Gregory Benford

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Gregory Benford
GB UTOPIALES 2008.jpg
Born (1941-01-30) January 30, 1941 (age 73)
Mobile, Alabama
Occupation Writer
Nationality United States
Genre Science Fiction
Notable works Galactic Center Saga novels

www.gregorybenford.com

Gregory Benford (born January 30, 1941) is an American science fiction author and astrophysicist who is on the faculty of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of California, Irvine. He is also a contributing editor of Reason magazine.[1]

As a science fiction author, Benford is perhaps best known for the Galactic Center Saga novels, beginning with In the Ocean of Night (1977).[2] This series postulates a galaxy in which sentient organic life is in constant warfare with sentient electromechanical life.

Biography[edit]

Benford was born in Mobile, Alabama. He received a Bachelor of Science in physics in 1963 from University of Oklahoma in Norman, Oklahoma, followed by a Master of Science from the University of California, San Diego in 1965, and a doctorate there in 1967. That same year he married Joan Abbe. Benford modeled characters in several of his novels after her, most prominently the heroine of Artifact. She died in 2002.[3]

Benford has an identical twin brother, Jim Benford, with whom he has collaborated on science fiction stories.[citation needed] Both got their start in science fiction fandom, with Gregory co-editor of the science fiction fanzine Void. Benford has said he is an atheist,[4] though his views are not settled.[5][not in citation given]

Writing career[edit]

Gregory Benford's first professional sale was the story "Stand-In" in Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction (June 1965). In 1969, he began writing a regular science column for Amazing Stories.

Benford tends to write hard science fiction which incorporates the research he is doing as a practical scientist. He has worked on several collaborations with authors including William Rotsler, David Brin and Gordon Eklund. His time-travel novel Timescape (1980) won both the Nebula Award and the John W. Campbell Memorial Award. A scientific procedural, the novel eventually loaned its title to a line of science fiction published by Pocket Books. In the late 1990s, he wrote Foundation's Fear, one of an authorized sequel trilogy to Isaac Asimov's Foundation series. Other novels published in that period include several near-future science thrillers: Cosm (1998), The Martian Race (1999) and Eater (2000).

Benford has also served as an editor of numerous alternate history anthologies as well as collections of Hugo Award winners.

He has been nominated for four Hugo Awards (for two short stories and two novellas) and 12 Nebula Awards (in all categories). In addition to Timescape, he won the Nebula for the novelette "If the Stars Are Gods" (with Eklund). In 1995 he was honored with the Lord Prize, and in 2005 the MIT SF Society awarded him the Asimov Prize.

Benford was a guest of honour at Aussiecon Three, the 1999 Worldcon. He remains a regular contributor to science fiction fanzines, such as Apparatchik.

Contributions to science and speculative science[edit]

Gregory Benford is a Professor Emeritus at the University of California, Irvine, where he was a Professor of Physics.

He is a Woodrow Wilson Fellow, a Fellow of the American Physical Society and was Visiting Fellow at Cambridge University and the Universities of Turin and Bologna. In 1995 he received the Lord Prize for contributions to science. With more than 200 scientific publications, his research encompasses both theory and experiments in the fields of astrophysics and plasma physics. His research has been supported by NSF, NASA, AFOSR, DOE and other agencies. He is an ongoing advisor to NASA, DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) and the CIA.

Benford created the first computer virus in the late 1960s. He propagated a simple virus on ARPANet and discussed possible problems with future, malign viruses with the computer group at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, where he was a post-doc for Edward Teller and later a staff member. He then wrote an early short story about the idea, terming it a "virus" and foreseeing how some could profit from them. [6]

Benford's work in physics at the University of California, Irvine has focused on theoretical and experimental plasma physics, including studies of extremely strong turbulence, particularly in astrophysical contexts, and studies of magnetic structures from the galactic center to large scale galactic jets. Working in collaboration with, among others, science fiction writers Cramer, Forward, and Landis, Benford worked on a theoretical study of the physics of wormholes, which pointed out that wormholes, if formed in the early universe, could still exist in the present day if they were wrapped in a negative-mass cosmic string.[7] Such wormholes could potentially be detected by gravitational lensing.

