Green pesticides, also called ecological pesticides, are pesticides derived from organic sources.
In agroecology, pesticides are evaluated for minimal adverse environmental effects. Biocides include germicides, antibiotics, antibacterials, antivirals, antifungals, antiprotozoals and antiparasites. Pesticides typically come in the form of sprays and dusts. Many ecological pesticides are biological pesticides, but others are minerals or chemical compounds.
Although the pesticides and particularly insecticides used in organic farming and organic gardening are generally safer than synthetic pesticides, they are not always more safe or environmentally friendly than synthetic pesticides and can cause harm. The main criterion for organic pesticides is that they are naturally derived, and some naturally derived substances have been controversial. Controversial natural pesticides include rotenone, copper, nicotine sulfate, and pyrethrums.
However, restrictions on natural pesticides have tightened and as of 2005 rotenone, a dangerous natural pesticide, was not allowed for US organic farmers, and rotenone was not allowed under the California Organic Foods Act of 1990. Phytoalexin elicitor glucohexatose has been called a green pesticide, as has a new class of insecticides called spinosad which is more effective at killing pests while sparing beneficial insects.
List of herbal insect sprays and dusts
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (November 2013)|
- See also: Category: Plant toxin insecticides
|Organic sprays, and dusts||Preparation|
|Wormwood extract||Made by boiling 100 grams of dried wormwood in 1 liter of water for 20 minutes. Leave for a day. Sift and add soft soap. Thin 1 at 4 before spraying|
|Chive extract||Made by putting fresh leaves 2-3 days in water, after which it is sifted and soft soap is added. Thin 1 at 4 before spraying.|
|Summer tansy dust||Made by grinding dried herb, and spreading on the ground at density of 1 gram per m². Repels root fly|
|Stinging nettle extract||Made by boiling a bucket of stinging nettles for 20-30 minutes in water, sifting it and leaving it to stand for a day. Soft soap is added at a density of 1/100 and the mixture is thinned 1 at 4 before spraying (against aphids, caterpillars) Sometimes brown sugar, brown soap and milk is also added to strengthen the mixture.|
|Daffodil extract||Made by boiling 30 grams of daffodils for 20 minutes in 1liter of water. Leave to stand for a day, add 1/100 brown soap and dilute 1 at 4 before spraying (against moulds)|
|Garlic extract||Made by soaking mushed garlic in water, adding soft soap at density of 1/100 (against insects)|
|Rhubarb extract||Made by boiling 1 kg of leaves in 2 liters of water for 20 mins, adding 1/100 soft soap, sifting it and spraying it (against aphids)|
|Onion extract||Made by leaving the leaves for a few days in water, adding 1/100 soft soap, sifting and spraying it (against aphids and caterpillars)|
|Sambucus extract||Made by boiling 500 grams of leaves for 30 minutes in 1 liter of water, sifting and thinning it (against aphids and caterpillars)|
|Tobacco extract||Soak old cigar butts, cigarette butts or other tobacco in water, strain, add a little dish soap and spray for aphids, whiteflies and other insects. The active ingredient is nicotine.|
|Stale beer||It is put outside in a shallow container to attract garden slugs, that then crawl into the container and drown.|
Other organic gardening sprays and dusts
Other organic sprays and dusts - mineral dusts are used; a few are:
- Sulfur (organic fungicide, pesticide, and acaricide)
- Basalt dusting powder
- Gene silencing pesticide
- Pottorff LP. Some Pesticides Permitted in Organic Gardening. Colorado State University Cooperative Extension.
- Rotenone. Resource Guide for Organic and Disease Management. Cornell University.
- Ning, J., et al. (2003). Large-scale preparation of the phytoalexin elicitor glucohexatose and its application as a green pesticide. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51(4), 987–91.
- Nill, K. Glossary of Biotechnology Terms, Fourth Edition. CRC Press. 2005. pg 394.
- Miles, M. and H. Eelen. (2006). The effects of spinosad to beneficial insects and mites and its use in IPM. Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences 71(2 Pt B), 275-84.