Gaddafi loyalism after the 2011 Libyan Civil War

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Green Resistance)
Jump to: navigation, search
Flag of the deposed government of Muammar Gaddafi, used as a symbol by loyalists

Gaddafi loyalism after the Libyan Civil War refers to sympathetic sentiment toward the overthrown government of Muammar Gaddafi, who was killed in October 2011. It has been responsible for some of the ongoing postwar violence in Libya, though the degree of its involvement has been disputed in a number of instances.

Sympathy for Gaddafi and his fallen government is viewed highly negatively by current Libyan authorities—both the legal government and extralegal militias—and parts of general society in postwar Libya, and even accusations of it can provoke harsh responses. In May 2012, the democratically-elected postwar government passed legislation imposing severe penalties for anyone giving favourable publicity to Gaddafi, his family, their regime or ideas, as well as anything denigrating the new government and its institutions or otherwise judged to be damaging to public morale.[1] Derisively called tahloob ("algae") by anti-Gaddafi Libyans,[2] suspected loyalists have faced strong persecution following the war. Perhaps 7000 loyalist soldiers, as well as civilians accused of support for Gaddafi are being held in government prisons. Amnesty International has reported large scale torture and other mistreatment and executions, of those perceived as enemies of the new government.[3][4][5][6]

Reports and rumours of organised pro-Gaddafi activity have persisted since the war's end. The Libyan Popular National Movement was organised in exile on 15 February 2012 (the first anniversary of the protests that led to the civil war) by former officials in the Gaddafi government. The party, banned from participating in Libyan elections, may have also cultivated links with armed pro-Gaddafi groups in Libya. Statements from the party sometimes appear on websites affiliated with the so-called "Green Resistance" (after the sole colour of Gaddafi's flag), a term sometimes used by sympathisers to refer to supposed pro-Gaddafi militant groups.[7][8][9]

2011[edit]

End of the civil war[edit]

Following Gaddafi's fall, several states, such as Venezuela, refused to accept the National Transitional Council as the legitimate government, opting to continue recognising the former Gaddafi government. In Libya, loyalists either fled to foreign countries or went into hiding to avoid prosecutions. Shortly before his capture, Gaddafi's son Saif al-Islam appeared on Syrian pro-Gaddafi television on 22 October in an attempt attempt to rally remaining loyalists claiming "I am in Libya, I am alive and free and willing to fight to the end and take revenge."[10]

Zawiya fighting[edit]

Several days of fighting between fighters from Zawiya and fighters from Warshefana erupted in early November after the fighters from Warshefana set up a checkpoint on a highway near Zawiya and began challenging fighters from the city. Other reports stated that the groups were fighting over the Imaya military base, with Zawiya fighters claiming to be fighting Gaddafi loyalists. Zawiya field commander Walid bin Kora claimed that the Warshefana, riding in vehicles with "Brigade of the Martyr Muhammad Gaddafi" written on them and flying Gaddafi's green flag, had attacked his men. He also claimed that his men captured pro-Gaddafi "mercenaries" from sub-Saharan Africa.[11] NTC figures, however, denied that they were Gaddafi loyalists, blaming the clashes instead on a misunderstanding. The fighting resulted in between 7 and 14 dead. The National Transitional Council claimed to have resolved the issue over the weekend of the 12 and 13 of November following a meeting with elders from Zawiya and Warshefana.[12][13]

Capture of Saif al-Islam Gaddafi[edit]

Saif al-Islam Gaddafi in a military aircraft in Zintan after he had been captured by Libyan soldiers.

On 19 November, Saif al-Islam and four loyalist fighters were captured west of the town of Ubari near Sabha in southern Libya.[14] A nomad who had been hired to guide them in their planned escape to Niger secretly told government forces where Saif al-Islam and his two-vehicle convoy would be passing through. Acting on this information, the Zintan brigade blocked off the area and arrested them on sight. Saif al-Islam was taken to Zintan by plane and, pending trial, he is kept in detention by the Zintan militia.[15]

Bani Walid ambush[edit]

On 23 November, clashes erupted as a National Transitional Council militia tried to apprehend a suspected loyalist in Bani Walid, which was one of the last pro-Gaddafi strongholds in the civil war. At least seven people were reported killed, five of them NTC militia.[16]

2012[edit]

Sirte[edit]

In January 2012, residents of Sirte, Gaddafi's hometown, attacked a military camp associated with the NTC on the outskirts of the city.[17]

Zuwara clashes[edit]

