LeMond leading the 1990 Tour de France
|Full name||Gregory James LeMond|
June 26, 1961 |
La Vie Claire
Infobox last updated on
Gregory James "Greg" LeMond (born June 26, 1961) is an American former professional road racing cyclist, entrepreneur, and anti-doping advocate. He was World Champion in 1983 and 1989, and is a three-time winner of the Tour de France. LeMond was born in Lakewood, California, and raised in ranch country on the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada mountain range, near Carson City, NV. He is married and has three children with his wife Kathy, with whom he supports a variety of charitable causes and organizations.
In 1986, LeMond became the first non-European professional cyclist to win the Tour (and to this day, the only American, following Lance Armstrong's and Floyd Landis' disqualifications). He was accidentally shot while hunting in 1987 and missed the next two Tours. LeMond returned to the Tour de France in 1989, completing an improbable comeback by winning in dramatic fashion on the race's final stage. He successfully defended his title the following year, claiming his third and final Tour victory in 1990, and making LeMond one of only seven riders who have won three or more Tours. LeMond retired from competition in December 1994.
During his career, LeMond championed several technological advancements in pro cycling, including the introduction of aerodynamic "triathlon" handlebars and carbon fiber bicycle frames, which he later marketed through his company LeMond Bicycles. His other business interests have included restaurants, real estate, and consumer fitness equipment.
LeMond is a vocal opponent of performance-enhancing drug use, and at times his commercial ventures have suffered for his anti-doping stance—as in in 2001, when he first accused Lance Armstrong of doping and sparked a conflict that led eventually to the dissolution of his partnership with Armstrong's primary sponsor, Trek Bicycles, who licensed the LeMond brand. As the lone American winner of cycling's most prestigious race, LeMond has not enjoyed the public stature that might be expected of such a figure, but he continues to campaign publicly against doping and ineffective leadership by the UCI, the international federation for cycling. LeMond even acknowledged his willingness to replace the UCI president in December 2012 if called to do so.
Early life and amateur career 
Greg LeMond was born in Lakewood, California and raised in ranch country on the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada mountain range, near Carson City, NV. LeMond attended Wooster High School in Reno, NV. His parents are Bob LeMond and Bertha (d. 2006), and he has two sisters, Kathy and Karen.
LeMond's introduction to cycling came in 1975 thanks to freestyle skiing pioneer Wayne Wong, who recommended the bike as an ideal off-season training aid. LeMond started competing in 1976, and after dominating the Intermediate category (13-15) and winning the first 11 races he entered, he received permission to ride against older, more seasoned competitors in the Junior (16-19) category. In 1977, while still only 15, LeMond finished second in the Tour of Fresno to John Howard, then America's top road cyclist and the 1971 Pan American Games champion. LeMond caught the attention of Eddie Borysewicz, the US Cycling Federation's national team coach, who described LeMond as "a diamond, a clear diamond." LeMond represented the United States at the 1978 Junior World Championships in Washington, D.C., where he finished ninth in the road race, and again in the 1979 Junior World Championships in Argentina, where he won gold, silver and bronze medals—the highlight being his victory in the road race. At age 18, LeMond was selected for the 1980 U.S. Olympic cycling team, the youngest ever to make the U.S. team; however, the U.S. boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow prevented him from competing there.
Borysewicz, whom LeMond described as his "first real coach," wanted to retain his protégé through the next Olympic cycle and discouraged him from turning pro, but LeMond was determined. Nevertheless, while he was the reigning Junior World Road Champion in 1980, LeMond received no offers, and so in the spring 1980, he joined the U.S. National cycling team for a 6-week European racing campaign. There, he finished third overall in the Circuit des Ardennes before winning the 1980 Circuit de la Sarthe stage race in France, thereby becoming the first American and youngest rider of any nationality "in the history of the sport to win a major pro-am cycling event [in Europe]." That victory, and the subsequent press coverage, raised LeMond's profile in Europe and he was scouted at his next event (the Ruban Granitier Breton stage race) by French cycling coach and Renault-Elf-Gitane directeur sportif Cyrille Guimard. Guimard said he was impressed with LeMond's spirit, and told him, "You have the fire to be a great champion," before offering him a professional contract for 1981 with Renault. After he returned to the United States, LeMond won the 1980 Nevada City Classic, considered to be one of the most historic and challenging professional cycling races in America. Despite eventually receiving several other offers to turn professional besides Guimard's, LeMond did not consider them seriously, and he signed with Renault in Paris on the day the Tour de France finished.
Professional career 
LeMond was a standout amateur rider "of superlative quality" and "exceptionally gifted," who quickly established himself as one of the most talented cyclists on the professional circuit. Respected cycling journalist John Wilcockson, who reported the Tour de France for more than 40 years, described LeMond as a rider who was fuoriclasse.[N 1]
1981–1983: Early years 
LeMond's first professional victory came three months after his 1981 debut, when he won a stage of the French Tour de l'Oise. He also won the Coors Classic in the United States, finishing ahead of the 1980 Olympic road champion Sergei Sukhoruchenkov. But LeMond considered his third-place overall in the 1981 Dauphiné Libéré to have been the "major steppingstone," in his career thus far, saying, "It showed me that I had the kind of climbing ability that you need to win the top European stage races."
LeMond won the silver medal at the 1982 World Cycling Championship, and in 1983, he won the World Championship outright, becoming the first American rider to do so. His enormous talent – his overall strength, climbing ability, his capability to ride a fast time trial and his recovery capacity – suggested LeMond would be an excellent prospect for the more demanding Grand Tours.
1984–1986: Grand Tours 
LeMond rode his first Tour de France in 1984, finishing third in support of team leader Laurent Fignon, and winning the young rider classification. The following year he was brought across to La Vie Claire to ride in support of team captain Bernard Hinault who had regained his form and was attempting to win his fifth Tour. French businessman and team owner Bernard Tapie signed LeMond with a $1 million dollar contract over three years. In the race Hinault led through the early mountain stages, but suffered a crash and came into difficulty. At this point it was clear that LeMond was an elite rider capable of winning the Tour in his own right. LeMond possessed a natural talent for riding the Grand Tours, and got stronger over the course of a three-week race. The injured Hinault was vulnerable, and his competitors knew it. Stage 17 included three major climbs in the Pyrenees. On the second, the Col du Tourmalet, LeMond followed Stephen Roche in an attack, but was not given permission to ride away. The managers of his La Vie Claire team ordered the 24-year-old LeMond to wait for Hinault.[N 2] Instead of staying in the lead group and riding to win, LeMond let the leaders pull away and dropped back to aid Hinault. At the end of the stage LeMond was frustrated to the point of tears. He later revealed that team management and his own coach Paul Koechli had misled him as to how far back Hinault had dropped during the crucial Stage 17 mountain stage. Hinault won the 1985 Tour, with LeMond finishing second, 1:42 behind. LeMond had ridden as the dutiful lieutenant, and his support enabled Hinault to win his fifth Tour.[N 3] In repayment for his sacrifice Hinault promised to help LeMond win the Tour the following year.
For the 1986 Tour, LeMond was a co-leader of the La Vie Claire team alongside Hinault. Hinault's support seemed less certain the closer the race approached. An unspoken condition was that his help would be contingent upon LeMond demonstrating that he was clearly the better rider.[N 4] Hinault was in superb form, and had the chance to win an unprecedented sixth Tour. Hinault chose to let the Stage 9 individual time trial be the decider for which rider would receive the full support of team La Vie Claire.[N 5] Hinault won the Stage 9 time trial, finishing 44 seconds in front of LeMond. LeMond was frustrated with his results, having suffered a puncture and later requiring a bicycle change when he broke a wheel. In Stage 12, the first mountain stage of the race in the Pyrenees, Hinault attacked the lead group and built up an overall lead. By the end of Stage 12, Hinault had a five-minute lead over LeMond and the other top riders. He claimed he was trying to draw out LeMond's rivals, but none of these attacks were planned with LeMond.[N 6] He was clearly willing to ride aggressively and take advantage of the opportunities presented. LeMond was never placed in difficulty, except by his own teammate. The following day Hinault broke away again early but was caught and then dropped by LeMond on the final climb of Stage 13, allowing LeMond to gain back four and a half minutes. The next three stages brought the Tour to the Alps. On Stage 17 LeMond and Urs Zimmermann dropped Hinault from the leading group, and the end of the day saw LeMond pulling on the yellow jersey of race leader, the first time it had ever been worn by a rider from the United States. The following day in the Alps saw Hinault attack again early on the first climb, but he was pulled back. Attempting an escape on the descent, he was unable to separate himself from LeMond. The two La Vie Claire team leaders were both excellent descenders, and continued to pull away as they ascended the next col, and maintained the gap as they reached the base of the final climb, the vaunted Alpe d'Huez. The two riders pressed on through the crowd, ascending the twenty-one switchbacks of Alpe d'Huez and reaching the summit together. LeMond put an arm around Hinault and gave him a smile and the stage win in a show of unity, but the infighting was not over. Hinault attacked again on Stage 19 and had to be brought back by teammates Andy Hampsten and Steve Bauer. Commenting on the team situation prior to the final individual time trial at Stage 20, LeMond offered the following with a wry smile:
"He's attacked me from the beginning of the Tour De France. He's never helped me once, and I don't feel confident at all with him."