In 2004, Benford proposed that the harmful effects of global warming could be reduced by the construction of a rotating Fresnel lens 1,000 kilometres across, floating in space at the Lagrangian point L1. According to Benford, this lens would diffuse the light from the Sun and reduce the solar energy reaching the Earth by approximately 0.5% to 1%. He estimated that this would cost around US$10 billion. His plan has been commented on in a variety of forums.[8] A similar plan was proposed in 1989 by J. T. Early,[9] and again in 1997 by Edward Teller, Lowell Wood, and Roderick Hyde.[10] In 2006, Benford pointed out one possible danger in this approach: if this lens were built and global warming were avoided, there would be less incentive to reduce greenhouse gases, and humans might continue to produce too much carbon dioxide until it caused some other environmental catastrophe, such as a chemical change in ocean water that could be disastrous to ocean life.[11]

Benford serves on the board of directors and the steering committee of the Mars Society.

Gregory Benford became Emeritus from the University of California, Irvine, in 2006 in order to found and develop Genescient. Genescient is a new generation biotechnology company that combines evolutionary genomics with massive selective screening to analyze and exploit the genetics of model animal and human whole genomes. This enables Genescient to develop novel therapeutics that target the chronic diseases of aging.

Benford's law of controversy[edit]

Not to be confused with Benford's law.

Benford's law of controversy[12][13] is an adage from the 1980 novel Timescape,[14] stating:

Passion is inversely proportional to the amount of real information available.[12][13]

The adage was quoted in an international drug policy article in a peer-reviewed social science journal.[15]

Bibliography[edit]

Galactic Center Saga[edit]

Name Published ISBN Notes
In the Ocean of Night Dial Press, 1976 Nebula Award nominee, 1977;[16]
Locus Award nominee, 1978[17]
Across the Sea of Suns Simon & Schuster, 1/1984 ISBN 978-0-671-44668-0
Great Sky River Bantam Books, 12/1987 ISBN 978-0-553-05238-1 reviewed by the LA Times[18]
Nebula Award nominee, 1988[19]
Tides of Light Bantam Books, 1/1989 ISBN 978-0-553-05322-7 reviewed by the LA Times[20]
Locus Award nominee, 1990[21]
Furious Gulf Bantam Spectra, 7/1994 ISBN 978-0-553-09661-3 reviewed by the LA Times[22]
Sailing Bright Eternity Bantam Spectra, 8/1995 ISBN 978-0-553-08655-3

Jupiter Projects[edit]

Name Published ISBN Notes
Jupiter Project Thomas Nelson, 1975 ISBN 978-0-8407-6456-0
Against Infinity Ultramarine Press, March 1983 ISBN 978-0-671-46491-2 Nebula Award nominee, 1983[23]

Other series contributions[edit]

Man-Kzin Wars (with Larry Niven)

Name Published ISBN Notes
Man-Kzin Wars VI Baen Books, 1994 ISBN 978-0-671-87607-4
A Darker Geometry: A Man-Kzin Novel Baen Books, 8/1996 ISBN 978-0-671-87740-8 co-authored with Mark O. Martin

Second Foundation

Name Published ISBN Notes
Foundation's Fear Harper Prism, 1997 ISBN 978-0-06-105243-9

Non-series novels[edit]

Name Published ISBN Notes
Deeper Than the Darkness (a.k.a. The Stars in Shroud) Ace Books, 1970
Timescape Simon & Schuster, 1980 ISBN 978-0-671-25327-1 Nebula winner, 1980;[24]
British SF Award winner, 1980;[24]
Campbell Award winner, 1981;[25]
Locus Award nominee, 1981[25]
Time's Rub Cheap Street, 1984
Artifact St. Martin's Press, 6/1985 ISBN 978-0-312-93048-6
Under the Wheel Baen Books, 1987 ISBN 978-0-671-65611-9 Alien Stars, volume 3
Iceborn Tor Double Novels, 11/1989 ISBN 0-8125-0277-9 with Paul A. Carter
Beyond the Fall of Night Putnam Publishing, 7/1990 ISBN 978-0-399-13499-9 with Arthur C. Clarke
Cosm Warner Aspect, 2/1998 ISBN 978-0-380-97435-1
The Martian Race Warner Aspect, 12/1999 ISBN 978-0-446-52633-3
Eater Eos, 5/2000 ISBN 978-0-380-97436-8 Locus Award nominee, 2001[26]
Beyond Infinity Warner Aspect, March 2004 ISBN 978-0-446-53059-0
Human Being William Morrow and Company, 2003 ISBN 978-0-380-97716-1
The Sunborn Warner Aspect, 3/2005 ISBN 978-0-446-53058-3

Collaborations[edit]

