Greeneville, Tennessee

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Greeneville, Tennessee
Town
Town of Greeneville
North Main Street in Greeneville
North Main Street in Greeneville
Official logo of Greeneville, Tennessee
Logo
Nickname(s): Home of President Andrew Johnson[1]
Location of Greeneville, Tennessee
Location of Greeneville, Tennessee
Coordinates: 36°10′6″N 82°49′21″W / 36.16833°N 82.82250°W / 36.16833; -82.82250Coordinates: 36°10′6″N 82°49′21″W / 36.16833°N 82.82250°W / 36.16833; -82.82250
Country United States
State Tennessee
County Greene
Founded 1783[2]
Incorporated 1795[3]
Named for Nathanael Greene
Government
 • Type Mayor-Aldermen-Administrator
 • Mayor W.T. Daniels
 • Town Administrator Todd Smith
 • Town Recorder Carolyn Susong
 • Chief of Police Terry L. Cannon
 • Aldermen
Area
 • Total 17.01 sq mi (44.1 km2)
Elevation 1,519 ft (463 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total 15,062[4]
 • Density 885.3/sq mi (341.8/km2)
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 37616, 37743 & 37745 General Delivery and 37744 P.O. Boxes
Area code(s) 423
FIPS code 47-30980[5]
GNIS feature ID 1286186[6]
Website Town of Greeneville, Tennessee

Greeneville is a town in, and the county seat of Greene County, Tennessee, United States.[7] The population as of the 2010 census was 15,062. The town was named in honor of Revolutionary War hero Nathanael Greene. It is the only town with this spelling in the United States, although there are numerous U.S. towns named Greenville. The town was the capital of the short-lived State of Franklin in the 18th-century history of the Tennessee region.

Greeneville is notable as the town where President Andrew Johnson began his political career when elected from his trade as a tailor. He and his family lived there most of his adult years. It was an area of strong abolitionist and Unionist views and yeoman farmers, an environment which influenced Johnson's outlook.

The U.S. Navy Los Angeles-class submarine USS Greeneville (SSN-772) was named in honor of the town.

The town officially hosts the Greeneville Astros baseball club of the Appalachian League, though the club actually plays in nearby Tusculum.

Greeneville is part of the Johnson City-Kingsport- Bristol TN-VA Combined Statistical Area – commonly known as the "Tri-Cities" region.

Geography[edit]

Greeneville is located at 36°10′6″N 82°49′21″W / 36.16833°N 82.82250°W / 36.16833; -82.82250 (36.168240, -82.822474).[8] It lies in the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains. These hills are part of the Appalachian Ridge-and-Valley Province, which is characterized by fertile river valleys flanked by narrow, elongate ridges. Greeneville is located roughly halfway between Bays Mountain to the northwest and the Bald Mountains— part of the main Appalachian crest— to the southeast. The valley in which Greeneville is situated is part of the watershed of the Nolichucky River, which passes a few miles south of the town.

Several federal and state highways now intersect in Greeneville, as they were built to follow old roads and trails. U.S. Route 321 follows Main Street through the center of the town and connects Greeneville to Newport to the southwest. U.S. Route 11E (Andrew Johnson Highway), which connects Greeneville with Morristown to the west, intersects U.S. 321 in Greeneville and the merged highway proceeds northeast to Johnson City. Tennessee State Route 107, which also follows Main Street and Andrew Johnson Hwy, Greeneville to Erwin to the east and to the Del Rio area to the south. Tennessee State Route 70 (Lonesome Pine Trail) connects Greeneville with Interstate 81, and Rogersville to the north and Asheville, North Carolina to the south. Tennessee State Route 172 (Baileyton Road) connects Greeneville with Interstate 81 and Baileyton to the north.