LeMond had to keep his eye on his teammate and rival throughout the race. Hinault rode aggressively and repeatedly attacked, and the division created in the La Vie Claire team was unmistakable. LeMond would keep the yellow jersey to the end of the race and win his first Tour, but he felt betrayed by Hinault and the La Vie Claire team leadership. LeMond later stated the 1986 Tour was the most difficult and stressful race of his career.
1987–1988: Accidental shooting, lost years 
LeMond had planned to defend his title in the 1987 Tour de France with La Vie Claire, but was unable to participate. Early that year he was riding in the Tirreno–Adriatico, an early spring tune-up race, when he fell, suffering a fracture to his left wrist. He returned to the United States to recover from the injury. The week before returning to Europe he elected to go turkey hunting near his family home in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada with Rodney Barber and Patrick Blades, his uncle and brother-in-law. The camouflaged hunters were at a ranch co-owned by Louis Barber, the father of LeMond's uncle, and Bob LeMond, Greg's father. The trio had become separated when Blades heard movement behind him, turned and fired through a bush. The movement had come from LeMond, who was hit in his back and right side with a devastating blast of approximately 60 No. 2-sized pellets. LeMond's injuries were near fatal. Fortunately a police helicopter was available nearby, and was used to make a fifteen-minute life-flight to the Medical Center at University of California-Davis. LeMond was taken for emergency surgery. He had suffered a pneumothorax to his right lung and extensive bleeding, having lost some 65% of his blood volume. A physician informed LeMond later that he had been within twenty minutes of bleeding to death. The operation saved his life, but four months later he developed a small bowel obstruction due to adhesions that had formed following the shooting. He underwent another surgery to relieve the obstruction and take down the adhesions. Concerned that his team would drop him if they knew the shooting accident required a second surgery, LeMond asked the surgeons to remove his appendix at the same time. He subsequently informed his team that he had had his appendix removed, but the rest of the story was left somewhat vague. The events effectively ended his 1987 season, and in October he announced he would return to serious competition the following February, with the Dutch PDM team.
With 35 shotgun pellets still in his body, including three in the lining of his heart and five more embedded in his liver, LeMond attempted to return to racing in 1988. But his comeback was hampered by over-training, and he developed tendonitis in his right shin that required surgery. He missed the Tour for the second year running, and relations with PDM soured.
In response to the falling-out with PDM, LeMond moved to ADR, a team based in Belgium and co-sponsored by Coors Light for American races, in a deal that was completed on New Year's Eve, just hours before he would have been legally obligated to ride another season for the Dutch team. Joining the Belgian ADR squad allowed LeMond to continue to compete, but with teammates like Johan Museeuw who were better suited to riding Classics than Grand Tours.
1989: Return to elite level 
After struggling in the 1989 Paris–Nice early-season race and failing to improve his condition, LeMond informed his wife Kathy that he intended to retire from professional cycling after the 1989 Tour de France. He started the 1989 Giro d'Italia in May as preparation for the Tour to follow, but struggled in the mountains and was not in contention for any of the leaders' jerseys before the final 53 km individual time trial into Florence. In a surprising turnaround, LeMond placed second there, more than a minute ahead of overall winner Laurent Fignon, and attributed some of his improvement to anti-anemia treatment he received twice during the race.
Coming into the 1989 Tour de France LeMond was not considered a contender for the General Classification (GC).[N 7] His own most optimistic hope was to finish his final Tour in the top 20. Without the weight of expectation and other pressures of being a Tour favorite, LeMond surprised observers with a strong ride in the 7.8 km prologue in Luxembourg, finishing fourth out of 198 riders. Buoyed by the result, LeMond continued to ride well over the opening flat stages, winning the 73 km stage 5 individual time trial, and gaining the yellow jersey of race leader for the first time in three years. LeMond seemed to ride himself into better condition during the first week's flat stages, and he was coming into peak form by the time the Tour reached the mountains. LeMond remained at the front of the race in the Pyrénées, but lost the lead to his former teammate and rival Laurent Fignon on stage 10 in Superbagnères. Five days later LeMond reclaimed yellow in the Alps, after the 39 km stage 15 mountain time trial from Gap to Orcières-Merlette. The see-saw battle continued, and when Fignon attacked on the upper slopes of Alpe d'Huez LeMond was unable to go with him, placing the yellow jersey back on the shoulders of Fignon. Fignon held a 50-second advantage over LeMond going into the 21st and final stage, a rare 24.5 km individual time trial from Versailles to Paris (Champs-Élysées).
Fignon had won the Tour twice before, in 1983 and 1984, and was a very capable time trialist. It seemed improbable that LeMond could take 50 seconds off Fignon over the short 24.5 kilometer course. This would require LeMond to gain two seconds per kilometer against one of the fastest chrono-specialists in the world. LeMond had done wind tunnel testing in the off season and perfected his riding position. He rode the time trial with a rear disc wheel, a cut-down Giro aero helmet and the same Scott clip-on aero bars which had helped him to the Stage 5 time trial win. Holding his time trialing position LeMond was able to generate less aerodynamic drag than Fignon, who used a pair of disc wheels but chose to go helmetless and did not use the aero bars that are now commonplace in time trials. Instructing his support car not to give him his split times, LeMond rode flat-out and finished at a record pace to beat Fignon by 58 seconds and claim his second Tour de France victory. As LeMond embraced his wife and rejoiced on the Champs-Élysées, Fignon collapsed onto the tarmac, then sat in shock and wept. The final margin of victory of eight seconds was the closest in the Tour's history. LeMond's 54.545 km/h average speed for the stage 21 time trial was the fastest in Tour history; since then, only the 1994 prologue and David Zabriskie's 2005 time trial performance have been faster.
LeMond's return to the pinnacle of cycling was confirmed on August 27, when he won the 259 km World Championships road race in Chambéry, France, defeating Fignon again and edging Dimitri Konyshev and Sean Kelly on the line. Fignon attacked incessantly in the wet, treacherous finale, but LeMond marked his rival and made the perfect sprint; Fignon finished 6th. LeMond was only the fifth person in history to win both the Tour de France and the World Championship in the same year. In December, Sports Illustrated magazine named LeMond its 1989 "Sportsman of the Year", the first time a cyclist received the honor.
1990: A third tour win 
LeMond parlayed the success of his 1989 season into the richest contract in the sport's history, signing a $5.5 million deal for three years with Z-Tomasso of France. He entered the 1990 Tour de France as defending champion and a pre-race favorite after leaving ADR to join the much stronger Z-Tomasso team. At "Z" his team mates included Robert Millar, Eric Boyer and Ronan Pensec, all of whom already had finishes in the top six of the Tour de France. This unified roster of strong riders appeared capable of supporting LeMond in the mountains and controlling the race on the flats.
The squad's tactical plan was upset on the first day, when a breakaway that included LeMond's teammate Ronan Pensec, but no major favorites, arrived ten minutes ahead of the field. LeMond was prevented from challenging for the lead until the yellow jersey left the shoulders of teammate Ronan Pensec. LeMond closed in on race leader Claudio Chiappucci, finally overtaking him in the final individual time trial on stage 20, where he finished over two minutes ahead of the unheralded Italian. LeMond at last had the yellow jersey, wearing it the following day as the Tour rode into Paris. LeMond had the distinction of winning the 1990 Tour without achieving any stage wins. Over the course of the 1990 Tour the perceived strength of the Z team was confirmed, as they led the team classification through most of the race, adding the team title to LeMond's yellow jersey.
1991–1994: Decline and retirement 
LeMond felt confident before the 1991 Tour de France. He was the defending champion, trained well and had a solid team to support him. LeMond was among the leaders going into the Stage 8 individual time trial, and he finished second to the Spaniard Miguel Indurain. LeMond felt he was riding extremely well, and though his TT-effort had propelled him into the yellow jersey, losing eight seconds to Indurain shook his confidence. He held the yellow jersey for the next four days until Stage 12, a challenging 192 km mountain stage. LeMond experienced difficulty on the first climb and he cracked on the Col de Tourmalet, losing significant time to Claudio Chiappucci, and eventual winner Indurain. He continued to race, but was unable to seriously challenge for the lead thereafter, finishing the 1991 Tour seventh overall.