Name Published ISBN Notes
If the Stars Are Gods Berkley Books, 1977 ISBN 978-0-399-11942-2 with Gordon Eklund
Shiva Descending St. Martin's Press, 1980 with William Rotsler
Find the Changeling Dell Publishing, 1980 ISBN 978-0-440-12604-1 with Gordon Eklund
Heart of the Comet Bantam Spectra, 2/1986 ISBN 978-0-553-05125-4 with David Brin
Locus Award nominee, 1987[27]
Beyond the Fall of Night Putnam Publishing, 7/1990 ISBN 978-0-399-13499-9 with Arthur C. Clarke
Bowl of Heaven Tom Doherty Associates, Tor Books 10/2012 ISBN 9780765328410 with Larry Niven
Shipstar[28] Tom Doherty Associates, Tor Books 04/2014 ISBN 9780765328700 with Larry Niven

Anthologies edited[edit]

  • Hitler Victorious: Eleven Stories of the German Victory in World War II (1986), with Martin H. Greenberg
  • Nuclear War (1988), with Martin H Greenberg
  • Far Futures (1995)
  • The New Hugo Winners Volume IV (1997), with Martin H. Greenberg
  • Nebula Awards Showcase 2000 (2000)
  • Microcosms (2004)

Alternate histories[edit]

  • Alternate Empires (1989) (with Martin H. Greenberg)
  • Alternate Heroes (1989)
  • Alternate Wars (1991)
  • Alternate Americas (1992) (with Martin H. Greenberg)

Non-fiction[edit]

  • Habitats in Space (1998)
  • Deep Time: How Humanity Communicates Across Millennia (1999)
  • Skylife: Space Habitats in Story and Science (2000, with George Zebrowskii)
  • Beyond Human: The New World of Cyborgs and Androids (2001)
  • The Wonderful Future That Never Was (2010, with the Editors of Popular Mechanics)
  • The Amazing Weapons That Never Were (2012, with the Editors of Popular Mechanics)

Short-story collections[edit]

  • In Alien Flesh (1986)
  • Matter's End (1990)
  • Amazing Stories No 7 (1992), with J. R. Dunn, James Alan Gardner and Kim Mohan
  • Worlds Vast and Various (1999)
  • Immersion and Other Short Novels (2002)
  • Merlin (2004)

Short stories[edit]