Tennessee State Route 93 (Kingsport Highway) connects Greeneville to Interstate 81, Fall Branch and Kingsport to the north.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 17.01 square miles (44.1 km2), all land.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

Big Spring in downtown Greeneville

Native Americans were hunting and camping in the Nolichucky Valley as early as the Paleo-Indian period (c. 10,000 B.C.). A substantial Woodland period (1000 B.C. - 1000 A.D.) village existed at the Nolichucky's confluence with Big Limestone Creek (now part of Davy Crockett Birthplace State Park).[9] By the time the first Euro-American settlers arrived in the area in the late 18th century, the Cherokee claimed the valley as part of their hunting grounds. The Great Indian Warpath passed just northwest of modern Greeneville, and the townsite is believed to have once been the juncture of two lesser Native American trails.[10]

Permanent European settlement of Greene County began in 1772. Jacob Brown, a North Carolina merchant, leased a large stretch of land from the Cherokee, located between the upper Lick Creek watershed and the Nolichucky River, in what is now the northeastern corner of the county. The "Nolichucky Settlement" initially aligned itself with the Watauga Association as part of Washington County, North Carolina. After voting irregularities in a local election, however, an early Nolichucky settler named Daniel Kennedy (1750–1802) led a movement to form a separate county, which was granted in 1783.

The county was named after Nathanael Greene, reflecting the loyalties of the numerous Revolutionary War veterans who settled in the Nolichucky Valley, especially from Pennsylvania and Virginia. The first county court sessions were held at the home of Robert Kerr, who lived at "Big Spring" (near the center of modern Greeneville). Kerr donated 50 acres (0.20 km2) for the establishment of the county seat, most of which was located in the area currently bounded by Irish, College, Church, and Summer streets. "Greeneville" was officially recognized as a town in 1786.[11]

Greeneville becomes capital of the State of Franklin[edit]

Replica of the Capitol of the State of Franklin in Greeneville

In 1784, North Carolina attempted to resolve its debts by giving the U.S. Congress its lands west of the Appalachian Mountains, including Greene County, abandoning responsibility for the area to the federal government. In response, delegates from Greene and neighboring counties convened at Jonesborough and resolved to break away from North Carolina and establish an independent state. The delegates agreed to meet again later that year to form a constitution, which was rejected when presented to the general delegation in December.[12] Reverend Samuel Houston (not to be confused with the later governor of Tennessee and Texas) had presented a draft constitution which restricted the election of lawyers and other professionals. Houston's draft met staunch opposition, especially from Reverend Hezekiah Balch (1741–1810) (who was later instrumental in the creation of Tusculum College). John Sevier was elected governor, and other executive offices were filled.

A petition for statehood for what would have become known as the State of Franklin (named in honor of Benjamin Franklin) was drawn at the delegates session in May 1785. The delegates submitted a petition for statehood to Congress, which failed to gain the requisite votes needed for admission to the Union. The first state legislature of Franklin met in December of 1785 in a crude log courthouse in Greeneville, which had been named the capital city the previous August.[13] During this session, the delegates finally approved a constitution which was based on, and quite similar to, the North Carolina state constitution. However, the Franklin movement began to collapse soon thereafter, with North Carolina reasserting its control of the area the following spring.

In 1897, at the Tennessee Centennial Exposition in Nashville, a log house that had been moved from Greeneville was displayed as the capitol where the State of Franklin's delegates met in the 1780s. There is, however, nothing to verify that this building was the actual capitol. In the 1960s, the capitol was reconstructed, based largely on the dimensions given in historian J. G. M. Ramsey's Annals of Tennessee.[14]

Greeneville and the abolitionist movement[edit]

First Presbyterian Church, founded by Rev. Hezekiah Balch and Samuel Doak in 1780

Greene County, like much of East Tennessee, was home to a strong abolitionist movement in the early 19th century. This movement was likely influenced by the relatively large numbers of Quakers who migrated to the region from Pennsylvania in the 1790s. The Quakers considered slavery to be in violation of Biblical Scripture, and were active in the region's abolitionist movement throughout the antebellum period.[15] One such Quaker was Elihu Embree (1782–1820), who published the nation's first abolitionlist newspaper, The Emancipator, at nearby Jonesborough.

