Green wave

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This article is about a signal timing technique. For other uses, see Green Wave (disambiguation).
GreenWave.gif

A green wave occurs when a series of traffic lights (usually three or more) are coordinated to allow continuous traffic flow over several intersections in one main direction.

Any vehicle travelling along with the green wave (at an approximate speed decided upon by the traffic engineers) will see a progressive cascade of green lights, and not have to stop at intersections. This allows higher traffic loads, and reduces noise and energy use (because less acceleration and braking is needed). In practical use, only a group of cars (known as a "platoon", the size of which is defined by the signal times) can use the green wave before the time band is interrupted to give way to other traffic flows.

The coordination of the signals is sometimes done dynamically, according to sensor data of currently existing traffic flows - otherwise it is done statically, by the use of timers. Under certain circumstances, green waves can be interwoven with each other, but this increases their complexity and reduces usability, so in conventional set-ups only the roads and directions with the heaviest loads get this preferential treatment.

In 2011, a study modeled the implementation of green waves during the night in a busy Manchester suburb (Chorlton-cum-Hardy) using S-Paramics© microsimulation and the AIRE emissions module.[1][2] The results showed using green wave signal setups on a network have the potential to:

  • Reduce CO2, NOx and PM10 emissions from traffic.
  • Reduce fuel consumption of vehicles.
  • Be used on roads that intersect with other green waves.
  • Reduce the time cars wait at side roads.
  • Give pedestrians more time to cross at crossings and help them to cross streets as vehicles travel in platoons [3]
  • Control the speed of traffic in urban areas.
  • Reduce component wear of vehicles and indirect energy consumption through their manufacture [4]

A green wave in both directions may be possible with different speed recommendations for each direction, otherwise traffic coming from one direction may reach the traffic light faster than from the other direction if the distance from the previous traffic light is not mathematically a multiple of the opposite direction. Alternatively a dual carriageway may be suitable for green waves in both directions if there is sufficient space in the central reservation to allow pedestrians to wait and separate pedestrian crossing stages for each side of the road[5][6]

Green waves are sometimes used to facilitate bicycle traffic. Copenhagen,[7] Amsterdam,[8] San Francisco,[9] and other cities, may synchronize traffic signals to provide a green light for a flow of cyclists. In Copenhagen, a green wave on the arterial street Nørrebrogade facilitates 30,000 cyclists to maintain a 12 mph (19.3 km/h) speed for 2.5 kilometers. In Amsterdam, cyclists riding at a speed of 15 to 18 km/h will be able to travel without being stopped by a red signal. Tests show that public transport can benefit as well and cars may travel slightly slower.

Frederiksberg, a part of Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark, has implemented a green wave for emergency vehicles to improve the public services.

In the UK, in 2009, it was revealed that the Department for Transport had previously discouraged green waves as they reduced fuel usage, and thus less revenue was raised from fuel taxes.[10][11] Despite this government Webtag documents were only updated in 2011. It is still unclear if the economic appraisal software used to apply these guidelines has also been updated and if the new guidelines are being applied to new projects.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "("A Green Wave Reprieve" Blaise Kelly)". Retrieved 2014-05-12. 
  2. ^ Traffic Engineering & Control, Volume: 53, Issue Number: 2, Hemming Group, Limited, ISSN: 0041-0683, http://trid.trb.org/view.aspx?id=1136945
  3. ^ Gartner, N.H. & Stamatiadis, C. (2002) Arterial-based control of traffic flow in urban grid networks. Mathematical and computer modelling, 35 (5-6), pp.657–671.
  4. ^ Pakyardim, Y.K. (2009) Calculation of Embodied Energy of Gearbox of an ordinary car. China, Zhengzhou University.
  5. ^ ("A Greenwave Reprieve" Blaise Kelly)
  6. ^ Traffic Engineering & Control, Volume: 53, Issue Number: 2, Hemming Group, Limited, ISSN: 0041-0683, [1]
  7. ^ "30.000 cyclists get green traffic light wave" Copenhagen Capacity, accessed Jan 28,2008 http://www.copcap.com/composite-9862.htm
  8. ^ "Green wave for cyclists tested" News from Amsterdam, http://www.nieuwsuitamsterdam.nl/English/2007/11/green_wave.htm
  9. ^ Sterbentz, Janel (2009-03-02). "Valencia Signals Re-timed to Improve Traffic Flow and Safety | Streetsblog San Francisco". Sf.streetsblog.org. Retrieved 2014-05-12. 
  10. ^ "UK | Drivers catch green lights 'wave'". BBC News. 2009-04-14. Retrieved 2014-05-12. 
  11. ^ DfT (2004) WebTag Unit 3.5.3 - Transport User Benefit Calculation

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