Yorkers occupied the courthouse in Westminster to prevent a New York judge from holding court, and two men were killed in the ensuing standoff. Ethan Allen then went to Westminster with a band of Boys, and organized a convention calling for the territory's independence from New York.
When the American Revolutionary War started in 1775, Ethan Allen and a troop of his men, along with Connecticut Colonel Benedict Arnold, marched up to Lake Champlain and captured the strategically important military posts at Fort Ticonderoga, Crown Point, and Fort George, all in New York. The Boys also briefly held St. John's in Québec, but retreated on word of arriving British regulars. The Green Mountain Boys later formed the basis of the Vermont militia that selected Seth Warner as its leader. Some of the Green Mountain Boys preferred to stick with Ethan Allen and were captured along with Allen in August 1775 in a bungled attempt to capture the city of Montreal. Some members of this unit were Congressman Matthew Lyon and Lieutenant Benjamin Tucker. Benjamin Tucker joined the British Military during his capture, because of this his name was rebuked by Ethan Allen and his men.
Vermont eventually declared itself an independent nation in January 1777, and organized a government based in Windsor. The army of the Vermont Republic was based upon the Green Mountain Boys. Although Vermont initially supported the American Revolutionary War and sent troops to fight John Burgoyne's British invasion from Quebec in battles at Hubbardton and Bennington in 1777, Vermont eventually adopted a more neutral stance and became a haven for deserters from both the British and colonial armies. George Washington, who had more than sufficient difficulties with the British, brushed off Congressional demands that he subdue Vermont. During the Haldimand Affair some members of the Green Mountain Boys became involved in secret negotiations with British officials about restoring the Crown's rule over the territory.
The Vermont Army version of the Green Mountain Boys faded away after Vermont joined the United States as the 14th U.S. state in 1791, although the Green Mountain Boys mustered for the War of 1812, The Civil War, the Spanish-American War, and following World War I as the Vermont National Guard.
Notable members 
- Ethan Allen – militia leader (general)
- Seth Warner – militia leader (colonel)
- Ira Allen – militia leader, and the founder of The University of Vermont (Ethan's brother)
- Remember Baker – militia member (captain) (Ethan's cousin)
- Ebenezer Allen – militia member (lieutenant) (Ethan's cousin)
- Matthew Lyon – militia member (second lieutenant), and future congressman
- Thomas Rowley – militia member and spokesman, known as the "Bard of the Green Mountains" who "Set the Hills on Fire".
A remnant of a Green Mountain Boys flag, believed to belong to John Stark, is owned by the Bennington Museum. It still exists as one of the few regimental flags from the American Revolution. Although Stark was at the Battle of Bennington and likely flew this flag, the battle has become more commonly associated with the Bennington flag, which is believed to be a 19th century banner.
Vermont National Guard 
Today, the Vermont National Guard, composed of the Vermont Army National Guard and Vermont Air National Guard are collectively known as the Green Mountain Boys, even though women have served in both branches since the mid-twentieth century. Both units use the original Green Mountain Boys battle flag as their banner.
See also 
- Saratoga campaign
- Pennamite-Yankee War, a conflict between settlers from Connecticut and Pennsylvania.
- Goodrich, John E. (1904). Rolls of the Soldiers in the Revolutionary War, 1775 to 1783. Rutland, Vt.: The Tuttle Company. "Muster Roll of the first Company of Militia in the town of Bennington, organized October 24, 1764"
- Cooper, 30
- Allen, Ira (1969) . The natural and political history of the State of Vermont, one of the United States of America. Charles E. Tuttle Company. ISBN 0-8048-0419-2.
- Cooper, Grace Rogers (1973). Thirteen Star Flags. Smithsonian Institution Press.
- Tuttle, Mrs. George F. (1909). 300 Years In The Champlain Valley. Saranac, NY: Daughters of the American Revolution.
- Van de Water, Frederic Franklyn (1974). The Reluctant Republic: Vermont 1724–1791. The Countryman Press. ISBN 0-914378-02-3.