When Embree's untimely death in 1820 effectively ended publication of The Emancipator, several of Embree's supporters turned to Ohio abolitionist Benjamin Lundy, who had started publication of his own antislavery newspaper, The Genius of Universal Emancipation, in 1821. Anticipating that a southern-based abolitionist movement would be more effective, Lundy purchased Embree's printing press and moved to Greeneville in 1822. Lundy remained in Greeneville for two years before moving to Baltimore. He would later prove influential in the career of William Lloyd Garrison, whom he hired as an associate editor in 1829.[16][17]

Greenevillians involved in the abolitionist movement included Hezekiah Balch, who freed his slaves at the Greene County Courthouse in 1807. Samuel Doak, the founder of Tusculum College, followed in 1818. Valentine Sevier (1780–1854), a nephew of John Sevier who served as Greene County Court Clerk, freed his slaves in the 1830s and offered to pay for their passage to Liberia, which had been formed as a colony for freed slaves. Francis McCorkle, the pastor of Greeneville's Presbyterian Church, was a leading member of the Manumission Society of Tennessee.[18]

Civil War[edit]

Artist's depiction of a Union soldier firing the shots that killed General John Hunt Morgan in Greeneville in 1864

In June 1861, on the eve of the Civil War, thirty counties of the pro-Union East Tennessee Convention met in Greeneville to discuss strategy after state voters had elected to join the Confederate States of America. The convention sought to create a separate state in East Tennessee that would remain with the United States. The state government in Nashville rejected the convention's request, however, and East Tennessee was occupied by Confederate forces shortly thereafter.[19] Thomas Dickens Arnold, a Greeneville resident and former congressman who attended the convention, advocated the use of violent force to allow East Tennessee to break away from Tennessee, and taunted other members of the convention who advocated a more peaceful set of resolutions.[20]

Several conspirators involved in the pro-Union East Tennessee bridge burnings lived near what is now Mosheim, and managed to destroy the railroad bridge over Lick Creek in western Greene County on the night of November 8, 1861. Two of the conspirators, Jacob Hensie and Henry Fry, were executed in Greeneville on November 30, 1861.[21]

A portion of James Longstreet's army wintered in Greeneville following the failed Siege of Knoxville in late 1863.[22] Confederate general John Hunt Morgan was killed in Greeneville during a raid by Union soldiers led by Alvan Cullem Gillem on September 4, 1864.[23]

Andrew Johnson[edit]

Statue of Andrew Johnson at the Andrew Johnson National Historic Site

Andrew Johnson, the 17th President of the United States, spent much of his active life in Greeneville. In 1826, Johnson arrived in Greeneville after fleeing an apprenticeship in Raleigh. Johnson chose to remain in Greeneville after learning that the town's tailor was planning to retire. Johnson purchased the tailor shop, which he moved from Main Street to its present location at the corner of Depot and College streets. Johnson married a local girl, Eliza McCardle, in 1827. The two were married by Mordecai Lincoln (1778–1851), who was Greene County's Justice of the Peace. He was a cousin of Abraham Lincoln, under whom Johnson would serve as Vice President.[24][25]

In the late 1820s, a local artisan named Blackstone McDannel often stopped by Johnson's tailor shop to debate issues of the day, especially the Indian Removal, which Johnson opposed. Johnson and McDannel decided to debate the issue publicly. The interest sparked by this debate led Johnson, McDannel, and several others to form a local debate society. The experience and influence Johnson gained in debating local issues helped him get elected to the Greeneville City Council in 1829. He was elected mayor of Greeneville in 1834, although he resigned after just a few months in office to pursue a position in the Tennessee state legislature, which he attained the following year. As Johnson rose through the ranks of political office in state and national government, he used his influence to help Greeneville constituents obtain government positions, among them his long-time supporter, Sam Milligan, who was appointed to the Court of Claims in Washington, D.C.[26]

Whilst Andrew Johnson was away from home, during his vice-presidency, both union and confederate armies often used his home as a place to stay and rest during their travel. Soldiers left graffiti on the walls of Johnson's home. Confederate soldiers left notes on the walls expressing their displeasure, to put it delicately, of Johnson. Evidence of this can still be seen at the Andrew Johnson home. Andrew Johnson had to almost completely renovate his home after he returned home from Washington D.C.

The Andrew Johnson National Historic Site, located in Greeneville, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1963. Contributing properties include Johnson's tailor shop at the corner of Depot Street and College Street. The site also maintains Johnson's house on Main Street and the Andrew Johnson National Cemetery (atop Monument Hill to the south). A replica of Johnson's birth home and a life-size statue of Johnson have been placed across the street from the visitor center and tailor shop.