In 1992, LeMond won the Tour DuPont, but it would be the last major win of his career. He failed to finish the 1992 Tour de France – he abandoned in the mountains on the same day that his compatriot and former domestique Andy Hampsten won atop Alpe d'Huez. LeMond had started the Tour in a state of fatigue and near-panic after problems traveling to France, and he said he quit the race because of a serious saddle sore, but before he abandoned, LeMond admitted, "My climbing is not like usual. I've climbed much better in the past Tours. This year I'm just not feeling my usual self."
LeMond did extensive endurance training on the road that winter, but his performances the following spring failed to improve. LeMond had to abandon the 1993 Giro d'Italia two days before the final stage after difficult racing left him third-from-last on GC. He was too exhausted to enter the 1993 Tour de France. Following the '93 season LeMond hired renowned Dutch physiologist Adrie van Diemen to advise him on a new technic to monitor training and measure performance. The (SRM) power-based training would make use of the watt as a guide to power output. In November 1993 LeMond confided to Sam Abt that power output in watts would become the key metric. [N 8] The watt has gained wide acceptance as the best measure of a cyclist's training performance.
The following year LeMond began the 1994 Tour de France but found he was unable to race effectively. He had to abandon after the first week before the race had reached the difficult mountain stages. That December he announced his retirement. The reasons for LeMond's difficulties in his later career are not entirely known, but at the time of his retirement he cited mitochondrial myopathy[N 9] as the cause of his inability to perform. In 2007, however, LeMond speculated that he might not have had the condition after all, and suggested he instead experienced lead toxicity from the shotgun pellets still embedded in his body, the effects of which were increased by overtraining.
LeMond acknowledged that the increasing prevalence of doping might have contributed to his own lack of competitiveness. Said LeMond: "Something had changed in cycling. The speeds were faster and riders that I had easily out performed were now dropping me. At the time, the team I was on, Team Z, became more and more demanding, more and more concerned ..." He stated he had been told in 1994 that he would need to blood dope in order to win again. LeMond did not focus solely on doping for his difficulties. He frankly admitted to Abt in 1999: "I figure I had three months that went right for me after the hunting accident," three months in which he won the two Tours and a world road race championship. "The rest were just pure suffering, struggling, fatigue, always tired."
In a wide-ranging interview with American novelist Bryan Malessa in 1998, LeMond was asked if his career had not been interrupted by the hunting accident, how did he feel he would compare to five time Tour winners such as Bernard Hinault and Miguel Indurain. LeMond responded: "Of course you can't rewrite racing history, but I'm confident that I would have won five Tours."[N 10]
Two years after his retirement LeMond was inducted into the United States Bicycling Hall of Fame in a ceremony at Rodale Park in Trexlertown, PA. The event was held on June 8, 1996, during the U.S. Olympic Cycling Team Trials.
Business interests 
Greg LeMond was a pioneer in the use of carbon fiber bicycle frames in European professional road cycling, and his Tour de France win in 1986 ahead of Bernard Hinault was the first for a carbon framed bicycle. Ironically, given the rivalry that existed at the time between the American and his French teammate, LeMond rode a "Bernard Hinault" Signature Model Look prototype that year. LeMond also won the 1989 Tour de France, the 1989 World Championship, and his final Tour de France in 1990 on carbon fiber frames. These bicycle frames featured "Greg LeMond" branding.
LeMond Cycles 
In 1990, LeMond founded LeMond Bicycles to develop machines for himself that would also be marketed and sold to the public. The following year, searching for an equipment edge for Team Z at the 1991 Tour de France, LeMond concluded an exclusive licensing agreement between his company and Carbonframes, Inc., to access the latter's advanced composites technology. While LeMond briefly led the 1991 Tour overall, riding his Carbonframes-produced "Greg LeMond" bicycle, the company eventually faltered, something LeMond blamed on "under-capitalization" and poor management by his father. Carbonframes and LeMond Cycles "parted amiably two years later." In 1995, with his company allegedly nearly bankrupt, LeMond reached a licensing-agreement with Trek Bicycle Corporation, according to which the Wisconsin-based company would manufacture and distribute bicycles designed with LeMond that would be sold under the "LeMond Bicycles" brand. LeMond would later claim that going into business with Trek "destroyed" his relationship with his father. The lucrative partnership, which generated revenue for Trek in excess of $100,000,000USD, would be renewed several times over the course of 13 years, but it ultimately ended in acrimony after LeMond's relationship with Trek deteriorated over his staunch anti-doping advocacy.
The two parties first found themselves at odds in July 2001, after LeMond expressed public concern over the relationship between Italian doping doctor Michele Ferrari and Trek's star athlete, Lance Armstrong. "When I heard he was working with Michele Ferrari, I was devastated," LeMond was quoted as saying of Armstrong. "If Lance is clean, it is the greatest comeback in the history of sports. If he isn't, it would be the greatest fraud."
Trek's president John Burke pressured LeMond to apologize, claiming, "Greg's public comments hurt the LeMond brand and the Trek brand." Burke allegedly justified his demand for an apology by advising that, "As a contractual partner, he [LeMond] could criticize doping only generally – not point his finger at specific athletes, particularly one that happens to be the company's main cash cow."
In April 2008, Trek announced that it was dropping LeMond Bicycles from its product line and would sue to sever the licensing agreement. It quickly emerged that in March 2008, LeMond had filed a complaint against Trek for breach of contract, claiming that they had not made a "best efforts" attempt to sell his bicycles, as well as describing attempts to 'silence' him about doping, including incidents in 2001 and 2004. His complaint included statistics detailing slow sales in some markets, including the fact that between September 2001 and June 2007, Trek only sold $10,393 worth of LeMond bikes in France, a country in which LeMond was both famous and popular.
As promised, Trek counter-sued and stopped producing bicycles under the LeMond brand. After nearly two years of litigation, in February 2010, LeMond reached an out-of-court settlement with Trek in their breach-of-contract dispute, the terms of which were confidential. The settlement permitted the case to be dismissed with prejudice, meaning, "neither side can produce the same claims against one another in a future lawsuit." And although settlement terms were not disclosed, LeMond reportedly obtained full control over the LeMond Bicycles name, while Trek made a donation of $200,000USD to the 1in6.org charity, of which LeMond was a founding member of the board of directors.
LeMond Fitness 
In 2002, LeMond, Bernie Boglioli and others founded LeMond Fitness, Inc. "to help individuals achieve their fitness and performance goals and train more effectively." The company's primary business is the development and manufacture of bicycle trainers and indoor exercise bikes for consumers in the United States and internationally. LeMond himself serves as Chairman of the Board, and, according to company sources, "is integrally involved in the development and design of our products and programs." In 2012, Hoist Fitness negotiated to purchase an interest in the company and announced plans to move its headquarters to Hoist's offices in San Diego, CA.
Real estate 
In 2002 LeMond joined with his parents-in-law David and Sacia Morris, friend Michael Snow and J.P. Morgan & Co. fund manager Jorge Jasson to invest in the exclusive Yellowstone Club, a Big Sky, Montana private ski and golf community founded by timber baron Tim Blixseth and his wife Edra. Each of the five partners paid Blixseth $750,000 for one percent shares in the exclusive resort. LeMond also purchased several building lots and maintained a property at the resort. Four years later LeMond and partners sued Blixseth in 2006 following reports of a Credit Suisse loan to the resort of $375 million from which Blixseth reportedly took $209 million in a disputed partial payout for his ownership stake. The Credit Suisse loan was based on a $1.16 billion Cushman & Wakefield valuation of the resort, for which LeMond and partners each sought $11.6 million for their one-percent shares. In 2007 LeMond settled his suit with the Blixseths for $39 million; however, he and his partners remained creditors as the Blixseths defaulted on a $20 million payment, followed by their divorce and the bankruptcy of the Club in 2009.
LeMond became a restaurateur in August 1990, when, in partnership with his wife and her parents, he opened Scott Kee's Tour de France on France Avenue in the Minneapolis suburb of Edina, Minnesota. LeMond described the restaurant, which was named for its chef (LeMond's brother-in-law), as "a dream of five years come true." Explaining the origin of the concept, LeMond said, "Kathy and I have eaten at the finest establishments in France, Italy and Belgium. Our favorites have always been small places, family-owned."
Anti-doping stance and controversies 
LeMond is a longtime anti-doping advocate and a vocal opponent of performance-enhancing drug use. He first spoke on-record against doping in cycling after winning the 1989 Tour de France, but LeMond attracted more substantial attention in 2001 when he publicly expressed doubts about the legitimacy of Lance Armstrong's success after learning of his relationship with Dr. Michele Ferrari. The intense criticism LeMond was subjected to for his comments placed him at the center of an anti-doping controversy.
