Grey Wolves

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the Turkish far-right organization. For the animal, see Gray Wolf. For other uses, see Gray Wolves (disambiguation).
Grey Wolves
Ülkü Ocakları Eğitim ve Kültür Vakfı Logosu.png
Logo of the Grey Wolves
Leader(s) Alparslan Türkeş (founder)[1]
Abdullah Çatlı (until 1996)[2]
Active region(s) Turkey, Cyprus (TRNC), Azerbaijan (1992–95; banned), Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands
Ideology Turkish nationalism
Pan-Turkism[3]
Neo-fascism
Anti-communism (originally)[1][4]
Assassinations, kidnappings, bombings,[2][5] illegal drug trade[2][6][1]
Notable attacks Taksim Square massacre (1977, alleged)
Maraş massacre (1978)
Pope John Paul II assassination attempt (1981, alleged)
Assassination attempt on Prime Minister Turgut Özal (1988)
Size 200,000 registered members (1980)[7]
3.6% of the electorate (2014)[8]
Web www.ulkuocaklari.org.tr

The Grey Wolves (Turkish: Bozkurtlar), officially known as the Idealist Clubs Educational and Cultural Foundation[9][10] (Ülkü Ocakları Eğitim ve Kültür Vakfı) or shorter Idealist Hearths (Ülkü Ocakları;[11] members known as Ülkücüler[4] "Idealists"),[12] is a Turkish neo-fascist organization.[13][5][14][15] Formally a youth organization with close links to the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP),[11] it has been described as MHP's "militant youth arm",[4] "unofficial militant arm",[16] and "paramilitary and terrorist wing".[1] Established by MHP leader Colonel Alparslan Türkeş in the 1960s, the organization is widely described by scholars as a terrorist organization.[2][17][18][19] Azerbaijan (in 1995)[20] and Kazakhstan (in 2005)[21][22] have banned the organization, classifying it as a terrorist organization.

The Grey Wolves turned into a "death squad"[23] engaging in urban warfare[16] during the political violence between 1974 and 1980 in Turkey, when it carried out 694[7][23] murders (according to authorities), predominantly of left-wing and liberal activists and intellectuals.[12] They killed hundreds of Alevis in the Maraş massacre of 1978.[24][25] The organization is alleged to have been behind the Taksim Square massacre of 1977,[13][26] while its role in the attempt on Pope John Paul II's life in 1981 by a member Mehmet Ali Ağca remains unclear.[19][27] In the 1990s, hundreds of its members fought in the Nagorno-Karabakh War for Azerbaijan, and the First and Second Chechen Wars on the Chechen side.[15][27][28] The organization has also been active in Cyprus the 1990s and early 2000s. Its branches have been established in several Western European countries with significant Turkish populations, such as Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany.

As of 2014, according to sociologist Doğu Ergil (tr) the Grey Wolves are supported by 3.6% of the Turkish electorate (4.5% of the AKP and 0.4% CHP voters).[8]

Name and symbolism[edit]

Salutation of the Grey Wolves.

The organization's informal name is "inspired by the ancient legend" of Asena, a she-wolf in the Ergenekon,[29] a myth associated with Turkic ethnic origins in Central Asian steppes.[30] In Turkey, wolf also symbolizes honor.[4] They are "characterised by a strong emphasis on leadership and hierarchical, military-like organisation."[31]

The Grey Wolves and MHP supporters are known for their hand sign which represents a wolf head. It is made by holding up the forefinger and little finger.[32][33]

Ideology[edit]

The ideology of the Grey Wolves "puts accent on Turkish history insisting on its glorious days and exploiting events such as the establishment of the first Turkish States in Central Asia, almost tracing a 'Turkish race'. At the same time, its conception of the Turkish nation is blended with Islam. The principle of what they consider to be the synthesis of Turkishness and Islam is very dominant in their rhetoric and activities. Mottos like 'Your doctor will be a Turk and your medicine will be Islam' reflect their feelings on the issue."[31] The Grey Wolves are, in their ideology and activities, hostile to virtually all non-Turkish elements within Turkey, including Kurds, Alevis, Armenians, Greeks and Christians in general.[34] They are hostile towards Iran[3] and "embrace anti-Semitic conspiracy theories such as those propounded by the notorious book" The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and have distributed the Turkish translation of Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf.[35]

History[edit]

Until 1980[edit]