2011 Tornadoes[edit]

The rural community of Camp Creek south of Greeneville was badly affected by an EF-3 tornado in the outbreak on the night of April 27–28, 2011.[27] Six people were killed immediately and a seventh died later.[28][29] Horse Creek, southeast of Greeneville, was also hit by an EF-3 tornado during the same outbreak.[30] One person was killed in that community.[31] A total of eight were killed in Greene County.[citation needed].

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 660
1870 1,039
1880 1,066 2.6%
1890 1,779 66.9%
1900 1,817 2.1%
1910 1,920 5.7%
1920 3,775 96.6%
1930 5,544 46.9%
1940 6,784 22.4%
1950 8,721 28.6%
1960 11,729 34.5%
1970 13,722 17.0%
1980 14,097 2.7%
1990 13,532 −4.0%
2000 15,198 12.3%
2010 15,062 −0.9%
Est. 2013 15,020 −0.3%
Sources:[32][33]

As of the 2010 census,[34] there were 15,062 people, 6,506 households, and 4,020 families residing in the town. The population density was 885.3 per square mile (341.8 /km2). There were 7,399 housing units. The racial makeup of the city was 89.1% White, 5.6% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 2.3% from other races, and 2% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 4.4% of the population.

There were 6,506 households out of which 24.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.2% were married couples living together, 14.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.6% were non-families. 36.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.2 and the average family size was 2.86.

The age distribution was 21.2% under 18 and 21% who were 65 or older. The median age was 42.6 years. The median income for a household in the city was $51,692. The per capita income for the city was $24,376. About 13.9% of the population was below the poverty line.[35]

Government[edit]

Greeneville is governed by a Mayor-Alderman-Administrator form of government. The town has a mayor and four alderman, along with the town administrator who is the chief administrative officer and is in charge of supervising all town employees and is charge of developing and presenting the annual budget to the mayor and alderman.

Town Officials[edit]

The following is a list of current officials as of August 2014:

  • W.T. Daniels – Mayor
  • "Buddy" Hawk – Alderman
  • Sarah Webster – Alderwoman
  • Keith Paxton – Alderman
  • Brian Foshie-Bragdon – Alderman
  • Todd Smith – City/Town Administrator[36]
  • Amy Rose – Public Relations Manager
  • Terry Cannon – Chief of Police
  • Carolyn Susong – Town Recorder
  • Brooke Davis – Town Accountant
  • Mark Foulks – Chief of Fire Department
  • Harold "Butch" Patterson – Director of Parks and Recreation
  • Brad Peters – Director of Public Works Department

Healthcare[edit]

Greeneville has two hospitals.

  • Laughlin Memorial Hospital
  • Takoma Regional Hospital

Greeneville also has many nursing facilities, including Life Care Center of Greeneville, Laughlin Healthcare Center, Signature HEALTHCARE of Greeneville, Morning Pointe, Wellington Place owned by Brookdale Senior Living, Maxim Healthcare Services and Comcare.

Utilities[edit]

  • Greeneville Light and Power System (GLPS) provides electricity to most of Greene County.[37]
  • Greeneville Water Commission (GWC) provides water to Greeneville and some areas just outside the city limits.[38]

Economy[edit]

Two major regional companies are headquartered in Greeneville. Greenbank (now part of Capital Bank Financial) has offices and branch locations throughout Middle and East Tennessee. Landair Corporation is located on the western edge of the city. Several local banks and credit unions have headquarters in Greeneville, including Consumer Credit Union, Greeneville Federal Bank, Heritage Community Bank and American Patriot Bank.

Shopping[edit]

Retail is a major employer in Greeneville. The largest shopping center in Greeneville is Greeneville Commons, which includes Kmart, JcPenney, Belk, Burke's Outlet, Hibbett Sports and Rue21. Grocery stores in Greeneville include three K-VA-T Food City Supermarkets, two Ingles Markets, Dollar General Market, Sav-Mor Foods (a Grocery Store owned by Ingles Markets) and Save-A-Lot. Walmart and Lowes also have stores in Greeneville.