On 1 April, between 21 and 34 Zuwara militiamen were detained by members of a neighbouring town's militia. Fighters from Ragdalein stated that they captured the men after months of abuses by a Zuwara brigade, including the looting of property. For their part, the Zuwara local council head accused Ragdalein of being a hub of Gaddafi loyalists.[18] A third version of the events came from the government Interior Ministry which stated that the trouble started when a Zuwara hunting party close to nearby al-Jumail shot and killed a person from that town by mistake.[19] The hunters were than arrested but released later. Another Zuwara council head claimed that the men were tortured before being released and stated that Zuwara came under mortar and anti-aircraft fire by militias from both Ragdalein and al-Jumail.[20]

On 3 April, reports emerged that the fighting in the Zuwara area was still continuing with at least one Zuwara militiaman killed and five wounded. The losses for militia from Ragdalein and al-Jumail were not known. Clashes were reported at the entrance to Ragdalein while groups in al-Jumail were shelling Zuwara.[21] At least 14 were killed and 80 injured.[22]

On 4 April, the fighting escalated with the use of tanks and artillery. The reported number of dead was said to had risen to 26, eight from Zuwara and 18 from the outlying towns, and another 142 Zuwarans were wounded.[23][24] Unconfirmed reports rose up the death toll to 48 killed in the clashes.[25] BBC News aired a report on the story, confirming a number dead. The report also aired an interview with a wounded man from Zarawa, claiming to have been attacked by what he called "Gaddafi loyalists".[26] There is no confirmation as to whether or not the clashes had anything to do with the guerrillas.

Ghat skirmishes[edit]

On 6 April, French leading newspaper Le Figaro reported that a dozen people were killed near the border town of Ghat on 1 and 2 April in fighting between former pro-Gaddafi Tuaregs and the Zintan tribe.[27]

The town of Ghat, in the deserts of southwest Libya, was a stronghold of Gaddafi during his reign. It was the last town in Libya to recognise the new government. Since the fall of Gaddafi, it has been suspected of continuing to be a base of loyalist sentiment. No area in Libya has had as many officials disbarred due to links to the Gaddafi government. The present government has banned its two council members, the local council leader, the secretary to the council, its financial controller, the head of security services, and the heads of the sanitation department and the border guards.[28]

Zintan clashes[edit]

Tribal clashes in Zintan broke out on 17 June, after a Zintan man was killed after stopping at a checkpoint while attempting to transport tanks from a weapons depot in Mizda to Zintan.[29] While the Zintanis had played a prominent role fighting in favour of the NTC during the civil war, the neighbouring Mashashya tribe had chosen to side with the Gaddafi government during the civil war.[30]

The Mashashya tribe chose to side with the Gaddafi government, whilst fighters from Zintan played a prominent role, fighting in favour of the NTC.[30] This, combined with a dispute over land and bitterness over prisoners of war from Mashashya, led to the fighting. It is unclear if Green Resistance had a role in instigating the violence.

As a result of the fierce fighting between the different tribes, government troops were deployed to the area on 17 June. The area was subsequently declared a military zone. The deployment of soldiers and imposition of a government enforced ceasefire[31] managed to prevent further clashes, with government spokesman Nasser al-Manaa declaring that fighting had ended on 18 June.[32]

Tripoli[edit]

In August 2012, claims surfaced of loyalist remnants attempting to smuggle weapons into Libya in an effort to destabilise the government.[2] A member of the group in Tripoli's Abu Salim neighbourhood, a former pro-Gaddafi stronghold, claimed in an August 2012 interview that loyalist militia were rebuilding their strength and waiting for the right moment to move against the new government.[2] Saadi Gaddafi was claimed to support the group whilst under house arrest in Niger.[33] He warned in early 2012 that he was in contact with sleeper cells who were organising underground resistance.[2] In addition to his son Saadi, Muammar Gaddafi's nephew Ahmad Gaddaf al-Damm, living in hiding in Egypt, was also accused of supporting violent pro-Gaddafi activity. Col. Khamid Bilhayr of the Libyan National Army claimed that other loyalist figures outside the country were sending large quantities of money and support to loyalist groups inside Libya.[17]

Others claim that despite the group's rhetoric, its operations were limited to bombings and minor instances of sabotage.[2] They were believed to have been behind a bombing outside the headquarters of the Military Police on 10 August.[2] On 19 August, two people were killed and up to five were injured when a car bomb went off at dawn near the former military academy for women. Another car bomb exploded at the same time near the interior ministry, but no one was harmed. The bombings occurred on the eve of the anniversary of the Battle of Tripoli. Tripoli's head of security, Col. Mahmoud Sherif, blamed Gaddafi loyalists for the attack, and the following day Libyan authorities announced they had arrested 32 members of a pro-Gaddafi network in connection with the bombings.[34]