The organization was formed by Colonel Alparslan Türkeş in the early 1970s as the paramilitary wing of the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP).[1] Canefe and Bora describe it as a "grass-roots fascist network", which was "active in different sectors of the economy, schools, neighborhood units, etc."[14] It was "composed of young Turkish men, often students or rural migrants to Turkey's two largest cities, Istanbul and Ankara."[13] By the late 1970s the organizations had "tens of thousands" of members[13] and, according to journalist Amberin Zaman (tr), "had spun out of state control."[30]

They murdered left-wing & liberal activists, intellectuals, labor organizers, ethnic Kurds, officials, journalists during the political violence between 1976 and 1980.[12][2] "During this period, the Gray Wolves operated with encouragement and protection of the Counter-Guerrilla Organization, a section of the Turkish Army's Special Warfare Department. Working out of the U.S. Military Aid Mission building in Ankara, the Special Warfare Department received funds and training from U.S. advisors to establish 'stay behind' squads of civilian irregulars who were set up to engage in acts of sabotage and resistance in the event of a Soviet invasion. Similar Cold War counter-guerrilla units were created in every member state of the NATO."[2]

Their most significant attack of this period was the Maraş massacre in December 1978 when hundreds of Alevis were killed.[24][36][13][25] They are also "alleged to have been behind" the Taksim Square massacre on May 1, 1977.[13][26] The conflict between left-wing and right-wing groups eventually resulted in a military intervention in September 1980 when General Kenan Evren led a coup d'état.[30] According to Daniele Ganser, at the time of the military coup of September 12, 1980, there were some 1,700 Grey Wolves organizations, with about 200,000 registered members and a million sympathizers.[7]

1980s and on[edit]

On June 18, 1988 Kartal Demirağ, a senior[37] member of the Grey Wolves, made an assassination attempt at Prime Minister Turgut Özal's life at the Motherland Party congress.[38][39] It occurred three days after his visit to Greece, and Özal stated that the attempt was carried out "by a group opposed to his efforts to improve relations with Greece."[40]

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Grey Wolves called for "a revived Turkish empire embracing newly independent Central Asian states of the former Soviet Union."[30]

In December 1996, the Grey Wolves attacked left-wing students and teachers at Istanbul University, under alleged police sanction.[41]

"Do you walk around with gray wolves, Mr. Bahçeli? I walk around with noble human creatures. Our youth has had no illegal activities until today, but they exist in your past."

 —Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Prime Minister of Turkey; April 2011[42]

In 2004, the Grey Wolves prevented the screening of Atom Egoyan's Ararat in Turkey, a film about the Armenian Genocide.[23]

In October 2013 the Grey Wolves demonstrated against the Kurdish–Turkish peace process across Turkey.[43] In July 2014 around a thousand people demonstrated in Kahramanmaraş against the presence of Syrian refugees that have fled the civil war in their country. Many protesters made the sign of the Grey Wolves, blocked roads in the city and removed Arabic-language signs from stores.[44] AKP lawyer Mahir Ünal said: "This doesn't make them idealists [i.e. members of the Grey Wolves] but it is certain some people's attempt to show it like something the idealists did."[45] In October 2014 the Grey Wolves were involved in deadly clashes and riots when Kurds in various cities of Turkey demonstrated against Turkey's non-intervention policy during the Siege of Kobanê.[46][47]

Links to the Turkish government and NATO[edit]

"In the late 1970s, former military prosecutor and Turkish Supreme Court Justice Emin Değer documented collaboration between the Grey Wolves" and the Counter-Guerrilla—the Turkish branch of Gladio, a stay-behind NATO anti-communist paramilitary organization which was supposed to prepare networks for guerrilla warfare in case of a Soviet invasion—and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Martin A. Lee writes that the Counter-Guerrilla "handed out weapons to the Grey Wolves and other right-wing terrorist groups. These shadowy operations mainly engaged in the surveillance, persecution and torture of Turkish leftists, according to retired army commander Talat Turhan, the author of three books on counter-guerrilla activities in Turkey."[48] Lee writes that "the Counter-Guerrilla Organization supplied weapons to the Gray Wolves",[2] while Tom Burghardt of Global Research writes that Operation Gladio networks worked directly with the Grey Wolves.[6] According to Tim Jacoby, the CIA "overtly transferred guns and explosives to Grey Wolf units through its agent, Frank Terpil" in the 1970s.[49]

