Central !Kung

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Central !Kung
Grootfontein !Xuun
Native to Namibia
Region Grootfontein
Native speakers
(no estimate available)
Kx'a
Language codes
ISO 639-3 None (mis)
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Central !Kung (Central !Xuun), or Central Ju, is a recently distinguished variety of the !Kung dialect cluster, spoken in a small area of northern Namibia: Neitsas, in Grootfontein district, and Gaub, in Tsumeb district. It is frequently reported as Grootfontein !Xuun, as most work has been done in Grootfontein.

Phonology[edit]

Grootfontein !Kung is unusual in having true retroflex clicks, which are subapical for some speakers and have lateral release, as in the word for 'water', [ǃ̬˞ ˡú] (provisionally written g‼ú). There are thus five places of articulation in Grootfontein clicks, /ǃ ǀ ǁ ǂ ‼/. These come in eight series, here represented with the retroflex articulation:

Lingual /‼ ‼ʰ ᶢ‼ ᵑ‼ ᵑ̊‼ʰ/, glottalized /ᵑ̊‼ˀ/, linguo-pulmonic /‼χ/, linguo-glottalic /‼͡kxʼ/

Otherwise, the Grootfontein inventory is similar to that of Ekoka !Kung, except that it lacks the (pre)voiced affricates dχ, dʒ, dʒʼ, dʃχʼ.

References[edit]

  • Amanda Miller, 2011. "The Representation of Clicks". In Oostendorp et al. eds., The Blackwell Companion to Phonology.
  • Miller, Sands, et al., 2010. "Retroflex Clicks in Two Dialects of !Xung" (Grootfontein and Ekoka)
  • Amanda Miller, 2009. "Contrastive Coronal Click Types in !Xung" (Grootfontein)

External links[edit]