LeMond has consistently questioned the relationship between riders and unethical sports doctors like Ferrari, and has pointed out that the professional cyclists who make use of doping products are ultimately victimized by the process, likening their treatment to that of "lab rats." Said LeMond: "The doctors, the management, the officials, they're the ones that have corrupted riders. The riders are the only ones that pay the price." LeMond's most contentious or notable conflicts have been with fellow Tour de France riders Lance Armstrong, Floyd Landis and Alberto Contador.
LeMond has also been directly critical of the UCI and its president, Pat McQuaid. In December 2012, LeMond claimed that a change needed to be made at the head of leadership for the UCI, and stated if called upon he would be willing to take the position himself if necessary to lead cycling out of the mire of doping. Said LeMond:
"It is now or never to act. After the earthquake caused by the Armstrong case, another chance will not arise. I am willing to invest to make this institution more democratic, transparent and look for the best candidate in the longer term."
LeMond was one of the first prominent professional cyclists to question Armstrong's legitimacy, and to openly decry the sport's descent into the corruption of doping. McQuaid rejected LeMond's call for new leadership, but rather than defend his own record at the UCI, he dismissed LeMond as lacking salient experience and relevance. Said McQuaid: "The last 25 years, where has he been? Nowhere. Not involved in cycling. He is outside cycling, shouting at it looking in."
Personal life 
LeMond is married to Kathy Morris, and together they have three children – two sons (Geoffrey and Scott) and a daughter (Simone). LeMond and his wife live in Medina, Minnesota. Since his retirement, LeMond has become increasingly involved in philanthropic efforts relating to causes that have affected him personally (including ADHD and sexual abuse), and he and Kathy both sit on the board of the non-profit 1in6.
LeMond is an avid outdoor enthusiast and fly angler, and in 1991 – while still racing full-time – he made the world-record fly fishing catch of a four-pound smallmouth bass on a reel with a four-pound tippet. The record was certified by the National Freshwater Fishing Hall of Fame in Hayward, Wisconsin. The catch exceeded the then-previous record of three pounds, six ounces made on the same size tippet back in 1986. LeMond confessed, "I always pack my fly fishing equipment when I travel to bike events. I fish every chance I get."
After retiring from pro cycling, LeMond competed in Formula Ford 2000 series auto racing. He is also a motivational speaker and was the guest speaker for Sumitomo Drive Technologies' International Sales Meeting in Cancun, Mexico on May 2, 2008. LeMond narrated an award-winning documentary for Adventures for the Cure that same year.
On July 16, 2007, LeMond rode the L'Étape du Tour cyclosportive with his son, and found it to be a defining moment in his post-competition life. "I had the time of my life", he said, despite getting "650th place" and being "impressed that I even finished". LeMond continued, "I decided that day that nobody's going to keep me from cycling, not Trek, not Armstrong, not Verbruggen, not anybody." At the time, LeMond was alluding to a series of public and private disputes related to his anti-doping advocacy that hampered his enjoyment of cycling. Especially significant was LeMond's appearance as a USADA witness in the Floyd Landis doping case. There, on the eve of LeMond's testimony in May 2007, Landis' business manager called and threatened to disclose publicly that LeMond was the victim of childhood sexual abuse, should he appear in court as scheduled the following day. Undeterred, LeMond took the stand and testified, before admitting to the world that he had been molested.
Several weeks later, LeMond and his wife Kathy gave an extensive interview to Paul Kimmage of The Sunday Times. LeMond provided additional details concerning the circumstances of his 2001 apology to Armstrong, stating that Trek, the longtime manufacturer and distributor of LeMond Racing Cycles, had threatened to end the relationship at the behest of Armstrong. He described the two years following the forced apology as the worst in his life, marked by self-destructive behavior that ultimately led him to disclose his sexual abuse to his wife and seek help. LeMond also described how being a victim of molestation had impacted both his racing career and his life since.
I wanted to be seen as a good person, and never wanted to let people down, but I found it hard to handle the fame or adulation. I didn't feel worthy of it. I was ashamed by who I thought I was because I felt partly responsible [for the abuse] and I was never able to enjoy the stuff I should have been able to enjoy. My first thought when I won the Tour was: 'My God, I'm going to be famous', and then I thought, 'He's going to call'. I was always waiting for that phone call. I lived in fear that anyone would ever find out.—Greg LeMond, Cycle of abuse, The Sunday Times
In September 2007, Greg LeMond became a founding board member of the non-profit organization 1in6.org, whose mission is "to help men who have had unwanted or abusive sexual experiences in childhood live healthy, happy lives".
- 1st National Road Race Champion (Junior)
- 1st Overall Vuelta de Bisbee
- 3rd TTT Junior World Championship
- 1st World Road Race Champion (Junior)
- 1st National Road Race Champion (Junior)
- 1st Nevada City Classic
- 2nd Track Pursuit, Junior World Championship
- 1st Overall Circuit de la Sarthe
- 1st Nevada City Classic
- 3rd Overall, Circuit des Ardennes
- 1st Overall Coors Classic
- 1st Stages 1 & 7
- 1st Stage 2a Tour de Picardie
- 1st Nevada City Classic
- 3rd Overall Route du Sud
- 3rd Overall Critérium du Dauphiné
- 1st Overall Tour de l'Avenir
- 1st Stages 4, 5 & 8
- 3rd Overall Tour de Corse
- 2nd Overall Tour Méditerranéen
- 2nd UCI Road World Championships, Men
- 3rd Overall Tirreno–Adriatico
- 1st Stage 3
- 1st World Road Race Champion
- 1st Overall Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré
- 1st Stages 1, 5 & 7b
- 1st Stage 1 Tour Méditerranéen
- 1st Super Prestige Pernod International
- 2nd GP des Nations
- 2nd Giro di Lombardia
- 3rd Overall Tour de France
- 1st Young Rider Classification
- 1st Stage 3 (TTT)
- 3rd Overall Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré
- 1st Stage 7b
- 3rd Liège-Bastogne-Liège
- 2nd Overall Tour de France
- 1st Stages 3 (TTT) & 21
- 1st Combination classification
- 1st Overall Coors Classic
- 1st Stage 5
- 2nd UCI Road World Championships, Men
- 2nd Overall Vuelta Ciclista al País Vasco
- 3rd Overall Giro d'Italia
- 3rd Pernod-Super Prestige
- 4th Paris-Roubaix
- 1st Overall Tour de France
- 1st Stage 13
- 1st Combination classification
- 4th Overall Giro d'Italia
- 1st Stage 5
- 3rd Overall Tour de Suisse
- 2nd Coors Classic
- 3rd Overall Paris–Nice
- 2nd Milano-San Remo
- 3rd Overall Critérium International
- 1st Stage 4 Volta a la Comunitat Valenciana
- 2nd Pernod-Super Prestige
- 1st Overall Tour de France
- 1st Stages 5, 19 & 21
- 1st World Road Race Champion
- 1st Overall Tour de France
- 1st Overall Tour DuPont
- 1st Prologue
Grand Tours overall classification results timeline 
WD = Withdrew
- Quote: Fuoriclasse means much more than being gifted. In cycling, it is someone who has a slow pulse, large lungs, perfectly proportioned limbs, lean muscles, and, above all, the brain and mindset to utilize all those attributes to win the world's toughest races at the youngest possible age.
- Said Stephen Roche:"Greg was getting orders to attack me and not to ride. The main order was not to ride. That was frustrating. I think he felt he was stronger them me, and if he knew he had a better chance of beating me at the finish and in the time trial than why not ride? If we'd ridden at that point I think we'd have finished first and second in that Tour. Of course the team car was playing it down for Hinault. He was further back than they were letting on. They knew if we worked together Hinault wouldn't get back on, and LeMond would have won. They were looking after French interests.
- The term "dutiful lieutenant" is a cycling term for a teammate who sacrifices his own placing in a race to support his team leader.
- In a pre-race story featured in L'Equipe, Hinault stressed it is not Hinault, but the race that will decide the outcome, saying "The strongest rider will win".
- Said LeMond: "His attitude seemed to be 'We'll see after the first time trial. We'll let that decide who is leading the team.' ... which was not the deal we cut."
- Said Hampsten about the first climb of Stage 12: "It was superhot, and early on Hinault was working really hard to drive a group clear, and I thought, That's a little wierd. There was a long way to go. I asked Greg, 'Why's Hinault doing this? Did he talk to you?' And Greg said, 'No.' He had no idea why Hinult was riding so hard; it was like he was on a mission."
- General Classification tracks overall times for bicycle riders in multi-stage bicycle races. Each stage will have a stage winner, but the overall winner of the race is the rider with the lowest time in the GC. That is, the rider who has the fastest time when all the stage results are added together.