During the Susurluk scandal of 1996 the Grey Wolves were accused of being members of the Counter-Guerrilla, the Turkish branch of Operation Gladio.[50] The report of the Turkish National Assembly's investigative committee in April 1997 on the Susurluk car crash, which instigated the scandal, "offered considerable evidence of close ties between state authorities and criminal gangs, including the use of the Grey Wolves to carry out illegal activities."[51]

"A court document in the Ergenekon case revealed in 2008 that the National Intelligence Organization (MİT) had paid regular salaries to ultranationalists to carry out illegal operations [including assassinations and kidnappings]. Some members of a Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) affiliated extremist nationalist group, the Grey Wolves, were armed and funded by the state to carry out political murders."[52] They mostly targeted members of the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA),[52] which attacked Turkish embassies abroad in retaliation of the denial of the Armenian Genocide. The Turkish intelligence services also made use of the Grey Wolves in conflict against the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) by offering them amnesty in exchange.[53][16]

Activities outside of Turkey[edit]

Azerbaijan[edit]

During the Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988–94), around 200 members of the Grey Wolves fought on the Azerbaijani side against the Armenian forces.[54] Hayk Demoyan, in his 2006 book about the Turkish involvement in the Karabakh conflict cites a 1993 article the Russian newspaper Segodnya (ru) in claiming that around 15,000 members of the Grey Wolves were under the direct command of the Azerbaijani Armed Forces and formed "independent armed groups".[55]

In 1993, Azerbaijani Interior Minister Isgandar Hamidov established a party name under the name National Democratic Party,[20] which was known as Boz Qurd ("Grey Wolves").[56] According to Russian political scientist Stanislav Cherniavsky the Azerbaijani Grey Wolves grew out of the Popular Front in 1992 and "considered itself a branch of the Turkish Grey Wolves."[57] It was registered by the Justice Ministry in 1994.[20] In interviews in 1992-93 Hamidov denied any connection with the Turkish organization stating that "Grey Wolves of Azerbaijan are not subordinate to the Turkish group".[58]

In March 1995, a coup d'état attempt against President Heydar Aliyev's government was staged in Baku by Colonel Rovshan Javadov. According to Thomas de Waal, the "shadowy backers of this uprising were never identified but appear to have included rogue elements of the Turkish security establishment and members of the 'Gray Wolves' Bozkurt movement. Among those arrested and jailed this time was the local Bozkurt leader and former interior minister" Hamidov.[59] After the coup attempt Hamidov was jailed, while the Azerbaijani Supreme Court formally abolished the party due to its links to the Turkish Grey Wolves, which it considered to be a terrorist organization. Hamidov was freed by the amnesty granted by President Ilham Aliyev. In 2008 Hamidov retired from politics and as president of the party, which had been inactive since.[20] According to a 2007 article by Mahammad Imanli and Shahin Nasrullayev the Grey Wolves no longer operate in Azerbaijan.[60]

Chechnya[edit]

The Grey Wolves fought on the Chechen separatist side during the First Chechen War (1994-96)[28] and the Second Chechen War (1999-2000).[15][61][27] The CNN reported in 2000 that they "run the mosques and commercial activities in some parts of Istanbul. It is in these mosques, in the suburbs of the city, that offerings are collected after daily prayers for the Chechen refugees. It is money that probably also goes to soldiers on the front lines."[27] Grey Wolves from Azerbaijan also fought for the Chechens.[62] and, reportedly, sent 270 fighters to Chechnya in December 1995.[63] According to the Dagestan branch of the Russian Federal Counterintelligence Service (FSK) the Azerbaijani Grey Wolves sent 80 fighters to Chechnya in 1995.[64]

Cyprus[edit]

The Grey Wolves supported Rauf Denktaş, the President of the unrecognized Northern Cyprus between 1983 and 2005, and were involved in state-sponsored "terror of citizens".[65] In July 1996, Kutlu Adali, a Turkish Cypriot journalist who had criticized Denktaş and his policies, was killed by the Grey Wolves according to some sources.[16]

In August 1996, the Grey Wolves were involved in an attack on a protest of Greek Cypriots against the Turkish occupation of Northern Cyprus. Tassos Isaac, a Greek protester, was beaten to death by the Grey Wolves[66] in the United Nations Buffer Zone.[67]