Greene County Fair[edit]

The Greene County Fair is recognized statewide as one of the best of its size. In 2005, it received the Tennessee Association of Fairs highest award, the “Champion of Champions” fair trophy. In 2001 and 2004, it was named the AAA division Champion Fair in the state of Tennessee. In 1994 and 2000, it was named first runner-up for the Champion Fair in the AAA Division, and in 1988, received the award for Most Outstanding Fair in Tennessee.

There has been a fair in some form in Greene County since 1870 when the Farmers and Mechanics Association held its first exposition. The present-day Greene County Fair Association was incorporated in 1949. The Fair exists on the support of countless volunteers, board members and officers since 1949. The fair holds many various events such as the "Fairest of the Fair" event, in which different young ladies are crowned based on voluntary activities and their performance in the pageant.

The fair was also an inspiration for The Band Perry's song "Walk Me Down The Middle", which was featured on their eponymous debut album.

Education[edit]

Greeneville is home to a satellite campus of Walters State Community College, which is currently being expanded and remodeled.

Tusculum College is located in nearby Tusculum.

The Town of Greeneville City Schools operates:

  • Eastview Elementary School - Grades PK-5
  • Greene Technology Center - Grades 9-12 (Also contains adult education classes and is associated with the Tennessee College of Applied Technology at Morristown)
  • Greeneville High School - Grades 9-12
  • Greeneville Middle School - Grades 6-8
  • Hal Henard Elementary School - Grades PK-5
  • Highland Elementary School - Grades PK-5
  • Tusculum View Elementary School - Grades PK-5

Recreation[edit]

Town of Greeneville Parks and Recreation Department maintains:

  • Dogwood Park
  • Ginny Kidwell Amphitheater at Dogwood Park
  • Hardin Park
  • J.J. Jones Memorial Park
  • Kinser Park[39] (Kinser Park is Co-owned by the Town of Greeneville and Greene County)
  • Veterans Memorial Park (Forest Park)

Andrew Johnson National Historic Site is located in downtown Greeneville.

Media[edit]

Television[edit]

Greeneville is part of both the Knoxville DMA and the Tri-Cities DMA. One station has Greeneville listed has its city of license (WEMT-Fox Tri-Cities).

WGRV (AM) also has a television station on Comcast Cable channel 18. The channel simulcasts WGRV's live newscasts and other live programs and shows local events.

Radio[edit]

Greeneville has three radio stations: WGRV (AM), WIKQ-FM, and WSMG-AM.

Print[edit]

The Greeneville and Greene County area are served by The Greeneville Sun, a daily newspaper published Monday through Saturday.[40] The Greeneville Sun also publishes a free newspaper, The Greeneville Neighbor News, which spotlights arts and entertainment.

Notable people[edit]

  • Dale Alexander: professional baseball player, 1932 American League batting champion
  • Thomas D. Arnold, congressman and foe of Andrew Jackson
  • The Band Perry, country music group
  • Freddie Combs, Gospel music singer, musician and minister.
  • Elias Nelson Conway, fifth governor of Arkansas.
  • David "Davy" Crockett: famed frontiersman and statesman, born at nearby Limestone[41]
  • Samuel Doak (1749–1830) Presbyterian minister, pioneer, founded earliest schools and churches in East Tennessee. President of Washington College 1795-1818, he moved to Greeneville and taught at Tusculum Academy, later Tusculum College from 1818-1830. Delegate to the "Lost State" of Franklin which convened in Greeneville.[42]
  • Col. Joseph Hardin (1734–1801) Speaker of the House for the State of Franklin; trustee of Greeneville (now Tusculum) College.[43]
  • Andrew Johnson: Alderman and Mayor of Greeneville, Tennessee. U.S. Senator, U.S. Vice President, U.S. President[44]
  • Sergeant Elbert Kinser: (October 21, 1922 - May 4, 1945) was a United States Marine who received the Medal of Honor for his heroic actions and sacrifice of his life on Okinawa during World War II. US Marine Base Camp Kinser located on the island of Okinawa is named for Sgt Kinser.
  • Park Overall, actress, activist, and U.S. Senate candidate[45]
  • Oliver Perry Temple, 19th-century Knoxville attorney and economic promoter
  • Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson, entrepreneur and founder of National Allied Publications, which would later evolve into DC Comics, was a Greeneville native and lived there for several years before his family moved away in his early childhood. Wheeler-Nicholson is widely credited as being the creator of the modern comic book.