- Quote: I know about training. I wrote a book about training. But I got away from what I used to do. I was doing cross-country skiing and easy riding in the winter and I'm starting to go in the opposite way now, working on my power, lifting weights with my legs, working on increasing my oxygen consumption. I'm watching my weight. I need to build my power and strength up as high as I can and then worry about my endurance. Endurance is the easiest aspect to build up. What I'm doing now is the opposite of what I've been doing, always working on my endurance. Except in 1989, when I did a lot of power training in the winter and that year I had great results as early as February. I'm not going to rush. I'm going to build up slowly, that's my goal, to really have a good base so that when I start racing hard in February, March and April, my body doesn't get tired from it and I get better. Which hasn't been the case the last couple of years.
- Mitochondrial myopathy is a rare condition in which the body's cellular energy system breaks down.
- Quote:Interviewer:"Barring your hunting accident, do you feel like your were capable of joining the ranks of riders like Hinualt and Indurain? Do you feel that you could have won five Tours?" LeMond: "Well, look at the facts. I have three Tour victories. I gave away the '85 Tour. I was out because of an accident during the two prime years of my career, '87 and '88, which were two of the easiest years to win the Tour in that period. I mean if you're in the thick of racing, you understand the hierarchy. During those two years, Hinault was out, Fignon was out. Put it this way, in '89 and '90 I only feel like I raced to 90 to 95 percent of my potential. In '86 I was much stronger, climbed much faster, much better time-trialist. When we would do the time-trials, Hinault and I would finish two to three minutes up on most people. And you have to remember that in cycling, every year you make minute improvements. In '86 I wasn't out of the top five stage races from February to September. Of course you can't rewrite racing history, but I'm confident that I would have won five Tours."
- Moore p. 54
- "Greg LeMond". Britannica.com.
- "Climbing Clear Up To The Heights". SportsIllustrated.CNN.com. September 3, 1984.
- "Cycling legend Greg LeMond comes to Meath!". September 7, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2012. "Greg LeMond (former professional cyclist from the United States and a three-time winner of the Tour de France) will be in Trim on October 7th to participate in the HADD Charity cycle."
- E.M. Swift (December 25, 1989). "Le Grand LeMond". Sports Illustrated.
- "SCOUTING; LeMond Shot". New York Times. April 21, 1987. Retrieved November 29, 2012. "Greg LeMond, the only American to win the Tour de France bicycle race, was reported to be in fair condition at a Sacramento, Calif., hospital yesterday after suffering a shotgun wound in a morning hunting accident. He should recover from all injuries and they should not affect his performance as an athlete, said Dr. Sandy Beal, one of three surgeons involved in a two-hour operation on the cyclist at the University of California at Davis Medical Center."
- "LeMond Accidentally Shot While Hunting". Schenectady Gazette. April 21, 1987. p. 27. Retrieved November 29, 2012. "All I [Bob LeMond] know is Greg and his brother-in-law [Patrick Blades] and his uncle [Rodney Barber] were hunting on some property we own in Lincoln and Pat shot what he thought was a turkey through some bush. Greg had walked around in front of it and just took some buckshot in the back."
- MacLeary, John (June 20, 2010). "Tour de France great moments: Greg LeMond beats Laurent Fignon by eight seconds". The Telegraph UK. Retrieved January 4, 2013. "In the most dramatic final day in Tour history, LeMond gave his all and took 58 seconds off the race leader to win his second yellow jersey by the narrowest of margins."
- "Tour de France legends: Greg LeMond". ITV.com. Retrieved January 4, 2013. "He returned to action in 1989, winning the most dramatic Tour in history by a margin of eight seconds from Fignon, thanks to a stunning ride in the final stage's time trial in which he overturned a 50-second deficit to his old foe."
- "Race Winners Since 1903". LeTour.fr.
- Walsh, Matt. "A Meeting of Minds". Cycle Sport.
- "That's Tim as in timber". Denver Westword News. January 12, 1994.
- Epstein, David (January 18, 2013). "Kathy LeMond: Armstrong embarrassed, not truly sorry". SI.com. Retrieved May 16, 2013. "SI: 'It's thought that Greg's brand with Trek would have been worth tens of millions if Armstrong had not pushed to have Trek drop Greg.' [Kathy] LeMond: 'Do you know what a loss that was for us? We lost our income. We lost our company. Greg lost his reputation.'"
- LeMond, Greg; Kent Gordis (1987). Greg LeMond's complete book of bicycling (1st ed.). New York: Putnam Publishing Group. p. 16. ISBN 0-399-13229-5. "Wayne Wong taught me a lot about skiing. One thing he especially recommended as an ideal off-season exercise was cycling. As a result, I started paying attention to my bike for a change."
- Wilcockson, John (September 23, 2005). "Inside Cycling with John Wilcockson:The exceptionally gifted LeMond". VeloNews. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- LeMond p. 20
- LeMond, Greg; Kent Gordis (1987). Greg LeMond's complete book of bicycling (1st ed.). New York: Putnam Publishing Group. p. 20. ISBN 0-399-13229-5.
- LeMond, Greg; Kent Gordis (1987). Greg LeMond's complete book of bicycling (1st ed.). New York: Putnam Publishing Group. p. 22. ISBN 0-399-13229-5.
- "Cycling Legend: Gearing Up – 70's- 80's". GregLeMond.com.
- LeMond p. 24
- "Circuit des Ardennes 1980". Cyclingarchvies.com. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- "Circuit Cycliste Sarthe - Pays de la Loire 1980". CyclingFever.com. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- LeMond p. 25
- LeMond p. 26
- "Lance Armstrong Wins Nevada City Classic". CBS 13. June 21, 2009. Retrieved 16 November 2010.
- "Nevada City Classic 1980". Cyclingarchives.com. Retrieved December 24, 2012.
- LeMond p. 27
- LeMond p.28
- "Cycling Legend: Europe – Pro World Championship". GregLeMond.com.
- McGann p. 146
- Farrand, Stephen (August 31, 2010). "LeMond Remembers Fignon". Cycling News.
- McGann p. 153
- McGann p. 161
- Moore p. 148
- "Cycling Legend: Controversy – Feud 1985". GregLeMond.com.
- Moore p. 149
- Malessa, Bryan (1998). "Once Was King: An interview with Greg LeMond". Roble Systems, Inc. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- "An American Takes Paris: Pushed to the limit by Bernard Hinault, Greg LeMond (in yellow) rode to a historic win in the Tour de France". SportsIllustrated.CNN.com. August 4, 1986.
- "Top 25 All Time Tours #19: 1986 – LeMond Wins After Hinault's Betrayal". CyclingRevealed.com.
- Moore p. 192
- Moore p. 181
- McGann p.165
- "Bike Race Info, 1986 Tour De France".
- Moore pp. 202–203
- Moore p. 201
- Trip Gabriel (October 9, 1986). "Tour De Force". Rolling Stone Magazine. p. 82.
- "Tour de France: LeMond Takes Lead, Yellow Jersey". LATimes.com. July 21, 1986.
- "An American Takes Paris: Pushed to the limit by Bernard Hinault, Greg LeMond (in yellow) rode to a historic win in the Tour de France". SportsIllustrated.CNN.com. August 4, 1986.
- Phil Liggett and Paul Sherwen (2003). "1986 Tour De France". World Cycling Productions (DVD). Unknown parameter
- Gallagher, Brendan (June 22, 2011). "Bernard Hinault and Greg LeMond's classic 1986 Tour de France duel relived in Slaying the Badger". London: Telegraph.co.uk.
- Phil Liggett (1989). "1989 World Championships". World Cycling Productions (DVD). "The most difficult Tour de France for me was 1986, in terms of mental stress and that." Unknown parameter
- LeMond, Greg. "Cycling Legend – 1986 – The Accident". greglemond.com. Retrieved November 30, 2012. "Greg was in America because he'd just broken his wrist in the Italian stage race Tirreno–Adriatico. He was due back in Europe in a week but since there was still a little time left, he decided to go on a turkey hunting trip ..."
- "LeMond shot in back while hunting". Gettysburg Times. April 21, 1987. p. 14. Retrieved November 30, 2012. "They were hunting in rural Lincoln, about 20 miles northeast of Sacramento ..."
- "LeMond Accidentally Shot While Hunting". Schenectady Gazette. April 21, 1987. p. 27. Retrieved November 30, 2012. "Johnese Spisso, the hospital's trauma center coordinator, said the hunters were wearing camouflage.."
- "Cycling Legend: 1986 – The Accident". GregLeMond.com.
- United Press International (April 21, 1987). "Cyclist LeMond Stable After Hunting Accident". SunSentinel.
- Abt p.113
- Swift, E.M. (December 25, 1989). "Le Grand LeMond". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved November 30, 2012.