In July 1997 the Grey Wolves clashed in Northern Cyprus with Kurdish university students who protested against Turkey's invasion of northern Iraq in search of the PKK.[68]

On October 17, 2003 Murat Kanatlı, Turkish Cypriot journalist and editor of the opposition newspaper Yeniçağ, was "attacked by a group of 20-30 persons belonging to the Grey Wolves" according to the International Press Institute (IPI). Kanatlı had covered the Grey Wolve's demonstration against the "intervention of EU and USA in TRNC elections."[69]

During the 2004 referendum on the Annan Plan, the Grey Wolves were "suspected of beating up motorcyclists carrying 'vote yes' banners".[65]

Europe[edit]

Belgium[edit]

There had already been attempts of infiltration of local politics by Grey Wolves in 2000, but during the municipal elections of 2006 two candidacies of leaders of Idealist clubs came to the attention of the media, Fuat Korkmazer on the Flemish Christian Democrats list in Ghent and Murat Denizli on the Francophone Socialist Party list in Schaerbeek, a commune in the Brussels Region. In both cases, political observers saw it as an attempt by Belgian parties to attract far-right Turkish voters in communes where there are numerous Turks, with or without Belgian citizenship. Korkmazer got a very low number of votes, while Denizli was elected but had to resign because it was discovered he had a false address and lived in another commune.[70][71][72]

Germany[edit]

The first "Idealist club" was established on 18 June 1978 in Frankfurt as "Federation of Turkish Democratic Idealist Associations in Europe" (Avrupa Demokratik Ülkücü Türk Dernekleri Federasyonu).[73]

Italy[edit]

According to investigative reporter Lucy Komisar, the 1981 attempt on John Paul II's life, by Grey Wolves member Mehmet Ali Ağca, may have been related to Gladio. Ali Ağca would in this case have been manipulated by NATO's clandestine structure, in an attempt to fuel Italy's strategy of tension, which ended with the 1980 Bologna massacre. Komissar underlines the fact that Ali Ağca had worked with Abdullah Çatlı in the January 1, 1979 murder of Abdi İpekçi, the editor of left-wing newspaper Milliyet. "Çatlı then reportedly helped organize Ağca's escape from an Istanbul military prison, and some have suggested Çatlı was even involved in the Pope's assassination attempt", reports Lucy Komisar. Also adding, that at the scene of the Mercedes-Benz crash where Çatlı died, he was found with a passport under the name of "Mehmet Özbay" - an alias also used by Mehmet Ali Ağca.[74]

The Netherlands[edit]

