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The grzywna (Proto-Slavic *grivĭna from Proto-Slavic *griva 'neck, nape') was a measure of weight, mainly for silver, commonly used throughout medieval central and eastern Europe, particularly in the Kingdom of Poland, Kingdom of Bohemia, and Kievan Rus'. Grzywna was also a unit of measure of a unit of exchange, and as such used as money in the 10–15th centuries. Silver ingots acted as commodity money before widespread use of minted coins. Several different grzywnas developed with their own system of weight and exchange, such as the Kulm grzywna, Krakow grzywna, Novgorod grivna, or Kiev grivna. Today the hryvnia is the currency in Ukraine.
The names in various languages are as follows: Old East Slavic: гривьна grivĭna, Russian: гри́вна grivna, Ukrainian: гри́вня hryvnia, Belarusian: гры́ўня hryŭnia, Bulgarian: гри́вна grivna, Serbo-Croatian: гри̑вна grȋvna, Polish: grzywna, Czech: hřívna, Upper Sorbian: hriwna, Lithuanian: grivina.
The Krakow grzywna, used in Poland, weighed anywhere from 196.26 g to 201.86 g, depending on the timeframe. In the 14th century, it was equal to 196.26 g, while in the beginning of the 16th century in weighed 197.684 g, but after 1558 it was equivalent to 201.802 g and after 1650 it was 201.86 g.
As a measure of unit of exchange, the Krakow grzywna was equal to 48 Prague groschen. During the rule of Wladyslaw I the Elbow-high 576 denarii were struck from one Krakow grzywna of silver. During the rule of his son Casimir the Great, 768 denarii were struck from it and during the reign of Władysław II Jagiełło, it was 864 denarii.
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