- Robin Williams interview, 2000 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BgRpP_Sitk0
- Robb, Sharon (October 28, 1987). "Lemond Slowly Working Way Back". The Sun Sentinel. Retrieved December 18, 2012. "LeMond announced Tuesday he will return to serious competition in 1988 at the $150,000 Pepsi Tour of the Americas ... Feb. 20-28 race ... Ten professional teams from the United States and Europe, including LeMond's Dutch-based PDM team, are competing."
- LeMond, Greg. "Cycling Legend – 1986 – The Accident". greglemond.com. Retrieved November 30, 2012. "This is an X-ray of my upper torso. I still have thirty-five pellets in my body. Three in my heart, five in my liver and the rest spread throughout my body. I wish that I had no ramifications from the lead pellets but unfortunately I suffer from acute lead poisoning. If anyone out there has a way to remove them let me know."
- Boyce, Barry (June 18, 1989). "Coors Light Fired the Silver Bullet". CyclingRevealed.com. Retrieved January 3, 2013. "Team Coors Light combined with small European pro-team ADR to bring American super star Greg LeMond to compete for the Stars and Stripes jersey. The powerful 7-Eleven team would battle all day with the "Silver Bullets" of Coors Light/ADR."
- Abt, Samuel (August 30, 1989). "LeMond Outdistancing Pack On the Financial Front, Too". The New York Times. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
- "1989 Giro d'Italia". Bike Race Info. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- Franz Lidz (July 31, 1989). "Vive Lemond!". Sports Illustrated.
- "Cycling Hall of Fame: Greg Lemond".
- "Bike Race Info, 1989 Tour De France".
- McGann p. 187
- McGann p. 189
- "30 Greatest Moments of the Tour de France". Bicycling.com.
- "Le Tour en Chiffres (Statistics)". LeTour.fr.
- "The closest Tours in history". CyclingWeekly.co.uk.
- "Le Tour en chiffres Les autres records" (in French). LeTour.fr.
- "The film of the stage: From One American To Another". LeTour.fr.
- "1989 Chambery, France, LeMond wins gold again". Greg LeMond – His World Championships. UCI Road World Championships Limburg 2012 – Colofon. August 7, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2012. "LeMond arrived fresh from his third Tour win, this time by a mere 8 seconds over Laurent Fignon. And once again Fignon proved to be an important adversary. Three men lead during the rainy final when Le Professeur rode away from the chasing group that also contained LeMond. "We were not far behind the leading group. On the final climb Fignon attacked and at first I let him go. It was still too far to the top,"LeMond recalls."
- "World Professional (Elite) Road Cycling Championship". bikeraceinfo.com. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
- "Championnats du Monde". les-sports.info. August 27, 1989. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
- Phil Liggett (1989). "1989 World Championships". World Cycling Productions (DVD). Unknown parameter
- "LeMond Is Honored as Sportsman of Year". Los Angeles Times. December 24, 1989. Retrieved December 12, 2012. "He won his second Tour de France and world cycling championships. And what he calls "my dream year" was capped when he was named Sports Illustrated's Sportsman of the Year. LeMond, 28, the only American to win the prestigious race around France, is the first cyclist to receive the magazine's honor in its 36-year history."
- "Whatever Happened to Greg LeMond?". Bicycling.com.
- Roi, Fmk (June 20, 2011). "LeMond – The Incredible Comeback, by Samuel Abt". Podium Cafe. Retrieved December 11, 2012. "Le Roi Soleil, Greg LeMond, becomes le champion du monde. Again. Six years since he last won the arc en ciel. Three years since he first won the Tour de France. Twenty-eighty months since he almost died in a hunting accident. One month since he won his second Tour de France. The comeback kid was back in town."
- "LeMond Is Honored as Sportsman of Year". Los Angeles Times. December 24, 1989. Retrieved December 12, 2012. "He parlayed his success into the richest contract in his sport's history, a three-year, $5.5 million deal with France's "Z" cycling team."
- "1990 Tour Quick Facts". 1990 Tour de France June 30 to July 22 Results, stages with running GC, map, photos and history. Bike Race Info. Retrieved December 11, 2012. "Greg LeMond won his third Tour in 1990. It was his first time to race the Tour with a powerful team unified behind him."
- Abt, Samuel (July 15, 1990). "LeMond Breaks Free to Close Gap". New York Times.
- McGann p. 196
- "Bike Race Info, 1990 Tour De France".
- Raia, James (September 4, 1990). "CYCLING; LeMond finishes fourth in World". USA Today (McLean, VA). p. 02.C. Retrieved December 18, 2012. "Rudy Dhaenens of Belgium edged cramping countryman and PDM teammate Dirk De Wolf to the win in 6 hours, 51 minutes and 59 seconds. [Greg LeMond] finished just behind Tour of Italy winner Gianni Bugno of Italy, eight seconds behind Dhaenens."
- "Bike Race Information".
- "1992 Tour de France – Results, stage details, photos and history". 1992 Tour de France. Bike Race Info. Retrieved December 14, 2012. "Greg LeMond, tortured with saddle sores, could take no more and abandoned."
- LeMond, Greg (July 2, 2010). "The art of peaking for the Tour de France". Greg LeMond Blog. Cyclingnews.com. Retrieved December 14, 2012. "Imagine suffering from the worst jet lag the day before the Tour began. That's basically how I felt. I started the 1992 Tour de France more tired than I felt at any the end of any of the other Tours that I completed. I am not sure what was worse, the loss of a night's sleep or the worry over the lost sleep. Not the way to begin a Tour."
- Brunner, Steven (July 18, 1992). "CYCLING TOUR DE FRANCE: LeMond Doesn't Have the Zip". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 14, 2012.
- Abt, Sam (November 19, 1993). "LeMond Begins Uphill Grind Toward '94". New York Times. Retrieved December 14, 2012. "A suffering LeMond withdrew from the Giro d'Italia and went home to Minnesota to mend. Then, in July, he fell while riding across a railroad track and broke the scaphoid bone in his right wrist, ending his season."
- Friebe, Daniel (January 7, 2008). "Procycling talks to Greg LeMond". ProCycling. Retrieved December 15, 2012. "I look at the number of watts I'm producing more than anything else. I'm really into quality over quantity. Adrie Van Diemen was my guide on that."
- Abt, Sam (November 19, 1993). "LeMond Begins Uphill Grind Toward '94". New York Times. Retrieved December 14, 2012. "I might have the same enthusiasm for racing that I had all those years ago, but not the same enthusiasm for training. And just a 10 percent difference in training could make a total difference in the way you race. I'm trying to change that this winter."
- Jesper Bondo Medhus. "5 Basic Principles for Cycling Performance Tests". training4cyclists.com.
- "Greg LeMond Ending Career," Samuel Abt, International Herald Tribune, December 3, 1994
- Procycling, January 2008, appeared December 2007
- Ian O'Riordon (June 6, 2009). "Even Relentless Fighter Now Sees Cycling as a Lost Cause". The Irish Times.
- LeMond, Greg (July 2, 2010). "The art of peaking for the Tour de France". Greg LeMond Blog. Cyclingnews.com. Retrieved December 14, 2012. "From all outside appearances, one might believe there was some reason for concern. The reality was that my ability and desire had not changed."
- Gifford, Bill (June 30, 2008). "Greg LeMond vs. The World". Men's Journal. Retrieved December 15, 2012. "At the time, he blamed himself ... LeMond trained harder than he ever had in his life and changed his diet, but nothing worked ... Finally he went to see a Belgian doctor named Yvan Van Mol. "'There's nothing wrong with you, Greg,'" LeMond says the doctor told him. "'If you're going to compete today, you've got to go see Ferrari.'" ... But LeMond refused: Greg LeMond didn't need anything the Italian doctor could provide. He had the highest VO2 max, and he could still beat everyone. Except he couldn't. In 1994 he struggled to keep up on the flat stages ..."
- Abt, Sam (July 19, 1999). "LeMond Glances Backward From the Top of Alpe d'Huez". New York Times. Retrieved December 19, 2012. "LeMond always did like to have a good time, to enjoy the food and wine along the way to winning the Tour de France three times, in 1986, '89 and '90. He might have won a few more but — in a similarity to Lance Armstrong's diagnosis of cancer in 1996 — lost more than a season after he was shot and nearly killed in a hunting accident in 1987."
- Wittman, Bob; MARK WOGENRICH (June 9, 1996). "Lemond Inducted Into Hall Of Fame". The Morning Call. Retrieved December 18, 2012. "LeMond and five others were inducted into the Hall of Fame yesterday in a ceremony at Rodale Park that used the U.S. Olympic Team Trials taking place at the Lehigh Valley Velodrome across the street as a backdrop."