Photo gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Welcome signs at town's entrance.
  2. ^ Greene Facts, Greeneville website. Retrieved: 15 January 2013.
  3. ^ Tennessee Blue Book, 2005-2006, pp. 618-625.
  4. ^ U.S. Census Quickfacts. Retrieved: 31 August 2013.
  5. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  6. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  7. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  8. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  9. ^ Samuel Smith, Historical Background and Archaeological Testing of the Davy Crockett Birthplace State Historic Area, Greene County, Tennessee (Nashville, Tenn.: Tennessee Division of Archaeology, 1980), 3.
  10. ^ Richard Doughty, Greeneville: One Hundred Year Portrait (1775-1875) (Kingsport Press, 1974), 3.
  11. ^ Doughty, 11-13.
  12. ^ Doughty, 15-16.
  13. ^ Doughty, 15-17.
  14. ^ Doughty, 17-19.
  15. ^ Doughty, 43.
  16. ^ Tara Mitchell Mielnik, "Benjamin Lundy." The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, 2009. Retrieved: 11 February 2013.
  17. ^ Doughty, 44-46.
  18. ^ Doughty, 43-47.
  19. ^ Eric Lacy, Vanquished Volunteers: East Tennessee Sectionalism from Statehood to Secession (Johnson City, Tenn.: East Tennessee State University Press, 1965), pp. 217-233.
  20. ^ Oliver Perry Temple, East Tennessee and the Civil War (R. Clarke Company, 1899), p. 351.
  21. ^ Temple, East Tennessee and the Civil War, p. 393.
  22. ^ Blythe Semmer, "Greene County," Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Retrieved: 28 March 2014.
  23. ^ A.B. Wilson, "Death of Morgan: Correction of Errors in Some Alleged Histories," The National Tribune, 24 April 1902, p. 7.
  24. ^ Doughty, 59-60.
  25. ^ Andrew Johnson National Historic Site - Curriculum Materials. Retrieved: 3 June 2008.
  26. ^ Doughty, 59-73.
  27. ^ Ken Little, "Fourth Tornado Confirmed: This One In Houston Valley Area," Greeneville Sun May 13, 2011.
  28. ^ "Six Greene County tornado victims identified," Tri-Cities.com, April 29, 2011, retrieved May 17, 2011.
  29. ^ Ken Little, "7th Victim Dies From Injuries Related To Tornadoes," Greeneville Sun May 5, 2011.
  30. ^ "National Weather Service confirms eight tornadoes in our region," Tri-Cities.com, April 30, 2011.
  31. ^ Ken Little, "'Incredible Devastation' Viewed By Sen. Corker," Greeneville Sun May 7, 2011.
  32. ^ "Census of Population and Housing: Decennial Censuses". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  33. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013". Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 May 2014. 
  34. ^ http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/47/4730980.html
  35. ^ http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/21/2130700.html
  36. ^ http://www.greenevilletn.gov/?DivisionID=16352&Department=17281&ToggleSideNav=ShowAll
  37. ^ http://www.glps.net
  38. ^ http://www.greenevillewater.org
  39. ^ Kinserpark.info. Retrieved: 7 May 2013.
  40. ^ Greeneville Sun, official website. Retrieved: 29 October 2013.
  41. ^ Michael Lofaro, "David "Davy" Crockett." The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, 2009. Retrieved: 11 February 2013.
  42. ^ E. Alvin Gerhardt, Jr., "Samuel Doak." The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, 2009. Retrieved: 11 February 2013.
  43. ^ Patterson, Prof. Tommie Cochran (1931). Joseph Hardin: A Biographical & Genealogical Study. Dissertation Manuscript. Library of the University of Texas at Austin, Texas; Austin, TX. OCLC 13179015. 
  44. ^ Trefousse, Hans L. Andrew Johnson: A Biography. New York: W.W. Norton. 1989.
  45. ^ The Internet Movie Database: http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0653802/bio

External links[edit]