|Opening||16 October 1966|
|Line length||13.0 km (8.1 mi)|
|No. of tracks||Double|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)|
|Electrification||750 V DC (third rail)|
|Operating speed||70 km/h (43 mph)|
|Highest elevation||195.8 m (642 ft)|
The Grorud Line (Norwegian: Grorudbanen) is a 13.0-kilometer (8.1 mi) line on the Oslo Metro between Tøyen and Vestli in Oslo, Norway. Running mixed at-grade and through tunnels, it runs through the northern part of Groruddalen, serving such neighborhoods as Grorud, Romsås and Stovner. The line is served by Line 5 of the metro. North of Carl Berners plass, the Ring Line branches off. This section is also served by lines 4 and 6. The line is owned by Kollektivtransportproduksjon and operated by Oslo T-banedrift on contract with Ruter using MX3000 trains. Line 5 runs eight times per hour during the day, while lines 4 and 6 run every 15 minutes. Line 4 only runs northwards, while Line 6 only runs southwards. The line is the busiest branch of the metro, with 40,000 daily riders.
The section from Tøyen to Grorud opened in 1966, as the second branch of the metro. It was extended to Rommen and later Stovner in 1974, and to Vestli in 1975. The Ring Line was opened in 2003. There are plans to extend the line further northwards into Nittedal, and build a branch, the Hasle Line, from between Hasle and Økern to the Ring Line, and a branch to connect the Grorud Line to the Furuset Line.
The Grorud Line branches from the Common Tunnel at Tøyen, and runs first northwards and then north-east. The line serves the northern part of Groruddalen, which is predominantly an apartment housing area built from the 1950s though the 1970s. It runs through both the boroughs of Bjerke and Grorud. From Carl Berners plass to Ensjø, there is a single-tracked branch, which allows trains access to the other eastern lines without having to change direction.
The rapid transit station is served by lines 4, 5 and 6 of the Oslo Metro. Line 5 has eight services per hour, while the other two operate four times per hour. All have reduced services during late evenings and parts of the weekends. Line 5 runs the entire section of the Grorud Line, while lines 4 and 6 both only run from Tøyen to Carl Berners plass, and then run along the Ring Line. Line 6 only runs towards the city center, while Line 4 only runs from the city center. Operations of the line is done by Oslo T-banedrift on contract with Ruter, the public transport authority in Oslo and Akershus. The infrastructure itself is owned by Kollektivtransportproduksjon, a municipal company. Service is provided using MX3000 three- and six-car trains. The line has 40,000 daily passengers, making it the busiest branch of the metro. Travel time along the line, from Tøyen to Vestli, is 23 minutes. Travel time from Vestli to Stortinget in the city center is 27 minutes. Transfer to Ruter buses are available at Tøyen, Carl Berners plass, Hasle, Økern, Linderud, Ammerud, Grorud and Stovner. Transfer to the Sinsen Line of the Oslo Tramway is available at Carl Berners plass.
In 1948, the municipalities of Oslo and Aker were merged, and the new municipality started planning an expansion of the suburbs, among other places in Groruddalen. On 15 September 1949, the Planning Office For the Suburban and Underground Lines was establish as a division within the new municipality. The first specific plans were launched in March 1954, and consisted of four branches, including one on the north side of Groruddalen, which would be built to Grorud. The plans originally consisted of terminus in the city center at Grønlands torg, with a possible extension to Nationaltheatret, where the line would intersect with Holmenkolbanen's light rails serving Oslo West. However, it was quickly decided that the terminus would be Jernbanetorget, which served the Oslo East Station.
Construction of the Grorud Line started in February 1956. Landwork and electrical equipment was contracted to developers, while the trackage was done by the Planning Office. The original plans called for the use of 600 to 650 volt (V) direct current (DC) fed via a pantograph, to allow comparability with the western light rail. This was later changed to 750 V DC via a third rail. This was chosen to allow a higher diameter, and thus a higher ampere, and easier maintenance. The system also took into use cab signaling and moving blocks, which were cutting edge technology at the time, and had only been implemented on the Stockholm Metro in Europe by then. While the permitted headway on the common sections was set to 90 seconds, it was set to 120 seconds on the Grorud Line. The original plans called for a depot on each of the lines, including the Grorud Line, but this was later changed to a central depot at Ryen.
The section from Tøyen to Grorud was opened on 16 November 1966, five months after the metro had opened with the Lambertseter Line, and as the first branch of the metro to not be converted from a light rail. The Grorud Line was extended on 3 March 1974 to Rommen, on 18 August to Stovner, and was completed on 12 December 1975 to Vestli. The line took into use T1000 electric multiple units which could be up to six cars long. Originally the service terminated at Jernbanetorget in the city center, in addition to a service which ran via the branch from Carl Berners plass to the Lambertseter Line, and terminated at Ryen. On 9 January 1977, the city center service was extended to Sentrum. However, this station was closed from 20 March 1983 to 7 March 1987, and reopened as Stortinget. From 8 April 1995, the trains on the Grorud Line continued all the way through the Common Tunnel to Blindern on the Sognsvann Line, which serves the main campus of the University of Oslo.