- Stapleton, Arnie (June 8, 1996). "LeMond Inducted Into Cycling Hall of Fame". Associated Press. Retrieved December 18, 2012. "Greg LeMond didn't really want to be at the U.S. Bicycling Hall of Fame induction ceremony on Saturday. LeMond, the only American ever to win the Tour de France, confided after the celebration that he regrets retiring two years ago, especially with the Olympics open to professional riders for the first time this year."
- "CYCLING CONTRIBUTIONS". Greg LeMond.com. Retrieved December 10, 2012. "Greg LeMond broke a lot of ground in his cycling career. The first American to win the Tour, the first successful professional to use clipless pedals, cycling eyewear and aero bars—all common occurrences now. Greg changed the world of cycling—dramatically ... Aero Handlebars: '89 Carbon Forks: '87 Road Racing Suspension Fork: '91 Carbon Frames: '86 ..."
- Snedeker, Tucker. "Carbon Road Bikes". Carbon Bicycle Picture Gallery. Mountainbikes.net. Retrieved December 18, 2012. "The first ever tour win on a Carbon Fiber bicycle was Greg Lemond in 1986.. He was ironically riding a "Bernard Hinault" Signature Model Look prototype frame. After joining Team Z, he rode a CarbonFrames bike in yellow during the 1991 tour for a short period. He also ordered Calfee's "CarbonFrames" for his entire team (branded as Lemond's) - 18 bikes in total."
- "1991: LeMond Alpe d'Huez". calfeedesign.com. Retrieved December 10, 2012. "[In 1991,] Carbonframes filled a big purchase order from international cycling champion Greg LeMond who wanted 18 frames for Team Z. Carbonframes relocated to Reno after entering an exclusive licensing agreement with LeMond Bicycles."
- Interview in Rouleur, Guy Andrews, issue five, p. 26
- "1991: LeMond Alpe d'Huez". calfeedesign.com. Retrieved December 10, 2012. "LeMond rode in the leader's yellow jersey on his Carbonframe. Craig got his 15 minutes of fame with coverage on CNN, the Associated Press news network and National Public Radio. The companies parted amiably two years later ..."
- Frothingham, Steve. "Trek announces an end to deal with Greg LeMond". VeloNews.com. Retrieved December 10, 2012. "Burke said Trek rescued LeMond's bicycle company from near bankruptcy when it licensed the LeMond Bicycles name in 1995."
- Vinton, Nathaniel (September 7, 2009). "Greg LeMond's lawsuit against Trek is about more than broken promises – it's about Lance, too". New York Daily News. Retrieved December 10, 2012. "Seven years later, Burke was forced to give up on peacemaking; a month after LeMond's lawsuit landed on Trek's doorstep, the company countersued LeMond on April 14, 2008. It was the official end of a lucrative deal – the partnership reportedly earned Trek more than $100 million since it began in 1995 ($5 million of that, reportedly, going to LeMond himself)."
- "Armstrong: LeMond comments 'disappointing'". VeloNews.com. August 3, 2001. Retrieved December 10, 2012. "But when I heard he was working with Michele Ferrari, I was devastated. One American journalist wrote that the only reason you visit Ferrari is to tell him to get the hell out of your sport. I agree with that. In the light of Lance's relationship with Ferrari, I just don't want to comment on this year's Tour, he continued. "In a general sense, if Lance is clean, it is the greatest comeback in the history of sport. If he isn't, it would be the greatest fraud." LeMond also cast doubt on the honesty of Armstrong's achievement; despite the fact his fellow American has never failed a doping test. "I would have all the praise in the world for Lance if I thought he was clean," LeMond said. "But until Dr. Ferrari's trial, we can't know for sure."
- Kahn, Robert (April 10, 2008). "LeMond Sues Trek, Citing Feud With Lance". Courthouse News Service. Retrieved December 10, 2012. "LeMond cites a July 29, 2001 interview he gave the Sunday Times of London, which quoted him as saying: "When Lance won the prologue to the 1999 Tour, I was in tears. When I heard he was working with Michele Ferrari, I was devastated. If Lance is clean, it is the greatest comeback in the history of sports. If he isn't it would be the greatest fraud.""
- Frothingham, Steve. "Trek announces an end to deal with Greg LeMond". VeloNews.com. Retrieved December 10, 2012. "Armstrong rode Trek bicycles to seven Tour de France victories and remains a key Trek spokesman. In his complaint, LeMond argues that he had consistently made public statements about his anti-doping stance, well before Trek extended his contract in 1999. The company, LeMond said, had no problem with that position until he began to speak out about allegations surrounding Armstrong's relationship with the infamous Italian sports physician Michele Ferrari."
- Kimmage, Paul (July 1, 2007). "Cycle of abuse". The Sunday Times.
- Vinton, Nathaniel (September 7, 2009). "Greg LeMond's lawsuit against Trek is about more than broken promises – it's about Lance, too". New York Daily News. Retrieved December 10, 2012. "For Trek, the case demonstrates the conflicts of marketing in a notoriously dirty sport. While the company forbids doping among teams it sponsors, it also told LeMond that as a contractual partner, he could criticize doping only generally – not point his finger at specific athletes, particularly one that happens to be the company's main cash cow."
- Vinton, Nathaniel (September 7, 2009). "Greg LeMond's lawsuit against Trek is about more than broken promises – it's about Lance, too". New York Daily News. Retrieved December 10, 2012. "What on its surface is a contract dispute about sales figures and "best efforts" is also a showdown between LeMond and Armstrong. LeMond's complaint is full of allegations about Armstrong and doping and although Armstrong has insisted he's not involved – "Greg LeMond is never on my to-do list," he told Men's Journal – he has allegedly used his leverage with Trek to try to rein in LeMond's public statements. Furthermore, Trek's legal team has been assisted by Public Strategies Inc, a consulting firm that caters to conservative politicians and is home to consultant Mark McKinnon, who is close to Armstrong."
- Vinton, Nathaniel (September 7, 2009). "Greg LeMond's lawsuit against Trek is about more than broken promises – it's about Lance, too". New York Daily News. Retrieved December 10, 2012. "The case has forced Trek to defend itself by citing specific ways in which it fulfilled its "best efforts" obligations to support LeMond's line of bikes over the years. In their arguments, Weber and Trek have cited awards won, sales conventions held and so forth. But LeMond's complaint lays out some stark numbers meant to demonstrate the company soft-pedaled its sales agreement. For example, between September of 2001 and June of 2007, Trek only sold $10,393 worth of LeMond bikes in France. "On the best efforts, I think LeMond is totally in the right here," said a person familiar with the case. "That's at most a dozen bikes in France in over five years. The guy speaks French. His name is French. He's a rock star over there.""
- Trek announces an end to deal with Greg LeMond, Steve Frothingham, Velo News, Published Apr. 8, 2008, Updated Apr. 9, 2008, retr 2012 10 13
- "Trek and LeMond settle lawsuit". VeloNation.com. February 1, 2010. Retrieved December 10, 2012. "The Trek Bicycle Corporation and three-time Tour de France winner Greg LeMond have reached an out-of-court settlement in their breach-of-contract dispute. The court battle lasted nearly two years, with allegations about Lance Armstrong and doping often taking center stage. The case was just one month away from going before a jury in a federal court in Minnesota when the two sides came to an agreement. The terms of the settlement are confidential, but a joint statement released indicates that the bicycle manufacturer has agreed to make charitable contributions to 1in6.org, an organization with which LeMond is affiliated."
- "Trek and LeMond settle lawsuit". VeloNation.com. February 1, 2010. Retrieved December 10, 2012. "neither side can produce the same claims against one another in a future lawsuit.."
- "Trek follows suit with other big names, drops sponsorship of Lance Armstrong". VeloNation Press. October 17, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
- "Tour de France legend Greg LeMond, Trek Bicycle reach settlement," Nathaniel Vinton, New York Daily News, February 1, 2010
- "LeMond Fitness Names Mark Handfelt as President, CEO & Director". PRWEB. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
- "Company Overview of LeMond Fitness, Inc.". Bloomberg Business Week. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
- "LeMond Fitness, Inc.". LeMond Fitness. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
- Trujillo, Anna (21). "Hoist Fitness to Purchase LeMond Fitness". Ironcompany.com. Retrieved November 27, 2012. "It was no secret in the industry that LeMond Fitness was up for sale, and on Tuesday at the Health & Fitness Business Expo in Las Vegas, Hoist CEO Jeffrey Partrick confirmed to SNEWS that his company is the buyer."
