Scandinavian Braille

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Faroese Braille

Icelandic Braille

Danish Braille
Norwegian Braille
Swedish Braille
Finnish Braille
Greenlandic Braille
Type
alphabet
Languages Faroese, Icelandic, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Greenlandic
Parent systems
Braille
  • French Braille
    • Faroese Braille

      Icelandic Braille

      Danish Braille
      Norwegian Braille
      Swedish Braille
      Finnish Braille
      Greenlandic Braille
Print basis
Dano-Norwegian alphabet
Swedish alphabet

Scandinavian Braille is the braille alphabet used for all the Nordic countries, including Greenlandic and Faroese. That is to say, Faroese, Greenlandic and Icelandic Braille has the same character assignments as Swedish or Danish Braille (For example, á/å being the same letters for example in Braille, just as they are considered the same in ink-print letters). In all cases, the only non-conforming assignments are those which are characters not existing in the orthographies of the other languages (for example, þ only exists in Icelandic modernly, and q only exists in Greenlandic) however between Icelandic, Faroese and Scandinavian at least these extra characters have been assigned to places where the other languages have nothing assigned.

Nordic Braille is very close to French Braille, with all base letters being the same but with slight modification of some of the accented letters. As usual, there also exist letters such as "z" which is in no Nordic language, but can be used to write loanwords (for example, when teaching English).

Alphabet[edit]

The braille French â, œ, ä are used for å/á, ö/ø, ä/æ (traditionally speaking, œ is indeed exactly the same letter as ö and ø, it's only stylistic differences in how they were written but all three symbolize "oe"). Each language uses the letters that exists in its inkprint alphabet, for example, Greenlandic Braille lacks all the same Nordic letters that Greenlandic inkprint writing does. Thus, in numerical order, the basic alphabet is:

⠁ (braille pattern dots-1)
a
⠃ (braille pattern dots-12)
b
⠉ (braille pattern dots-14)
c
⠙ (braille pattern dots-145)
d
⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)
e
⠋ (braille pattern dots-124)
f
⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245)
g
⠓ (braille pattern dots-125)
h
⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
i
⠚ (braille pattern dots-245)
j
⠅ (braille pattern dots-13)
k
⠇ (braille pattern dots-123)
l
⠍ (braille pattern dots-134)
m
⠝ (braille pattern dots-1345)
n
⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)
o
⠏ (braille pattern dots-1234)
p
⠟ (braille pattern dots-12345)
q
⠗ (braille pattern dots-1235)
r
⠎ (braille pattern dots-234)
s
⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345)
t
⠥ (braille pattern dots-136)
u
⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236)
v
⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346)
x
⠽ (braille pattern dots-13456)
y
⠵ (braille pattern dots-1356)
z
⠡ (braille pattern dots-16)
å
⠪ (braille pattern dots-246)
ö/ø
⠺ (braille pattern dots-2456)
w
⠜ (braille pattern dots-345)
ä/æ
⠯ (braille pattern dots-12346)
&

There are further letters past these basic ones, used in Faroese and Icelandic for "ð, þ, oy" and in Greenlandic for "q" for example, which are sounds that don't exist in Scandinavian. These extra letters match between countries as well, so for example, the Farose ð is exactly the same letter as the Icelandic ð (though possibly the Greenlandic q doesn't match the English q). See the sources list for those fuller alphabets.

(For foreign accented letters, French Braille is used.)

Numbers[edit]

Digits are the first ten letters of the alphabet, and numbers are marked by , as in English Braille.

Punctuation[edit]

Punctuation differs slightly between each country, however according to the Esperanto article about Braille (Esperanto Braille has no rules for punctuation and so each writer uses the ones from their own country), differing punctuation never impedes understanding.

Single punctuation
Print , . '  ?  !  ;  : * - /
Finnish ⠂ (braille pattern dots-2) ⠄ (braille pattern dots-3) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠢ (braille pattern dots-26) ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠆ (braille pattern dots-23) ⠒ (braille pattern dots-25) ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35) ⠤ (braille pattern dots-36) ⠤ (braille pattern dots-36) ⠤ (braille pattern dots-36) ⠌ (braille pattern dots-34)
Swedish/
Norwegian
⠖ (braille pattern dots-235)
Danish/
Greenlandic
⠈ (braille pattern dots-4)

The ellipsis ... is thus .

Finnish  ! is not a copy error. It's the reverse of the found in all other Nordic countries, though the latter is the + sign in Finnish mathematical notation just as it is in those other countries. Finnish punctuation is used for Swedish text in Finland.

In Swedish Braille, there is also for the pipe, |, and for the bullet, •.

Paired punctuation
Print “ ... ” ‘ ... ’ ( ... ) [ ... ]
Finnish/
Swedish
⠰ (braille pattern dots-56) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠰ (braille pattern dots-56) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠷ (braille pattern dots-12356) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠾ (braille pattern dots-23456)
Norwegian/Faroese ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) (?)
Danish/
Greenlandic
⠶ (braille pattern dots-2356) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠶ (braille pattern dots-2356) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356)

At least in Norwegian Braille, the braces { ... } are .

Formatting[edit]

Given the poor coverage, it is not clear how compatible formatting is between countries. (See Estonian Braille for formatting in an orthography with similar punctuation to Finnish and Swedish.)

Print (digit) (caps) (all caps) (italics) (bold)
Finnish/
Swedish
⠼ (braille pattern dots-3456) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠠ (braille pattern dots-6) ⠄ (braille pattern dots-3) ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46)
Norwegian (?) ⠤ (braille pattern dots-36) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠤ (braille pattern dots-36) ⠆ (braille pattern dots-23) ⠀ (braille pattern blank) ⠰ (braille pattern dots-56)
Danish/
Greenlandic
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠸ (braille pattern dots-456) ⠰ (braille pattern dots-56) (?)

In Swedish Braille, is used to capitalize an entire word, and to capitalize several words. The sequences and are likewise used to italicize and bold several words. The end of any of these is marked with , for example for caps, for italics, and for bold.

Also in Swedish (and perhaps the others), the auxiliary parentheses are used to add comments that appear only in the braille text, such as a description of a picture in the print text being transcribed.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Sjondepilin.fo "Tá tú hittir blind fólk" (Braille alphabet in Faroese) [1]
  • Íslenska blindraleturs stafrófið (Braille alphabet in Icelandic) [2]

External links[edit]