  • "Stand-In"
The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction (June 1965)
  • "Representative From Earth"
The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction (January 1966)
  • "Flattop"
The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction (May 1966)
  • "Deeper Than the Darkness"
The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction (April 1969)
Sociology Through Science Fiction (1974)
  • "Sons of Man"
Amazing Stories (November 1969)
  • "Nobody Lives on Burton Street"
Amazing Science Fiction (May 1970)
World's Best Science Fiction (1971)
Sociology Through Science Fiction (1974)
Inside Information (1977)
Venture (May 1970)
  • "The Prince of New York"
Fantastic (June 1970)
  • "3:02 p.m., Oxford"
If (September/October 1970)
  • "The Movement"
Fantastic (October 1970)
  • "Inalienable Rite"
Quark 1 (1970)
  • "But the Secret Sits"
Galaxy Science Fiction (March 1971)
  • "Star Crossing", with Donald Franson
If (March/April 1971)
  • "Battleground", with Jim Benford
If (May/June 1971)
Guns of Darkness (1987)
  • "West Wind, Falling", with Gordon Eklund
Universe 1 (1971)
  • "And the Sea Like Mirrors"
Again, Dangerous Visions (1972)
Again, Dangerous Visions, Book 2 (1977)
Masterpieces of Science Fiction (1978)
  • "In the Ocean of Night"
Worlds of If Science Fiction (May/Jun 1972)
In the Ocean of Night (1977)
  • "Jupiter Project"
Amazing Stories (September 1972)
  • "Icarus Descending"
The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction (April 1973)
In the Ocean of Night (1977)
  • "Man in a Vice"
Amazing Science Fiction (February 1974)
  • "Nobody Lives Around Here"
Vertex: The Magazine of Science Fiction (February 1974)
  • "If the Stars Are Gods", with Gordon Eklund
Universe 4 (1974)
Best SF of the Year 4 (1975)
Nebula Award Stories 10 (1975)
The Science Fiction Hall of Fame, Volume IV (1986)
The Science Fiction Century (1997)
  • "Threads of Time"
Threads of Time (1974)
In the Ocean of Night (1977)
  • Doing Lennon
Analog Science Fiction/Science Fact (April 1975)
Best SF of the Year 5 (1976)
The Arbor House Treasury of Science Fiction Masterpieces (1983)
Light Years and Dark (1984)
In Alien Flesh (1986)
  • Beyond Grayworld
Analog Science Fiction/Science Fact (September 1975)
  • Cambridge, 1:58 A.M
Epoch (1975)
  • John of the Apocalypse
Tomorrow Today (1975)
  • White Creatures
New Dimensions 5 (1975)
In Alien Flesh (1986)
  • How It All Went
Amazing Stories (March 1976)
100 Great Science Fiction Short Short Stories (1978)
  • The Anvil of Jove, with Gordon Eklund
The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction (July 1976)
  • Marauder!
Alien Worlds (1976)
  • Seascape (aka Pebble Among the Stars)
Faster Than Light (1976)
The Crash of Empire (1989)
  • What Did You Do Last Year?, with Gordon Eklund
Universe 6 (1976)
  • Hellas is Florida, with Gordon Eklund
The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction (January 1977)
  • Homemaker
Cosmos Science Fiction And Fantasy Magazine (May 1977)
  • A Snark in the Night
The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction (August 1977)
  • Knowing Her
New Dimensions 7 (1977)
Time of Passage (1978)
  • Starswarmer
Analog Science Fiction/Science Fact (June 1978)
Analog Science Fiction/Science Fact (September 1978)
  • In Alien Flesh
The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction (September 1978)
Best Science Fiction Stories of the Year (1979)
1979 Annual World's Best SF (1979)
Best SF Stories of the Year: Eighth Annual Collection (1979)
The 1979 Annual World's Best SF (1979)
In Alien Flesh (1986)
  • Old Woman By the Road
Destinies (November/December 1978)
Thor's Hammer (1979)
The Best of Destinies (1980)
  • A Hiss of Dragon, with Marc Laidlaw
Omni, (December 1978)
Best SF of the Year 8 (1979)
Dragon Tales (1982)
The Best of Omni Science Fiction, No. 3 (1982)
  • Nooncoming
Universe 8 (1978)
In Alien Flesh (1986)
  • Time Guide
Destinies (January/February 1979)
  • Dark Sanctuary
Omni (May 1979)
The Endless Frontier (1979)
The Best of Omni Science Fiction, No. 4 (1982)
  • Redeemer
Analog Science Fiction/Science Fact (April 1979)
Best Science Fiction Stories of the Year (1979)
Best SF Stories of the Year: Ninth Annual Collection (1980)
The Endless Frontier Vol. II (1982)
In Alien Flesh (1986)
  • Calibrations and Exercises
New Dimensions 9 (1979)
The Best of New Dimensions (1979)
  • Time Shards
Universe 9 (1979)
Best SF of the Year 9 (1980)
In Alien Flesh (1986)
  • Titan Falling
Amazing Stories (August 1980)
  • Pick an Orifice
Destinies (Fall 1980)
  • Slices
Destinies (Spring 1981)
  • Exposures
Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine (July 1981)
The Road to Science Fiction #4 (1982)
Isaac Asimov's Wonders of the World (Anthology #6) (1982)
Creations: The Quest for Origins in Story and Science (1983)
In Alien Flesh (1986)
Norton Book of SF (1993)
The Ascent of Wonder: The Evolution of Hard SF (1994)
  • Shall We Take a Little Walk?
Destinies (Winter 1981)
  • Cadenza
New Dimensions 12 (1981)
  • Valhalla
The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction (April 1982)
  • Lazarus Rising
Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine (July 1982)
  • Relativistic Effects