Grey Wolves activists have participated - with varying successes - in the local politics of several Dutch municipalities.[75]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Atkins, Stephen E. (2004). "Grey Wolves (Turkey)". Encyclopedia of Modern Worldwide Extremists and Extremist Groups. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 110-111. ISBN 9780313324857. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Lee, Martin A. (12 April 1998). "Turkish Dirty War Revealed, but Papal Shooting Still Obscured". Los Angeles Times. 
  3. ^ a b Hunter, Shireen T. (2010). Iran's Foreign Policy in the Post-Soviet Era: Resisting the New International Order. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 158. ISBN 9780313381942. "For different reasons, two groups in Turkey have a hostile view of Iran: [...] (2) the ultranationalists with pan-Turkist aspirations, exemplified by groups such as the Grey Wolves (Bozkurt)." 
  4. ^ a b c d "Crying “Wolf”: Why Turkish Fears Need Not Block Kurdish Reform". Europe Report N°227. Brussels: International Crisis Group. 7 October 2013. pp. 9–10. 
  5. ^ a b Cockburn, Alexander; Clair, Jeffrey St. (8 November 2001). "The Counter-Terror Network". CounterPunch. "...in Turkey in the late 1960s and 1970s, when the fascist Grey Wolves went on a terror rampage, bombing, shooting and killing thousands of officials, journalists, students, lawyers, labor organizers, social democrats, left-wing activists and Kurds." 
  6. ^ a b Burghardt, Tom (19 December 2008). "Unconventional Warfare in the 21st Century: U.S. Surrogates, Terrorists and Narcotraffickers". Global Research (Centre for Research on Globalization). "NATO’s infamous “stay-behind” Operation Gladio networks in Italy and Turkey for example, worked directly with international narcotics syndicates and pro-fascist political parties such as [...] the drug-linked terror gang, the Grey Wolves, founded by Alparslan Türkeş, a German sympathizer during World War II." 
  7. ^ a b c Ganser, Daniele (2005). NATO's Secret Armies: Operation GLADIO and Terrorism in Western Europe. Routledge. p. 240. ISBN 9781135767853. 
  8. ^ a b Ergil, Doğu (22 April 2014). "Parties and political identities". Today's Zaman. Archived from the original on 19 October 2014. 
  9. ^ "Attack on Sept. 6-7 events photo exhibit condemned". Hürriyet Daily News. 9 September 2005. .
  10. ^ Alternatively translated as the "Idealist Movement Education and Culture Foundation"; see "Alevi groups prevented from commemorating Maraş massacre". Today's Zaman. 21 December 2010. 
  11. ^ a b "Video shows Turkish police singing Grey Wolf march". Hürriyet Daily News. 25 April 2011. "The Grey Wolves, also commonly referred to as the Ülkü Ocakları (Idealist Hearths), are a youth organization with close links to the MHP." 
  12. ^ a b c Idiz, Semih (29 March 2013). "Turkey's Ultra-Nationalists Playing With Fire". Al-Monitor. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f Sullivan, Colleen (2011). "Grey Wolves". In Martin, Gus. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Terrorism (2nd ed.). Sage Publications. pp. 236–7. 
  14. ^ a b Canefe, Nergis; Bora, Tanıl (2004). "Intellectual Roots of Anti-European Sentiments in Turkish Politics: The Case of Radical Turkish Nationalism". In Çarkoğlu, Ali; Rubin, Barry. Turkey and the European Union: Domestic Politics, Economic Integration and International Dynamics. Routledge. p. 125, 129. ISBN 9781135761202. 
  15. ^ a b c Cooley, John K. (2002). Unholy Wars: Afghanistan, America and International Terrorism (3rd ed ed.). London: Pluto Press. p. 195. ISBN 9780745319179. "A Turkish Fascist youth group, the "Grey Wolves," was recruited to fight with the Chechens." 
  16. ^ a b c d Combs, Cindy C.; Slann, Martin (2007). "Grey Wolves". Encyclopedia of terrorism. New York: Facts On File. p. 110. ISBN 9781438110196. "The Grey Wolves, the unofficial militant arm of the MHP, has been involved in street killings and gunbattles." 
  17. ^ Farmer, Brian R. (2010). Radical Islam in the West: Ideology and Challenge. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. p. 108. ISBN 978-0786459537. "...a Turkish terrorist group known as the Gray Wolves..." 
  18. ^ Carroll, Rory (3 November 1999). "KGB plotted to kill Pope and bug Vatican". The Guardian. "...the Grey Wolves terrorist group..." 
  19. ^ a b Prabha, Kshitij (April 2008). "Defining Terrorism". New Delhi, India: Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses. "Mohamed Ali Agca of Turkey, the man who shot at Pope John Paul II in Rome had no political motive. The investigating agency in Italy tried to establish his link with the Turkey based terrorist group, 'Grey Wolf,' however, could not get any evidence of his political connection." 
  20. ^ a b c d Ali, Kyamal (18 February 2014). ""Серые волки" собрались на охоту". ann.az (in Russian) (Azerbaijan News Network). "В 1995 году Верховный суд ликвидировал регистрацию «Боз Гурд» в связи с названием организации, известной в мире как террористическая." 
