Grosgrain //, also gros-grain and, rarely, gros grain, is a type of fabric characterized by its ribbed appearance. In grosgrain, the weft is heavier than the warp, creating prominent transverse ribs. It is called a "corded" fabric since the weft resembles a fine cord. Grosgrain is a plain weave corded fabric, with heavier cords than in poplin but lighter than in faille. Grosgrain has a very dull appearance with little luster but is very strong. It is a firm, close-woven, fine-corded fabric. While grosgrain fabric is generally black, it can be many different colors, and grosgrain ribbon comes in a large variety of colors and patterns.
“Grosgrain” is commonly used to refer to a heavy, stiff ribbon of silk or nylon woven via taffeta weave using a heavy weft which results in distinct transverse ribs. Historically grosgrain was made from wool, silk, or a combination of fibers such as silk and wool or silk and mohair. When a combination of fibers was used, the end result was sometimes given the name grogram, silk mohair, gros de Tours or gros de Napels.
Grosgrain is both a direct French loan word and a corruption of and folk adaptation of the French word grogram. Grogram, originally gros gram (appeared in literature in 1562), is defined as a coarse, loosely woven fabric of silk, silk and mohair, or silk and wool. The adjective gros means "relatively very large", hence coarsely big and fat, thence coarse, originally from the Old French gros, itself derived from the Latin grossus.
Moire is a waved or watered effect produced especially on grosgrain silk and woolen moreen via engraved rollers and high pressure on carded material. The end result is a peculiar luster which works best when made from a corded fabric like grosgrain.
Use in clothing
Throughout the 17th century, grosgrain fabric was used as the fabric body (corpus) for many garments, including waistcoats, jackets, petticoats, beeches, sleeves, jerkins and many other items of clothing, as a cheaper alternative for the lower socio-economic demographic than fine-woven silk or wool. Factories in America started to produce grosgrain silk in the late 19th century.
Throughout the 1920s the term seems to have remained true to original definition as a garment fabric. However, circa 1920s it fell out of favor as a garment fabric and was defined identically to contemporary terminology as a grosgrain ribbon. While grosgrain fabric is almost always black, grosgrain ribbon comes in a large variety of colors and printed patterns.
Grosgrain that does have some luster is a very popular fabric especially for ribbons, which are used to ornament and decorate clothing. As grosgrain has less luster than burnished silk or satin it is very popular with and common in evening wear because it is seen as less "flashy", though silk and satin can commonly be found on day wear. Although grosgrain may actually be made of silk or satin, it is often erroneously referred to as a separate fabric.
Lustrous grosgrain is used extensively to join female semi-detached clothing articles such as bodices to skirts and similar, where this necessary joint may be visible. Ribbed grosgrain may be used similarly to twill tape for internal gussets and reinforcements. Grosgrain ribbon is often used for facings and for waistbands. Using a grosgrain ribbon facing for waistbands is faster and uses less fabric. It is also works especially well with bulky fabrics.
McCall's Sewing Book states: "grosgrain ribbon is used with any heavy fabric to reduce bulk" though it may be the word "bulk" is used in the sense of outward appearance, rather than actual mass. McCall elaborates: "grosgrain is used to finish the back of novelty braid or to face the back of any fabric belt."
As a more subtle option to lustrous satin, grosgrain is very popular with evening wear, used on the facings of lapels of most dress coats and high-end dinner jackets and tuxedos. Grosgrain is traditionally used to hem and highlight the cut of lapel, collar and visible outermost edges of the formal frock coat and the later morning coat. Hemmed frock-coats, as described, may be seen in the film Gone with the Wind noted for its historically accurate costume. Grosgrain is preferred over satin for practicality—it does not wear as easily as delicate silk or satin, as the threads do not snag as easily (on a ring or keys, for instance). Grosgrain is also used for matching accessories such as bow ties and cummerbunds, though these are often in barathea to complement the main suiting while still avoiding the glare of satin, increasingly gaining a 'flashy' image.
Grosgrain is also used in millinery. Grosgrain ribbons are popular creating ribbon decorations for hats (made into flowers, for example), however grosgrain is most notably used in top hats and opera hats, or as the trimming band on the Homburg.
Cargo and packing use
A particular characteristic of grosgrain ribbon is that the thicker weft resists longitudinal curling and so it exerts an even pressure when tied around crushable materials. Nylon grosgrain is often used as heavy-duty webbing or binding around luggage, packs, messenger bags and other heavy use "soft" goods. It is also used for securing cargo. It can be dyed and is available in a variety of colours (though again usually black).
Grosgrain made out of cotton or low-cost synthetic such as polyester is very common for gift-wrap ribbons, or for decorating and ornamenting scrapbooks and greeting cards. It can be used for many different crafts as well, from bead making, to book-binding, to trimming or embellishing, as well as a multitude of other uses. Grosgrain ribbon is the primary ribbon material used in the hair bow industry.
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Grosgrain out of cotton or low-cost synthetic such as polyester is very popular for use as a lanyard, and is often printed on by large corporate companies to use as a marketing or branding tool to promote their companies.
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Polyester grosgrain in a 5/8-inch width can be used as the tensioning material attaching the snares of a snare drum to the throw-off mechanism, with the ribbing providing good insurance against slippage. Some like to use it in an attempt to lessen sympathetic snare buzz from external sources as it will hold the tab ends of the snares closer to the head than string and it will provide more dampening than mylar straps.
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