On 20 August 2003, Line 5 had its western terminus extended to Storo, which opened along with the first part of the Ring Line. In on 17 July 2004, during construction of the Ring Line, part of the tunnel collapsed, causing the Grorud Line to be closed for six months, causin the 40,000 daily riders to have to use a bus from Tøyen. On 22 August 2006, the Ring Line was opened from Carl Berners plass to Sinsen, resulting in the section from Tøyen to Carl Berners plass also being served by lines 4 and 6. In 2007, the system started taking delivery of the new MX3000 units which would replace the old stock. From 18 August 2008, the line's frequency was increased from four to eight trains per hour, although the extra trains terminate at Stortinget. By 2010, all T1000 stock had been retired.
Since 9 December 2012, the Grorud Line is connected with the Røa Line in the west.
The Hasle Line is a proposed branch which would connect the Grorud to the Ring Line in such a way that trains running down the Grorud Line can turn onto the Ring Line. It is proposed built between Hasle and Økern, and would allow trains to serve Sinsen and onwards on the Ring Line. The proposal is part of Oslo Package 3 and is budgeted to cost NOK 600 million. It would include a station at Løren, which is estimated to have 6,000 daily passengers. The branch will increase the number of east–west trains on the metro, without having to upgrade the Common Tunnel. Ruter has also proposed building a connection with the Furuset Line, between Furuset and Økern. Trains running on the line will connect to the Ring Line via the Hasle Line. Other proposals involve extending the line to Slattum in Nittedal.
In the western end of the Grorudalen, a branch from Stovner has been proposed to connect to the Furuset Line. It would have new stations at Øvre Stovner, Lørenskog Station of the Trunk Line and the Oslo Commuter Rail, and Visperud. Visperud has also been proposed as a location for a park and ride for between 500 and 2,000 cars, as it is located on National Road 159 and European Route E6. Part of the rationale is to serve the new suburb of Skårerødgården, which is planned with 1,200 new houses, located within the catchment area of Lørenskog Station. The line would run entirely underground. The cost of building the 4.8 kilometers (3.0 mi) from Ellingsrudåsen to Stovner is estimated at NOK 2.4 billion.
Independent of the northern extension, is a branch from the Furuset Line to a point on the Grorud Line. The plan is to build a new line from Økern via Breivoll, where there would be an interchange with the Trunk Line, to Trosterud on the Furuset Line. Such a cross connection will allow both interconnection between the lower levels of the Grorud Line and the Furuset Line, and at the same time give access from the Furuset Line to the Ring Line. In addition to this, the plans call for a parallel line to the Furuset Line to run through the lower parts of Grurudalen, between the Furuset Line and the Trunk Line. This line could either connect to the Furuset Line at Furuset, or run across the valley, via Grorud Station on the Trunk Line, and connect to the Grorud Line at Rommen.
- Aspenberg (1994, p. 33)
- Tvedt, Knut Are. "Grorud". Store Norske Leksikon (in Norwegian). Retrieved 26 November 2010.
- Tvedt, Knut Are. "Bjerke". Store Norske Leksikon (in Norwegian). Retrieved 26 November 2010.
- Strandholt (1994, p. 207)
- Ruter. "Rutetabeller T-banens linjer 2-6 og buss 1B, 1C, 1D" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 10 October 2010.
- Kollektivtransportproduksjon. "Forside" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 26 November 2010.
- Jensen, Grethe Kielland (22 April 2010). "Tar farvel med siste røde". Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 4 May 2010. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
- Haakaas, Einar (14 August 2005). "Tunnelras i retten Kamp om utgifter etter byggetabben i Hasletunnelen". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). p. 10.
- Oslo City Archive. "Tunnelbanekontoret" (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 22 November 2010. Retrieved 22 November 2010.
- Strandholt (1994, p. 208)
- Strandholt (1994, p. 209)
- Strandholt (1994, p. 211)
- Aspenberg (1994, p. 29)
- Aspenberg (1994, p. 30)
- Strandholt (1994, p. 210)
- Wiik, Karsten (8 April 1995). "Stor ruteomlegging". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). p. 43.
- Skomakerstuen, Bjørn (15 August 2003). "Tyvstart for T-baneringen". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). p. 12.
- Nergård, Eirik (17 August 2006). "Én ring skal samle Oslo". Dagsavisen (in Norwegian). p. 34.
- Ravneberg, Rebecca (18 August 2008). "På første ekstraavgang". Akers Avis Groruddalen (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 26 November 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
- "Oslopakke 3 – Beskrivelse av tiltaksporteføljen for Oslo og Akershus" (in Norwegian). Norwegian Public Roads Administration. Archived from the original on 26 November 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
- "K2010" (in Norwegian). Ruter. p. 72. Archived from the original on 26 November 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
- Sunde, Knut Olaf (May 2006). "Offentlig Transport i Oslo-området" (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 26 November 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
- Akershus County Municipality (2008, p. 38)
- Akershus County Municipality (2008, p. 10)
- Akershus County Municipality (2008, p. 35)
- Akershus County Municipality (2008, p. 75)
- "Planprogram Breivoll- /Alanområdet" (in Norwegian). Oslo Municipality. p. 51. Archived from the original on 30 November 2010. Retrieved 30 November 2010.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Grorudbanen.|
- Aspenberg, Nils Carl (1994). Trikker og forstadsbaner i Oslo (in Norwegian). Oslo: Baneforlaget. ISBN 82-91448-03-5.
- Strandholt, Thorleif (1994). A/S Oslo Sporveier – Busser, T-banen (in Norwegian). Oslo: Sporvejshistorisk Selskab. ISBN 87-87589-35-4.