  21. ^ "The list of prohibited on the territory of the RK foreign organizations". din.gov.kz. Committee for Religious Affairs of The Ministry of Culture and Sport of the Republic of Kazakhstan. "II. By the judgment of the Supreme Court from March 15, 2005: "Boz Gourde". «Boz Gourde» also known as the «Grey Wolves» is an far right nationalist Turkish militant organization. The basic ideological concept is turanizm (creating a single state of the Turkic peoples)." 
  22. ^ Yermukanov, Marat (4 May 2005). "Kazakhstan and Turkey search for common ground". Eurasia Daily Monitor. Jamestown Foundation. "Kazakhstan has officially banned the Kurdish People's Congress and the Turkish nationalist Boz Gurt (Grey Wolves) organization for being "terrorist organizations."" 
  23. ^ a b c Sloan, Stephen; Anderson, Sean K. (2009). "Gray Wolves". Historical Dictionary of Terrorism. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. pp. 213-4. ISBN 9780810863118. 
  24. ^ a b Marcus, Aliza (2007). Blood and Belief: The PKK and the Kurdish Fight for Independence. New York University Press. p. 50. ISBN 9780814796115. "...attacks on minority Alawite communities by the Grey Wolves, including the Kahramanmaras massacre in 1978..." 
  25. ^ a b Orhan Kemal Cengiz (25 December 2012). "Why was the commemoration for the Maraş massacre banned?". Today's Zaman. "This was the beginning of the massacre; later on, angry mobs lead by grey wolves scattered into the city, killing and raping hundreds of Alevis." 
  26. ^ a b CWI reporters in Istanbul (2 May 2010). "Hundreds of thousands on Taksim Square on Mayday". Committee for a Workers' International. Archived from the original on 22 October 2014. "In 1977, at the peak of a revolutionary movement in Turkey, half a million gathered there. Immediately after the demonstration began, snipers – from the fascist Grey Wolves, or from the police (this is still not clear today) – began shooting at the masses." 
  27. ^ a b c d Isingor, Ali (6 September 2000). "Istanbul: Gateway to a holy war". CNN. Archived from the original on 17 October 2014. 
  28. ^ a b Roy, Olivier; Sfeir, Antoine; King, John, eds. (2007). The Columbia World Dictionary of Islamism. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 375. ISBN 9780231146401. "During the first Chechen war, from 1993 to 1996, the paramilitary wing of the MHP, known as the "Boz- kurlar" ("The Grey Wolves") — in honor of Kemal Ataturk — had sent men to fight with the Chechen rebels." 
  29. ^ H. Akin Ünver (April 2009). "Turkey’s “Deep-State” and the Ergenekon Conundrum". Middle East Institute. p. 2. "The “grey wolf ” sign, as well as the unique hand gesture used by Turkish nationalist groups, refers to the she-wolf depicted in the Ergenekon legend." 
  30. ^ a b c d Zaman, Amberin (20 April 1999). "Turkey's Gray Wolves Nip at Heels of Power". Los Angeles Times. 
  31. ^ a b Koutroubas, T., Vloeberghs, W. and Yanasmayan, Z. 2009. Political, Religious and Ethnic Radicalisation Among Muslims in Belgium. MICROCON Policy Working Paper 5, Brighton: MICROCON.
  32. ^ White, Jenny (2013). "The Anthropology of Self-Defence". Bülent Journal of Contemporary Turkey. "The gray wolf has long been a symbol of ultranationalists, who at their rallies hold up the forefinger and little finger of both hands in the sign of the wolf..." 
  33. ^ Matusitz, Jonathan (2015). Symbolism in Terrorism: Motivation, Communication, and Behavior. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 12. ISBN 9781442235793. "...a controversial hand gesture known as the Wolf Head. it is used by Turks who support or belong to the Grey Wolves..." 
  34. ^ "Murder in Anatolia: Christian missionaries and Turkish ultranationalism". Berlin: European Stability Initiative. 12 January 2011. pp. 1–2. "Both in Malatya and in Istanbul the local branches of the ultranationalist Grey Wolf youth organisation (Ulku Ocaklari) had also organised demonstrations against Christians." 
  35. ^ Vermaat, Emerson (19 July 2010). "Resurgence of Anti-Semitism in Turkey and Amsterdam". Investigative Project on Terrorism. 
  36. ^ Rabasa, Angel; Larrabee, F. Stephen (2008). The Rise of Political Islam in Turkey. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation. ISBN 9780833044570. "In the 1978 Kahramanmaraş incident, rightwing “Grey Wolves” killed about 100 left-wing Alevi activists." 
  37. ^ Political Chronology of the Middle East. Routledge. 2001. p. 234. ISBN 978-1857431155. "June 1988: An unsuccessful assassination attempt was made on President Özal by a senior member of the 'Grey Wolves', a neo-fascist organization involved in the violence of the 1970s." 
  38. ^ "Turkish Prime Minister Turgut Ozal Escapes Assassination". Reuters. 18 June 1988. 
  39. ^ Cohen, Sam (20 June 1988). "Ozal sees plot behind shooting". The Christian Science Monitor. 
  40. ^ "Turkish leader links shooting, Greek trip". Chicago Tribune. 20 June 1988. p. 4. 
  41. ^ Ayik, Zeki; Yoruk, Zafer F. (13 December 1996). "Istanbul University: Alleged Police-Ulkucu Collaboration Escalates Tensions". Turkish Daily News (208) (Hürriyet). Retrieved 2009-01-02. 
