The park is the largest national park in the Northern Territory, with an area of 13,000 km2 (1.3 million ha). Ecologically, it is in the transition between tropical and semi-arid zones.
The park was formerly known as Gregory National Park, but on 21 October 2011, it was announced that under a joint management plan with the traditional owners, the park would be dual-named "Judbarra / Gregory" for a period of ten years. Beginning in 2021, its official name will be Judbarra National Park.
The rock shelters and caves in Judbarra / Gregory contain an extensive amount of rock art, variously created by painting, stencilling, drawing, printing, and "pecking and pounding". The human figure is the most common motif; the park is "one of the most prolific sites in Australia" for composite engraved and painted human figures. The rock art of the Judbarra region is considered to represent a distinct art province.