Perpetual Light (1982)
Best SF of the Year 12 (1983)
In Alien Flesh (1986)
The Ascent of Wonder: The Evolution of Hard SF (1994)
  • Sandy Lust
The Berkley Showcase Volume 5 (1982)
  • Swarmer, Skimmer
Best SF of the Year 11 (1982)
The Best of Omni Science Fiction, No. 5 (1983)
R-A-M Random Access Messages of the Computer Age (1984)
  • Me/Days
Universe 14 (1984)
In Alien Flesh (1986)
  • Time's Rub
Time's Rub (1984)
Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine (April 1985)
In Alien Flesh (1986)
Mathenauts: Tales of Mathematical Wonder (1987)
Future on Ice (1998)
  • To the Storming Gulf
Afterwar (1985)
The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction (April 1985)
In Alien Flesh (1986)
Armageddon! (1989)
  • Newton Sleep
The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction (January 1986)
Heroes in Hell (1986)
Nebula Awards 22 (1988)
  • Of Space-Time and the River
Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine (February 1986)
Best SF of the Year 15 (1986)
In Alien Flesh (1986)
  • Freezeframe
Interzone (Autumn 1986)
Amazing Stories (May 1987)
Nebula Awards 23 (1989)
  • As Big as the Ritz
Interzone, Winter 1986 (1986)
Alien Stars III: Under The Wheel (1987)
  • Snatching the Bot
In Alien Flesh (1986)
  • Effing the Ineffable
Nebula Awards 21 (1987)
  • The Gods of the Gaps
Crusaders in Hell (1987)
  • What Are You Going to Be When You Grow Up?
Spaceships & Spells (1987)
  • Proselytes
Full Spectrum (1988)
  • All the Beer on Mars
Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine (January 1989)
  • Alphas
Amazing Stories (March 1989)
The 1990 Annual World's Best SF (1990)
The Year's Best Science Fiction: Seventh Annual Collection (1990)
  • We Could Do Worse
Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine (April 1989)
What Might Have Been? Vol I: Alternate Empires (1989)
Roads Not Taken: Tales of Alternate History (1998)
  • Mozart on Morphine
The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction (October 1989)
  • Leviathan
Omni (1989)
  • Proserpina's Daughter with Paul A. Carter
Synergy: New Science Fiction, Vol. 3 (1989)
  • The Rose and the Scalpel
Time Gate (1989)
Amazing Stories (January 1990)
  • Warstory
Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine (January 1990)
  • Latter-Day Martian Chronicles
Omni (July 1990)
  • The Eagle and the Cross
Dangerous Interfaces (1990)
  • Manassas, Again
Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine (October 1991)
  • Centigrade 233
Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine (December 1991)
  • Touches
Amazing Stories (December 1991)
  • Matter's End
Full Spectrum 3 (1991)
The Year's Best Science Fiction: Ninth Annual Collection (1992)
Nebula Awards 28 (1994)
  • Down the River Road
Aboriginal Science Fiction' (Summer 1992)
  • Rumbling Earth
Aboriginal Science Fiction (Summer 1992)
  • World Vast, World Various
Murasaki (1992)
  • The Dark Backward
Amazing Stories (February 1993)
More Amazing Stories (1998)
  • Doing Alien
The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction (March 1994)
100 Astounding Little Alien Stories (1996)
  • The Bigger One
Science Fiction Age (May 1994)
  • Soon Comes the Night
Asimov's Science Fiction (August 1994)
  • Not of an Age
Weird Tales from Shakespeare (1994)
  • Strong Instinct with Mark O. Martin
South From Midnight (1994)
  • The Trojan Cat with Mark O. Martin
Man-Kzin Wars VI (1994)
  • Deep Eyes
Analog Science Fiction and Fact (April 1995)
  • Kollapse
Interzone Science Fiction and Fantasy (April 1995)
Science Fiction Age (May 1995)
  • A Worm in the Well
Analog Science Fiction and Fact (November 1995)
Year's Best SF (1996)
  • A Tapestry of Thought
Amazing Stories (Winter 1995)
  • A Desperate Calculus as Sterling Blake
New Legends (1995)
  • High Abyss
New Legends (1995)
  • Immersion
Science Fiction Age (March 1996)
The Year's Best Science Fiction: Fourteenth Annual Collection (1997)
  • Paris Conquers All with David Brin
The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction (March 1996)
War of the Worlds: Global Dispatches (1996)
  • Afterword: Retrospective with David Brin
War of the Worlds: Global Dispatches (1996)
  • Zoomers
Future Net (1996)
Year's Best SF 2 (1997)
  • The Voice
Science Fiction Age (May 1997)
Year's Best SF 3 (1998)
  • Galaxia
Science Fiction Age (July 1997)
  • A Cold Dry Cradle with Elisabeth Malartrez
Science Fiction Age (November 1997)
The Year's Best Science Fiction: Fifteenth Annual Collection (1998)
  • Early Bird
Free Space (1997)
  • A Dance to Strange Musics
Science Fiction Age (November 1998)
  • Ordinary Aliens
Science Fiction Age (November 1998)
  • Three Gods
Interzone (September 2001)
  • Menage a Trois
Interzone (November 2001)
  • Around the Curve of a Cosmos
Published at scifi.com (2001)
  • Brink
Published at scifi.com (2001)
  • The Clear Blue Seas of Luna
Asimov's Science Fiction (October/November 2002)
  • The Hydrogen Wall
Asimov's Science Fiction (October/November 2003)
Year's Best SF9
  • Anomalies
  • At the Double Solstice
  • A Hunger for the Infinite
  • Immortal Night
  • Mammoth Dawn with Kevin J. Anderson
  • Mandikini
  • Side Effect
  • Shakers of the Earth
  • Sleepstory