- "LeMond claims he was swindled on Montana's millionaire mountain," Bloomberg News, October 27, 2006
- "Greg LeMond's lawsuit with exclusive club settled," "USA Today," August 15, 2008
- "LeMond continues long legal fight with Yellowstone Club," New West, November 21, 2008
- "NAMES IN THE NEWS : Greg LeMond Opens Restaurant". Los Angeles Times. August 8, 1990. Retrieved December 19, 2012. "A restaurant owned by champion cyclist Greg LeMond and some relatives opened Tuesday in this Minneapolis suburb. LeMond, a three-time winner of the Tour de France, is a partner in Scott Kee's Tour de France restaurant being run by Kee and his wife, Lisa."
- Schogol, Marc (August 15, 1990). "Pedaling Food". Food Watch. Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved December 19, 2012. "LeMond, three-time winner of the Tour de France, and some relatives have opened Scott Kee's Tour de France restaurant in Edina, Minn. Wonder if they make take-out deliveries by bicycle?"
- Castro, Peter (August 20, 1990). "A New Cycle". Chatter. People Magazine. Retrieved December 19, 2012. "Three-time Tour de France champion GREG LEMOND has made the opening of his new restaurant a family af-fare. LeMond has enlisted the help of and become business partners with his wife, KATHY, and her family, including her father, sister and Kathy's sister's husband, who is chef SCOTT KEE."
- Wittman, Bob; MARK WOGENRICH (June 9, 1996). "Lemond Inducted Into Hall Of Fame". The Morning Call. Retrieved December 18, 2012. "He has other corporate contracts, including a franchising deal with Bruegger's Bagel Bakery. Plus, there's the never-ending series of speeches and appearances."
- Stapleton, Arnie (June 8, 1996). "LeMond Inducted Into Cycling Hall of Fame". Associated Press. Retrieved December 18, 2012. "LeMond, who operates his signature line of bicycles and is a partner in a chain of bagel stores, said he still cycles a little bit to stay fit."
- Harvey, Randy (July 25, 1989). "Drug Use Said to Concern LeMond : Attorney Claims Dutch Team Wanted Cyclist to Try Testosterone". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 17, 2012. "LeMond was particularly bothered by the team's insistence that he use testosterone, a naturally produced male hormone that some cyclists believe will replenish their strength when injected into their systems. Cyclists are penalized if an excessive amount of testosterone is discovered in their urine samples during drug tests."
- Slater, Matt (November 29, 2012). "Greg LeMond joins Change Cycling Now to clean up the sport". BBC. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
- Fotheringham, William (July 29, 2001). "Drugs issue refuses to go away due to winner's Ferrari links". The Guardian. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
- "Two champions – Armstrong surprised, upset by LeMond's comments". Sports Illustrated. August 2, 2001. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
- "USADA issues lifetime bans to del Moral, Ferrari and Marti". Cycling Weekly.
- Greg LeMond - 'Cycling is dying through Drugs' at Play the Game Conference, 27:00 and 44:00 Play the Game Conference, Coventry University, 2009 Jun 12, retr 2012 10 14
- Seaton, Matt. "Is Greg LeMond the right choice to challenge for the UCI presidency?". The Guardian. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
- Gifford, Bill (July 2008). "Greg LeMond vs. The World". Men’s Journal LLC. Retrieved May 5, 2013. "LeMond was among the first to suggest that media darling Armstrong might have used performance-enhancing drugs..."
- Dunbar, Graham (December 14, 2012). "UCI President Pat McQuaid says Greg LeMond not fit to run cycling's governing body". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved January 11, 2013. "The UCI leader suggested that LeMond made a mistake by letting cycling activists promote his bid to replace McQuaid after he joined their meeting in London this month. "The last 25 years, where has he been? Nowhere. Not involved in cycling. He is outside cycling, shouting at it looking in," McQuaid said."
- "Greg LeMond". tracking the entire world – database. NNDB. Retrieved November 27, 2012.
- "Greg LeMond – Board Member". 1in6.org. Retrieved November 27, 2012. "Greg contributes his celebrity to the efforts of 1in6 to educate the community and raise societal awareness of the issue by appearing in promotional materials and public service announcements."
- "Cycling legend LeMond to lead charity 40k from Trim". The Meath Chronicle. 21. Retrieved November 27, 2012. "LeMond has ADHD and, as a result of this, remains a huge supporter of the charity internationally."
- Cannon, John (3). "Cycling legend Greg LeMond to ride in Catoctin Challenge – 'It's like Jack Nicklaus showing up at your golf tournament.'". Frederick News Post. Retrieved November 27, 2012. "LeMond is a board member of 1in6, according to the 1in6.org website. In a message on that website, LeMond writes, "I know first-hand how the pain and shame of having been abused as a child can affect one's life."
- LeMond, Greg. "My Patagonia Argentina Trip ( Post 1 of 2 )". GregLeMond.com. Retrieved November 28, 2012. "I have been fly-fishing since the age of 11 and fished until I got into cycling."
- Woolridge, Jim (10). "LeMond makes world-record catch in fly fishing". The Times-News, Hendersonville, NC (Hendersonville, NC). pp. 8B. Retrieved November 28, 2012. "Greg Lemond, three-time winner of the Tour de France, recently made a world-record catch in fly fishing."
- Kantowski, Ron (31). "Crashing on the Learning Curve Greg Lemond Trades Two Wheels for Four and Turns into a Real Crack-Up". St Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved November 27, 2012. "Car racing is still a hobby right now but I want to be serious about it," said LeMond, which explained his presence at Las Vegas Motor Speedway. LeMond did two days of testing here under the watchful eye of former 12 Hours of Sebring champion Bob Earl at the Derek Daly Speedcentre. "I want to learn properly. I'm still green."
- Sumner, Jason (May 17, 2007). "LeMond drops bombshell at Landis hearing". VeloNews.com. Retrieved December 11, 2012. "The drama continued when LeMond, under direct questioning from Barnett, said he received a phone call Wednesday night from a mysterious caller, who identified himself only as "Uncle Ron." LeMond said he was perplexed at first, but that changed to concern when the caller made direct references to the conversation about sexual abuse that he had with Landis last August."He said 'Hi Greg, this is your uncle. This is your uncle Ron and I'm going to be there tomorrow,'" LeMond recalled. "I said, 'Who is this?' He said, 'I'm going to be there and we can talk about how we used to hide your weenie.' I got the picture right away that there are very few people who know about that. I figured this was intimidation." The three-time Tour champ said the caller then hung up, and when LeMond redialed he got a voicemail message identifying the call recipient as "Will." LeMond said he tried calling back three more times, finally getting an answer from someone who identified himself only as "Bill." The conversation was inconclusive, so LeMond hung up and then called the police. A subsequent check of the number saved on LeMond's mobile phone showed that it belonged to Landis's business manager Will Geoghegan."
- Sumner, Jason (May 17, 2007). "LeMond drops bombshell at Landis hearing". VeloNews.com. Retrieved December 11, 2012. "LeMond also testified that he received what he characterized as a threatening phone call from a member of the Landis team on the eve of his testimony on the Pepperdine University campus in Malibu, California ... LeMond went on to reveal that he told Landis that keeping dark secrets can ruin one's life, then relayed his own story of being sexually abused as a child, a story LeMond said he had shared with only a few people and never talked about publicly until Thursday."
- Kimmage, Paul (July 1, 2007). "Cycle of abuse". The Sunday Times. Retrieved December 11, 2012. "I feel very fortunate in many ways," LeMond replies, "but if you knew my whole story, it has been a heartache too ..." He pauses and his eyes suddenly well with tears. His wife Kathy, who has been sitting at his side for the duration of the interview, places a comforting hand on his arm. He tries to compose himself and resumes, his voice breaking. "It appears extraordinary, you know ... It appeared that everything was always perfect in my life, but it's been far from perfect. I am fortunate where I am today and I am fortunate that I have been able to look at myself in the mirror and address the stuff that I was never able to address ... But I can tell you, compared to what I've been through in the past three or four years, the Tour de France is easy."
- Abt, Samuel "LeMond: The Incredible Comeback" (1990) Random House, New York, NY, ISBN 0-394-58476-7
- Fignon, Laurent, translation by William Fotheringham (2010) "We Were Young and Carefree" Yellow Jersey Press, London, UK, ISBN 978-0-224-08319-5
- LeMond, Greg and Gordis, Kent "Greg LeMond's Complete Book of Bicycling" (1987) Putnam Publishing Group, New York, NY ISBN 0-399-13229-5
- McGann, Bill and McGann, Carol "The Story of the Tour de France, Vol 2" (2008) Dog Ear Publishing, Indianapolis, IN ISBN 1-59858-608-4
- Moore, Richard (2012) "Slaying the Badger: Greg LeMond, Bernard Hinault and the Greatest Tour de France" Vintage Publishing, London, UK ISBN 978-1-4090-2887-1
- Nye, Peter, Hearts of Lions: The History of American Bicycle Racing. Norton, 1988. ISBN 0-393-30576-7
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