  42. ^ "Battle of words between PM and opposition leader Bahçeli". Hürriyet Daily News. 22 April 2011. 
  43. ^ "Nationalists stage protests against package across Turkey". Hürriyet Daily News. 2 October 2013. 
  44. ^ "Hundreds march against Syrian refugees". Hürriyet Daily News (via Doğan News Agency). 14 July 2014. 
  45. ^ Yalçın, Zübeyde. "Anti-Syrian protests sign of growing tensions in southern Turkey". Daily Sabah (21 July 2014). 
  46. ^ "10 people, including two police officers, killed in two Turkish provinces". Hürriyet Daily News. 9 October 2014. "Pictures from the incident showed large groups of protesters carrying knives and sticks while making the sign of the grey wolf, a far-right symbol associated with the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP)." 
  47. ^ Dettmer, Jamie (10 October 2014). "Kobani is Falling to ISIS in Syria. Kurd Protests Explode in Turkey.". The Daily Beast. "The involvement of Huda-Par and the Grey Wolves in the violence rocking the southeast augurs badly." 
  48. ^ Lee, Martin A. (1997). "On the Trail of Turkey's Terrorist Grey Wolves". Consortium for Independent Journalism. 
  49. ^ Jacoby, Tim. "Political Violence, the ‘War on Terror’ and the Turkish State". University of St Andrews. p. 7. 
  50. ^ Pacal, Jan (4 April 1997). "The Short and Bloody History of Ulkucus". Turkish Daily News (222) (Hürriyet). Archived from the original on 19 October 2014. "Ulkucus, the ultranationalists, were the lead players of the Turkish Gladio that was revealed with the Susurluk Accident. Abdullah Catli, a convicted criminal whose name was mentioned very often and who was accused of many cases, was mentioned as the head of the Gladio. There were many Ulkucu Special Team officers, ministers, deputies who were accused of being the member of the Gladio." 
  51. ^ Park, Bill (October 2008). "Turkey’s Deep State: Ergenekon and the Threat to Democratisation in the Republic" 153 (5). Royal United Services Institute. p. 54. doi:10.1080/03071840802521937. 
  52. ^ a b "Machete attacks raise fears over widespread violence". Today's Zaman. 14 July 2013. 
  53. ^ Lee, Martin A. (2000). The Beast Reawakens: Fascism's resurgence from Hitler's Spymasters to Today's Neo-Nazi Groups and Right Wing Extremists. New York: Routledge. p. 202. "The paramilitary wing of the Grey Wolves have been utilized by the Turkish intelligence services to assassinate PKK leaders." 
  54. ^ Brzezinski, Zbigniew; Sullivan, Paige, ed. (1997). Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States: Documents, Data, and Analysis. Washington, D.C.: M. E. Sharpe. p. 616. ISBN 9781563246371. "It is also revealed that a new force of 200 armed members of the Grey Wolves organization has been dispatched from Turkey in preparation for a new Azeri offensive and to train units of the Azeri army." 
  55. ^ Demoyan, Hayk (2006). Турция и карабахский конфликт [Turkey and the Karabakh conflict] (in Russian). Yerevan. p. 111. "«Серые волки» в Азербайджане находились на легальном положении. Здесь насчитывалось около 15 тыс. членов организации, причем все они находились «под ружьем», служа в Национальной армии и МВД, а также в независимых вооруженных формированиях." 
  56. ^ Fuller, Liz (30 May 2007). "Azerbaijan: Date For Presidential Ballot Confirmed". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Archived from the original on 10 October 2014. "...National Democratic Party (aka Boz Gurd, Gray Wolves)..." 
  57. ^ Cherni︠a︡vskiĭ, Stanislav (2002). Новый путь Азербайджана [Azerbaijan's New Path]. Azer-Media: Moscow. p. 169. "Партия «Боз гурд» («Серые волки») возникла в рядах НФ, организационно оформилась весной 1992 г. Партия считала себя филиалом турецкой экстремистской организации «Серые волки», которая была запрещена в Турции..." 
  58. ^ Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (2 May 1995). "Information on the strength and activities of a group called the Grey Wolves, and on whether this group is related to the ultra right-wing group called the Grey Wolves in Turkey". European Country of Origin Information Network. 
  59. ^ de Waal, Thomas (2003). Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan Through Peace and War. New York: New York University Press. pp. 251–2. ISBN 978-0-8147-1945-9. 
  60. ^ Imanli, Mahammad; Nasrullayev, Shahin (July 2007). "Fight Against Terrorist Financing". Crime & Justice International (National Criminal Justice Reference Service) 23 (99): 35–37. "The article concludes with a refutation of claims that Turkish terrorists ("Grey Wolves") are operating in Azerbaijan." 
  61. ^ Goltz, Thomas (2003). Chechnya Diary: A War Correspondent's Story of Surviving the War in Chechnya. New York: Thomas Dunne Books. p. 22. ISBN 9780312268749. "I called a well-informed diplomat pal and arranged to meet him at a bar favored by the pan-Turkic crowd known as the Gray Wolves, who were said to be actively supporting the Chechens with men and arms.
    ...the Azerbaijani Gray Wolf leader, Iskander, Hamidov..."
     
