Green tea extract
||This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. (December 2012)|
||This article has an unclear citation style. (August 2009)|
A green tea extract is a herbal derivative from green tea leaves (Camellia sinensis). Containing antioxidant ingredients – mainly green tea catechins (GTC) – green tea and its derivatives are sought-after amongst people who pursue health.
Types of green tea extracts 
- During the strong infusion green tea leaves are processed by soaking in the aqueous solution of alcohol (the aspect content is about 2% w/w).
- To obtain soft extracts, the solution made by strong infusion beforehand is further concentrated to 20–25% (the catechin content is about 20% w/w).
- After the strong infusions have been concentrated to 40–50% solids (the catechin content is above 25% w/w)，they are sprayed and then become dehydrated extract and powder. The leftovers - water content, which is less than 5% w/w, and the extract - are usually processed as a powder containing inert processing aids to become suitable for a variety of uses (tablets, capsules, dry mixes, etc.).
Partly purified extracts
- Further purification processes, for example, solvent extraction or column chromatography techniques, as well as new techniques such as membrane extraction and separation, are utilized in order to acquire a higher content of tea catechins.
Chemistry and Biochemistry 
The cardinal antioxidative ingredient in the green tea extract is green tea catechins (GTC), which comprise four major epicatechin derivatives; namely, epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG).
Other components include three kinds of flavonoids, known as kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin. A remarkably higher content of myricetin is detected in tea and its extracts than in many other plants, and this high concentration of myricetin may have some implications with the bioactivity of tea and its extracts.
Chemical properties 
In alkaline solutions (pH > 8) GTC (green tea catechins) is rather unstable; in acidic solutions (pH < 4), however, GTC shows excellent stability. The stability in alkaline solutions varies between four components of GTC in green tea extracts. Recent study demonstrates that EGCG and EGC is more unstable than EC and ECG in a basic solution, giving an explanation to the fact that EGCG and EGC do not circulate in the basic sodium phosphate buffer fluid of human body.
In a high temperature environment, GTC is not stable: an epimerization change is likely to occur, because heating results in the conversion from EGCG to GCG. Thus it is considered inappropriate to infuse green tea or its extracts with overheated water.
Biochemical properties 
Green tea extracts exhibit stronger antioxidant protection for human body than vitamin C and vitamin E. Scavenging effect of lipid free-radicals (one antioxidant property) of polyphenols in green tea extracts can be clearly observed in experiments. The ability of GTP in green tea extracts to eliminate lipid-derived free radicals is noticeably stronger (almost 50 times) than that of ginkgo biloba extracts. Further investigations indicate that the boosting level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione dismutase (GSHPx) may account for the inhibitory effect of GTC against lipid oxidation (rancidification). It should be mentioned that from the antioxidant perspective, green tea extracts are, generally speaking, more effective than black tea extracts due to the better preservation of catechins.
Moreover, the anticarcinogenic property make the green tea extracts a hotspot in recent scientific researches. In many experiments, green tea extracts show inhibitory effects on cancer cells. In vitro assays, catechin and caffeine, which are main components in green tea extracts, block the cell cycle of cancer cells (cytotoxicity) and induce programmed cell death; in vivo, green tea extracts also inhibit prostatic carcinoma transplanted in nude mice.
In addition, green tea extracts also contain a wide-ranged anti-inflammatory characteristics, so it may be helpful in treating chronic inflammatory states. The bactericidal activity against S.mutans is conspicuous in Japanese green tea extracts, and the maltose level in mouth is consistently lower after drinking tea. Therefore, green tea extracts may be effective in oral hygiene maintenance.
Green tea extracts can enhance the effect of penicillin G against B.subtilis (Smeeton B. The synergy of green tea and penicillin G against bacillus subtilis. J App Pharm 2011 2(3) 197-200).
Dosage and Side-effects 
Green tea extract supplements are accessible over the counter in various forms. Standardized green tea extract is 90 percent total polyphenols, and 1 capsule equals 5 cups of tea.
For a green tea extract standardized for 80 percent polyphenols and 55 percent EGCG, a daily dose of 300 to 400 mg green tea extracts is recommended. Some green tea extracts may have as little as 15 percent polyphenols, usually these are far less expensive. It should be kept in mind that the various components of unpurified green tea extracts have synergistic effects and therefore are better than any individual tea component. Scientists also conclude that tea extracts are better taken between meals in order to avoid decreased iron absorption.