On the same day as the arrests, a bomb was placed under the car of an Egyptian diplomat. The bomb exploded, but nobody was injured. The incident was also blamed by the government on Gaddafi loyalists.[17]

Raid on Katibat Al-Awfiyah brigade[edit]

On 23 August, Interior ministry spokesman Abdelmonem al-Hur claimed that more than a hundred tanks and twenty-six rocket launchers were seized from an alleged pro-Gaddafi militia (named Katibat Al-Awfiyah, or Brigade of the Faithful), during a government raid on their campsite in Tarhuna. The operation ended with one of the fighters killed, eight wounded and thirteen detained—including the commander—and accused of being linked with the 19 August Tripoli bombings. Three fighter managed to escape.[35][36][37]

Death of Omran Shaban[edit]

Omran Shaban, the man held most responsible for the extrajudicial killing of Gaddafi, was abducted by suspected Gaddafi loyalists in Bani Walid in July. He was imprisoned and tortured for two months before being released in September due to government pressure on Bani Walid. He was sent to France for medical treatment, but died of his wounds the same month.[38] The rebels responsible have so far eluded capture or death.

Bani Walid[edit]

On 9 September, local militia in Bani Walid drove government forces from the town. Initial reports claimed that a supposed Gaddafi loyalist group called "Brigade 93" was responsible for the takeover,[39][40] although the Bani Walid town elders later dened this, and proclaimed support for the removal of Gaddafi. The elders stated that the accusations of pro-Gaddafi sympathies were orchestrated by the media, and that the town instead was fighting for the removal of the NTC military administration of the town and its replacement by a local council.[41]

Brak ambush[edit]

On September 21, government forces were ambushed by alleged Gaddafi loyalists in the city of Brak in south west Libya. Nine soldiers were killed in the attack, with no information of casualties from the attackers.[42]

2014[edit]

On 18 January, the Libyan air force attacked targets in the south of Libya because of unrest blamed on forces loyal to slain leader Muammar Gaddafi.[43] The government also declared a state of emergency after Gaddafi loyalists took over the Tamahind air force base near the southern city of Sabha.[44] On 22 January Voice of Russia featured a report with Libyans who claimed that much of the southern half of the country as well as Bani Walid had fallen under the control of the "Green" Gaddafi loyalists, and that some foreign Libyan embassies were flying the Gaddafi-era green flag in support. The interviewed Libyans claimed to be fighting against a Western-backed "puppet government" with ties to Al-Qaeda, and charged that Qatar was paying Sudanese pilots to bomb their positions.[9] On the other hand, the more government-friendly Libya Herald newspaper reported that a large contingent of Gaddafi-friendly fighters were scattered near Ajilat as they tried to aid other Gaddafi-loyalists in Sabha, with five of them killed. The report claimed that if the events were part of a coordinated movement, "it does not appear to be well organised, let alone have any significant or measurable support."[45]

On 22 January, the Libyan General National Congress passed Decree 5/2014, Concerning the Cessation and Ban on the Broadcasting of Certain Satellite Channels, aimed at censoring pro-Gaddafi satellite television stations such as al-Khadra (The Green Channel) and al-Nedaa (the Libyan Popular National Movement's channel). Reporters Without Borders subsequently issued a statement calling for the withdrawal of the decree.[46]

