|Sir Gregory Winter|
|Born||Gregory Paul Winter
14 April 1951 
|Alma mater||Trinity College, Cambridge|
|Thesis||The amino acid sequence of tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (1977)|
|Known for||Cambridge Antibody Technology|
Sir Gregory Paul "Greg" Winter, CBE, FRS, FMedSci (born 14 April 1951) is a British biochemist, a pioneer of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. He invented techniques to both humanise (1986) and, later, to fully humanise using phage display, antibodies for therapeutic uses. Previously, antibodies had been derived from mice, which made them difficult to use in human therapeutics because the human immune system had anti-mouse reactions to them.
He is a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge and was installed as the Master of Trinity on 2 October 2012. He was previously Deputy Director of the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Medical Research Council, and Head of the Division of Protein and Nucleic Acids Chemistry.
Winter was educated at the Royal Grammar School, Newcastle. He went on to study Natural Sciences at the University of Cambridge graduating from Trinity College, Cambridge in 1973. He was awarded a PhD for research on the amino acid sequence of tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase from Bacillus stearothermophilus in 1977.
In 1989, Winter was a founder of Cambridge Antibody Technology, one of the early commercial biotech companies involved in antibody engineering. One of the most successful antibody drugs developed was HUMIRA (adalimumab), which was discovered by Cambridge Antibody Technology as D2E7, and developed and marketed by Abbott Laboratories. HUMIRA, an antibody to TNF alpha, was the world's first fully human antibody, which achieved annual sales exceeding $1bn therefore achieving blockbuster status - see Pharmaceutical drug#Other/related topics. Cambridge Antibody Technology was acquired by Astrazeneca in 2006 for £702m.
In 2000, Winter founded a company called Domantis to pioneer the use of domain antibodies, which use only the active portion of a full-sized antibody. Domantis was acquired by the pharmaceutical giant GlaxoSmithKline in December 2006 for £230M.
Winter subsequently founded another company, Bicycle Therapeutics Limited as a start up company which is trying to develop very small protein mimics based on a covalently bonded hydrophobic core.
Awards and honours
Winter was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1990 and awarded the Royal Medal by the society in 2011 "for his pioneering work in protein engineering and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, and his contributions as an inventor and entrepreneur". He was given the Scheele Award in 1994. In 1995, Winter won several international awards including the King Faisal International Prize for Medicine (Molecular Immunology) and in 1999, the Cancer Research Institute William B. Coley Award. Winter was formerly the Joint Head of the Division of Protein and Nucleic Acid Chemistry-Biotechnology, and is Deputy Director, at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, an institution funded by the UK Medical Research Council. He was also Deputy Director of the MRC’s Centre for Protein Engineering until its absorption into the Laboratory of Molecular Biology. He is a member of the Advisory Council for the Campaign for Science and Engineering. Winter was appointed CBE in 1997 and Knight Bachelor in 2004. He is currently Master of Trinity.
- "WINTER, Sir Gregory (Paul)". Who's Who 2014, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 2014; online edn, Oxford University Press.(subscription required)
- McCafferty, J.; Griffiths, A.; Winter, G.; Chiswell, D. (1990). "Phage antibodies: filamentous phage displaying antibody variable domains". Nature 348 (6301): 552–554. Bibcode:1990Natur.348..552M. doi:10.1038/348552a0. PMID 2247164.
- Anon (2011). "The inventor of humanized monoclonal antibodies and cofounder of Cambridge Antibody Technology, Greg Winter, muses on the future of antibody therapeutics and UK life science innovation". Nature Biotechnology 29 (3): 190. doi:10.1038/nbt.1815. PMID 21390009.
- Winter, G.; Fields, S.; Brownlee, G. G. (1981). "Nucleotide sequence of the haemagglutinin gene of a human influenza virus H1 subtype". Nature 292 (5818): 72. doi:10.1038/292072a0. PMID 7278968.
- Fields, S.; Winter, G.; Brownlee, G. G. (1981). "Structure of the neuraminidase gene in human influenza virus A/PR/8/34". Nature 290 (5803): 213. doi:10.1038/290213a0. PMID 7010182.
- Riechmann, L.; Clark, M.; Waldmann, H.; Winter, G. (1988). "Reshaping human antibodies for therapy". Nature 332 (6162): 323. doi:10.1038/332323a0. PMID 3127726.
- Marks, J. D.; Hoogenboom, H. R.; Bonnert, T. P.; McCafferty, J.; Griffiths, A. D.; Winter, G. (1991). "By-passing immunization". Journal of Molecular Biology 222 (3): 581. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(91)90498-U. PMID 1748994.
- The Scientific Founders of Bicycle Therapeutics Ltd. – Christian Heinis and Sir Greg Winter, FRS.
- Greg Winter from the Scopus bibliographic database
- Winter, G; Griffiths, A. D.; Hawkins, R. E.; Hoogenboom, H. R. (1994). "Making antibodies by phage display technology". Annual Review of Immunology 12: 433–55. doi:10.1146/annurev.iy.12.040194.002245. PMID 8011287.
- Griffiths, A. D.; Williams, S. C.; Hartley, O; Tomlinson, I. M.; Waterhouse, P; Crosby, W. L.; Kontermann, R. E.; Jones, P. T.; Low, N. M.; Allison, T. J. (1994). "Isolation of high affinity human antibodies directly from large synthetic repertoires". The EMBO journal 13 (14): 3245–60. PMC 395221. PMID 8045255.
- Hoogenboom, H. R.; Griffiths, A. D.; Johnson, K. S.; Chiswell, D. J.; Hudson, P; Winter, G (1991). "Multi-subunit proteins on the surface of filamentous phage: Methodologies for displaying antibody (Fab) heavy and light chains". Nucleic acids research 19 (15): 4133–7. PMC 328552. PMID 1908075.
- http://www.takedasf.com/corporate/winter.htm[dead link]
- http://www.f-star.com/scientific_advisors/3/sir-gregory-winter-chairman[dead link]
- "Scientific Advisory Board". Heptares. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
- Gregory Winter CBE, FRS, FMedSci, HonFRCP (2001-05-08). "Gregory Winter: Executive Profile & Biography - Businessweek". Investing.businessweek.com. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
- "www.bicycletherapeutics.com". www.bicycletherapeutics.com. 2012-12-10. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
- "Covagen AG | September 2011: Sir Gregory Winter joins Covagen's Scientific Advisory Board". Covagen.com. 2011-09-20. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
- "Covagen AG | Scientific Advisory Board". Covagen.com. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
- Lawrence, S. (2007). "Billion dollar babies—biotech drugs as blockbusters". Nature Biotechnology 25 (4): 380–2. doi:10.1038/nbt0407-380. PMID 17420735.
- http://www.astrazeneca.com/media/latest-press-releases/2006/5266?itemId=3891617[dead link]
- GSK is to buy Domantis - a company based on discoveries by MRC scientists MRC Website
- "Royal Society announces 2011 Copley Medal recipient". Royal Society. Retrieved 2012-02-23.
- LMB Structure[dead link]
- "Advisory Council of the Campaign for Science and Engineering". Retrieved 2011-02-11.
- "Sir Gregory Winter CBE FRS appointed Master of Trinity College, Cambridge University". Number10.gov.uk. 2011-12-16. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
- "Master of Trinity College, Cambridge - News &' events - University of Cambridge". News.admin.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-05.
|Master of Trinity College, University of Cambridge