An often overlooked aspect is the fact that EGCG has a poor bioavailability when taken orally; the absolute bioavailability of EGCG in CF-1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats was found to be only 26.5 and 1.6%, respectively. The bioavailability for humans is assumed to be in the same range.
Though green tea extracts show potential anticancer capacity - under some conditions by working together with other drugs and suppressing multidrug resistance in cancer cells - they are not suggested for use alone as a chemotherapy agent for cancer treatment.
Additionally, use of green tea extracts has been linked to occasional cases of acute liver failure 
Food additive and deodorant applications 
Because of the high antioxidant activity of green tea extracts, they are hopefully to be used as a kind of innovative food additive to preserve pork, chicken meat, vegetable oil, fish oil and fish flesh, food emulsions and animal fat. This alternative antioxidant is suggested to be a healthier choice; a fairly successful instance may well be the application in Moon cake – the extracts both increase the shelf life and improve the flavor.
In addition, green tea extracts are a promising solution to prevent apple juice and other foods from microbial contamination. Japanese scientists even have discovered that tea extracts can be developed as dyes that are not susceptible to microbial contamination and possess strong deodorant activity.
- I.T. Johnson & G. Williamson, Phytochemical functional foods, Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing, 2003, pp. 135-145
- Committee on Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer, Assembly of Life Sciences, National Research Council, Diet, nutrition, and cancer, Washington: D.C National Academies Press, 1982, p. 286.
- E. Mindell, Earl Mindell's Vitamin Bible for the 21st Century, [S.l.] E-Rights/E-Reads, Ltd., 1999, p. 135.
- A. Magaziner, The complete idiot's guide to living longer & healthier, New York: N.Y. Alpha Books, 2000, p. 61.
- Q.Y. Zhu, Antioxidative activities of green tea catechins, Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong), 1999, p. III.
- Y.S. Zhen, Z.M. Chen, S.J. Cheng & M.L. Chen, Tea: bioactivity and therapeutic potential, London, UK: New York Taylor & Francis, 2002, pp. 121–225.
- F. Murray, 100 super supplements for a longer life, Los Angeles: CA McGraw-Hill Professional, 2000, pp. 181–182.
- A.H. Pressman & S. Buff, The complete idiot's guide to vitamins and minerals, New York: New York Alpha Books, 1997, p. 283.
- A. Bascom, Incorporating herbal medicine into clinical practice, Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company, 2002, p. 153.
- Lambert, J. D., Lee, M. J., Lu, H., Meng, X., Ju, J., Hong, J., Seril, D. N., Sturgill, M. G. & Yang, C. S. (2003) Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is absorbed but extensively glucuronidated following oral administration to mice. J. Nutr. 133:4172-4127. 
- Chen, L., Lee, M. J., Li, H. & Yang, C. S. (1997) Absorption, distribution, elimination of tea polyphenols in rats. Drug Metab. Dispos. 25:1045-1050. 
- B. Capon, Botany for gardeners: An introduction guide, Portland: Or. Timber Press, Inc.， 1990, p. 94.
- Wu, K. -M.; Yao, J.; Boring, D. (2010). "Green Tea Extract-Induced Lethal Toxicity in Fasted but Not in Nonfasted Dogs". International Journal of Toxicology 30 (1): 19–20. doi:10.1177/1091581810387445. PMID 21098339.
- Molinari, Watt, Kruszyna, Nelson, Walsh, Huang, Nashan and Peltekian, Acture Liver Failure Induced by Green Tea Extracts: Case Report and Review of the Literature, Liver Transplantation, Vol. 12, Issue 12, 2006, p.1892-1895. DOI 10.1002/lt
- Review of a study on green-tea catechins
- Molinari, Michele; Watt, Kymberly D.S.; Kruszyna, Thomas; Nelson, Rebecca; Walsh, Mark; Huang, Weei-Yuan; Nashan, Bjorn; Peltekian, Kevork (2006). "Acute liver failure induced by green tea extracts: Case report and review of the literature". Liver Transplantation 12 (12): 1892–5. doi:10.1002/lt.21021. PMID 17133573.