On 24 January, nine soldiers were killed and 27 injured near Tripoli in clashes with Gaddafi loyalists.[47]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/05/03/211978.html
  2. ^ a b c d e f Frykberg, Mel (14 August 2012). "Gaddafi Loyalists Up In Arms". Inter Press Service. 
  3. ^ "Libya: al-Gaddafi loyalists at risk of ‘revenge’ death sentences | Amnesty International". Amnesty.org. Retrieved 2014-01-02. 
  4. ^ "Libyan rebels detaining thousands illegally, Ban Ki-moon reports | World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-01-02. 
  5. ^ "Plight of foreigners in Libya “worse than under Qaddafi” claims Amnesty International". Libya Herald. Retrieved 2014-01-02. 
  6. ^ "‘Libya militias, army torturing detainees’". timesofmalta.com. 2012-01-27. Retrieved 2014-01-02. 
  7. ^ "Gaddafi supporters outside Libya form new grouping". BBC. 2012-02-17. Retrieved 2012-04-20. 
  8. ^ Nkrumah, Gamal. Libya's apocalyptic slough. Al Akhram Weekly. 2012-03-01.
  9. ^ a b Green Libyan flags are waving once again - Interview. The Voice of Russia. 2014-01-22.
  10. ^ "Libya's NTC claim Saif al-Islam Gaddafi captured alive, uninjured". Digitaljournal.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  11. ^ Holmes, Oliver (12 November 2011). "Fighters clash again near Tripoli, several dead". Reuters. Retrieved 2014-01-02. 
  12. ^ "Libyan factions in deadly clashes near Zawiya". BBC News. 14 November 2011. 
  13. ^ "Deadly factional clashes erupt in Libya". Al Jazeera. 13 November 2011. 
  14. ^ "Gaddafi's son hires mercenaries to flee". Indiavision News. 31 October 2011. 
  15. ^ Spencer, Richard (20 November 2011). "Libya: conflict brewing over trial of Saif al-Islam Gaddafi". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  16. ^ http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/11/23/178863.html
  17. ^ a b c Sotloff, Steven (24 August 2012). "The Bomb Attacks in Libya: Are Gaddafi Loyalists Behind Them?". Time (Tripoli). Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  18. ^ Al, Rami (2 April 2012). "Militias: Clashes near Libya's Tunisia border". Seattle Times. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  19. ^ Gumuchian, Marie-Louise (1 April 2012). "Libyan PM visits scene of tribal clashes in desert". Reuters. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  20. ^ "Rival militias exchange fire in western Libya". Reuters. 2 April 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  21. ^ "Government fails to halt western Libya militia clash". Reuters. 3 April 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  22. ^ "Militia clash in west Libya kills 14 people". Reuters. 3 April 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  23. ^ "Fresh clashes erupt in western Libya between former rebels, killing 26". Al Arabiya. 4 April 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  24. ^ "Clashes in rival towns kill 22 in western Libya". Associated Press. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  25. ^ The situation in Libya UN Security Council, 6768th meeting, 10 May 2012.
  26. ^ "BBC News - At least 14 killed in Libya clashes around Zuwara". Bbc.co.uk. 2012-04-04. Retrieved 2014-01-02. 
  27. ^ "En Libye aussi, les Touaregs se battent pour leur territoire" (in French). Lefigaro.fr. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  28. ^ "Ghat: a former Qaddafi stronghold struggles to keep up with Libyan revolution". Libya Herald. Retrieved 2014-01-02. 
  29. ^ "Troops sent to quell clashes in western Libya". BBC News. 17 June 2012. 
  30. ^ a b Troops sent to quell clashes in western Libya - Africa - Al Jazeera English
  31. ^ Libyan Government Sends Troops to Quell Fighting in West of Country
  32. ^ "Libya's tribal clashes leave 105 dead". BBC News. 20 June 2012. 
  33. ^ Gaddafi's son leading former regime's revival World Bulletin. 2014-01-24
  34. ^ "Libya holds 32 'Gaddafi loyalists' over Tripoli attack". BBC News. 20 August 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2013. 
  35. ^ "At least 12 killed in tribal clash in Libya". NBC. Reuters. 23 August 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012. 
  36. ^ "Libya seizes tanks from pro-Gaddafi militia". BBC. 24 August 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2012. 
  37. ^ "Tanks seized from pro-Gaddafi militia". Courier Mail. 24 August 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2012. 
  38. ^ Shuaib, Ali (8 October 2012). "Libya's Bani Walid is shelled in standoff over rebel's death". Reuters. Retrieved 25 January 2013. 
  39. ^ Rami Al-Shaheibi And Maggie Michael (24 January 2012). "Libya: Gaddafi Loyalists Seize Bani Walid". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2014-01-02. 
  40. ^ "Libya fighting: Four die in Gaddafi loyalists clash". BBC News. 23 January 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2012. 
  41. ^ "Former Gaddafi stronghold revolts against Tripoli". Reuters. 24 January 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2012. 
  42. ^ "Nine Libyan forces killed in clashes with Qaddafi loyalists". Al Arabiya. 22 September 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2012. 
  43. ^ http://rt.com/news/libya-air-force-south-834/
  44. ^ http://www.presstv.ir/detail/2014/01/18/346409/libya-declares-state-of-emergency/
  45. ^ Wahab, Ashraf Abdul. Qaddafi supporters heading to Ajilat killed in Sabratha: report. Libya Herald. 2014-01-22.
  46. ^ Reporters Without Borders. Libya: Freedom of Information in Jeopardy in Post-Gaddafi Libya. AllAfrica. 2014-01-30.
  47. ^ Army: 9 soldiers killed in clashes with gunmen. Afrique en Ligne. 2014-01-24.