  62. ^ Cornell, Svante (2005). Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus. Routledge. pp. 226–7. ISBN 9781135796693. "Nevertheless it seems certain that isolated groups of Azeri Grey Wolves have participated in the war..." 
  63. ^ Evangelista, Matthew (2003). The Chechen Wars: Will Russia Go the Way of the Soviet Union?. Washington: Brookings Institution Press. p. 89. ISBN 9780815724971. "From Azerbaijan, the Grey Wolves opposition party sent 270 fighters to Chechnya in mid-December." 
  64. ^ "Он хату покинул, пошел воевать...". Kommersant (in Russian). 18 January 1995. "По информации ФСК Дагестана азербайджанская организация "Серые волки" направила в Чечню 80 боевиков." 
  65. ^ a b Anastasiou, Harry (2008). The Broken Olive Branch: Nationalism, Ethnic Conflict, and the Quest for Peace in Cyprus. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press. p. 152. ISBN 9780815650904. 
  66. ^ "Greece condemns Turkish barbarity". Cyprus News Agency. 1996-08-12. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  67. ^ Wes Johnson, Balkan inferno: betrayal, war and intervention, 1990-2005, (Enigma Books, 2007), 389.
  68. ^ "Chronology for Turkish Cypriots in Cyprus". refworld.org. Minorities at Risk. 2004. 
  69. ^ Fritz, Johann P. (23 October 2003). "IPI expresses concern over brutal attack on Turkish Cypriot journalist". ifex.org. Reporters Without Borders. 
  70. ^ Dutch: Guy Van Vlierden, Grijze Wolven zijn ook actief in Vlaamse partijen - Turkse extreemrechtse beweging geïnfiltreerd in Agalev en SP.A, Alert!, October–November 2002
  71. ^ Dutch: Fuat Korkmazer stapt op bij Turkse vereniging, Het Nieuwsblad, 8 septembre 2006
  72. ^ French: Hugues Dorzée, Le loup gris du PS hante Schaerbeek, Le Soir, 12 October 2006
  73. ^ Turkish: Hakkımızda / Wir über uns (Official website of the Grey Wolves in Europe)
  74. ^ Komisar, Lucy. "The Assassins of a Pope". Retrieved 2006-07-04. 
  75. ^ Haffmans, Ernst. "Belabberd resultaat Grijze Wolven bij gemeenteraadsverkiezingen 2006". Onderzoeksgroep Turks extreem-rechts. Xs4all.nl. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Fikret Aslan, Kemal Bozay: Graue Wölfe heulen wieder. Türkische Faschisten und ihre Vernetzung in der BRD [Grey Wolves howl again. Turkish fascists and their networks in Germany]. Münster 2000, ISBN 3-89771-004-8.
  • Barbara Hoffmann, Michael Opperskalski, Erden Solmaz: Graue Wölfe. Koranschulen. Idealistenvereine. Türkische Faschisten in der Bundesrepublik [Grey Wolves. Koranic schools. Idealists clubs. Turkish fascists in Germany]. Köln 1981, ISBN 3-7609-0648-6.
  • Jean-Christophe Grangé: Das Imperium der Wölfe [The Empire of the Wolves]. Bergisch Gladbach 2005, ISBN 3-404-15411-8.