Griko dialect

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Griko dialect
Griko
Native to Italy
Region Salento, Apulia
Ethnicity Griko people
Native speakers
unknown (20,000 cited 1981)[1]
40,000 to 50,000 L2 speakers
Indo-European
Language codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog sale1242[2]
Linguasphere 56-AAA-aia
{{{mapalt}}}
Location map of the Italiot-speaking areas in Salento and Calabria

Griko, sometimes spelled Grico, is the dialect of Italiot Greek which is spoken by the Griko people in Apulia. Some Greek linguists consider it to be a Modern Greek dialect and often call it Katoitaliotikà (Greek: Κατωιταλιωτικά, "Southern Italian") or Grekanika (Γραικάνικα), while its own speakers call it Katoitaliótika (Κατωιταλιώτικα) or Griko (Γκρίκο). Griko and Standard Modern Greek are mutually intelligible to some extent.[citation needed]

Classification[edit]

The most popular hypothesis on the origin of Griko is the one by Gerhard Rohlfs[3] and Georgios Hatzidakis, stating that Griko's roots go as far back in history as the time of the ancient Greek colonisation of Southern Italy and Sicily in the 8th century BC, and in that respect, this Southern Italian dialect is considered to be the last living trace of the Greek elements that once formed Magna Graecia.

There are, however, competing hypotheses according to which Griko may have preserved some Doric elements, but its structure is otherwise mostly based on mainstream Koiné Greek like almost all other Modern Greek dialects.[4] Thus, Griko should rather be described as a Doric-influenced descendant of Byzantine Greek. The idea of Southern Italy's Greek dialects being historically derived from Medieval Greek was proposed for the first time in the 19th century by Giuseppe Morosi.[5]

Geographic distribution[edit]

Two small Italiot-speaking communities survive today in the Italian regions of Calabria (Province of Reggio Calabria) and Apulia (peninsula of Salento). The Italiot-speaking area of Salento comprises nine small towns in the Grecìa Salentina region (Calimera, Martano, Castrignano de' Greci, Corigliano d'Otranto, Melpignano, Soleto, Sternatia, Zollino, Martignano), with a total of 40,000 inhabitants. The Calabrian Griko region also consists of nine villages in Bovesia, (including Bova Superiore, Roghudi, Gallicianò, Chorìo di Roghudi and Bova Marina) and four districts in the city of Reggio Calabria, but its population is significantly smaller, supposedly around 2000.

Official status[edit]

By Law no. 482 of 1999, the Italian parliament recognized the Griko communities of Reggio Calabria and Salento as a Greek ethnic and linguistic minority. This states that the Republic protects the language and culture of its Albanian, Catalan, Germanic, Greek, Slovene and Croat populations, and of those who speak French, Provençal, Friulian, Ladin, Occitan and Sardinian.[6]

Culture[edit]

There is rich oral tradition and Griko folklore. Griko songs, music and poetry are particularly popular in Italy and Greece. Famous music groups from Salento include Ghetonia and Aramirè. Also, influential Greek artists such as Dionysis Savvopoulos and Maria Farantouri have performed in Griko.

Samples[edit]

Sample text from Καληνύφτα – Kalinifta ("Good night") and Andramu pai, popular Griko songs:

Griko Modern Greek English Translation
Καληνύφτα - Kalinífta Καληνύχτα - Kaliníhta Good night
Εβώ πάντα σε σένα πενσέω,
γιατί σένα φσυχή μου 'γαπώ,
τσαι που πάω, που σύρνω, που στέω
στην καρδία μου πάντα σένα βαστώ.
Εγώ πάντα εσένα σκέφτομαι,
γιατί εσένα ψυχή μου αγαπώ,
και όπου πάω, όπου σέρνομαι, όπου στέκω,
στην καρδιά μου πάντα εσένα βαστώ.
I always think of you
because I love you, my soul,
and wherever I go, wherever I drag myself into, wherever I stay,
inside my heart I always hold you.
transliteration: transliteration: ...
Evó pánta se séna penséo,
yiatí séna fsihí mou 'ghapó,
tche pu páo, pu sýrno, pu stéo
stin kardía mu pánta séna vastó.
Egó pánta eséna skéftome,
yiatì eséna psihí mu agapó,
ke ópu páo, ópu sérnome, ópu stéko
stin kardiá mu pánta eséna vastó.
...


Griko Modern Greek English Translation
'Aντρα μου πάει - Andramu pai Ο άνδρας μου πάει - O andras mou pai My husband is left
Στέκω τη μπάντα τσαι στέκω εντώ σόνο
Στέω πουμμα σαν τσαι στε, πένσεω στο τρένο
Πένσεω στο σκοτεινό και στη μινιέρα
που πολεμώντα ετσεί πεθαίνει ο γένο!
Ακούω την μπάντα, ακούω τη μουσική
Είμαι εδώ μαζί σας μα σκέφτομαι και το τρένο
Σκέφτομαι το σκοτεινό ορυχείο
όπου δουλεύοντας εκεί πεθαίνει ο κόσμος!
I hear the band, I hear the music
I'm here with you but thinking of the train
Thinking of the dark mine
where the people work and die!
transliteration: transliteration: ...
Ste kuo ti banda ce ste kuo itto sono,
steo ettù ma 'sà ce ste penseo sto treno,
penseo sto skotinò citti miniera
pu polemònta ecì peseni o jeno!
Akuo ti banda, akuo ti musiki
ime edo me sas ma skeptome ke to treno
skeptome to skotinò to orikhio
pu doulevontas eki petheni o kosmos!
...

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ N. Vincent, Italian, in B. Comrie (ed.) The world's major languages, London, Croom Helm, 1981. pp. 279-302.
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Griko dialect". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ G. Rohlfs, Griechen und Romanen in Unteritalien, 1924.
  4. ^ G. Horrocks, Greek: A history of the language and its speakers, London: Longman. 1997. Ch. 4.4.3 and 14.2.3.
  5. ^ G. Morosi, Studi sui dialetti greci della terra d'Otranto, Lecce, 1870.
  6. ^ Law no. 482 of 1999: "La Repubblica tutela la lingua e la cultura delle popolazioni albanesi, catalane, germaniche, greche, slovene e croate e di quelle parlanti il francese, il franco-provenzale, il friulano, il ladino, l'occitano e il sardo."

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]