References[edit]

  1. ^ Who's Getting Your Vote?, Reason
  2. ^ Witcover, Paul (2000-03-20). "Mean, stupid, ugly, and the terror of all other species". Sci Fi Weekly. 
  3. ^ "Other Obituaries," Locus, May 2002, p.70
  4. ^ "Evil and Me", Benford; in 50 Voices of Disbelief: Why We Are Atheists
  5. ^ Benford, Gregory. "Theological Fiction and the Future". Archived from the original on April 15, 2013. Retrieved May 27, 2014. 
  6. ^ The Scarred Man Returns, Gregory Benford, 1970
  7. ^ "Natural Wormholes as Gravitational Lenses", J. G. Cramer, R. W. Forward, M. S. Morris, M. Visser, G. Benford, and G. A. Landis, Physical Review D 51 3117–3120 (1995). Text at ArXiv. The press release on the paper can be found on Landis' website.
  8. ^ See Russell Dovey, "Supervillainy: Astroengineering Global Warming and Bill Christensen, "Reduce Global Warming by Blocking Sunlight". Also see Screening out sunlight in the Wikipedia article Mitigation of global warming.
  9. ^ See footnote 23 in E. Teller, L. Wood, and R. Hyde, "Global Warming and Ice Ages: Prospects for Physics-Based Modulation of Global Change".
  10. ^ E. Teller, L. Wood, and R. Hyde, "Global Warming and Ice Ages: Prospects for Physics-Based Modulation of Global Change".
  11. ^ Comments at the 64th World Science Fiction Convention, August 2006.
  12. ^ a b "EFF Quotes Collection 19.6". Electronic Frontier Foundation. 2001-04-09. 
  13. ^ a b "Quotations: Computer Laws". SysProg. Archived from the original on 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 
  14. ^ Benford, Gregory (1992-08-01) [1980]. Timescape. Bantam Books. p. 182. ISBN 978-0-553-29709-6. 
  15. ^ "American Distortion of Dutch Drug Statistics", by MacCoun, Robert J.; Society, Vol. 38, No. 3, Pp. 23–26; March 1, 2001; doi:10.1007/BF02686215; official archival copy requires site registration. The article is a followup to pieces the author already published in Science (1997) and the Annual Review of Psychology (1998)
  16. ^ "1977 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End. Retrieved 2009-07-05. 
  17. ^ "1978 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End. Retrieved 2009-07-05. 
  18. ^ Cramer, John G. (1987-12-27). "If Homer Were to Write Science Fiction: Great Sky River by Gregory Benford". Los Angeles Times. p. B11. 
  19. ^ "1988 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End. Retrieved 2009-07-05. 
  20. ^ White, Ted (1989-02-26). "Of Machines And Men". The Washington Post. p. BW09. "Gregory Benford's Tides of Light is a sequel to his Great Sky River, and part of a loosely-linked series that includes In the Ocean of Night and Across the Sea of Suns." 
  21. ^ "1990 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End. Retrieved 2009-07-05. 
  22. ^ McLellan, Dennis (1994-08-28). "The Science of Fiction; UCI Astrophysicist Gregory Benford Puts Reality Into His Novels". Los Angeles Times. p. E1. "Benford's latest book, "Furious Gulf", (Bantam Spectra) is about an expedition exploring the black hole at the center of the galaxy. It's the fifth in his "Galactic Center" series, which began in 1976 with "In the Ocean of the Night."" 
  23. ^ "1983 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End. Retrieved 2009-07-05. 
  24. ^ a b "1980 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End. Retrieved 2009-07-05. 
  25. ^ a b "1981 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End. Retrieved 2009-07-05. 
  26. ^ "2001 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End. Retrieved 2009-07-05. 
  27. ^ "1987 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End. Retrieved 2009-07-05. 
  28. ^ "Gregory Benford & Larry Niven - Shipstar cover art and synopsis reveal". Upcoming4.me. Retrieved 2013-07-18. 

External links[edit]