Gross national product

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"GNP" redirects here. For other uses, see GNP (disambiguation).

Gross national product (GNP) is the market value of all the products and services produced in one year by labour and property supplied by the citizens of a country. Unlike Gross Domestic Product (GDP), which defines production based on the geographical location of production, GNP allocates production based on location of ownership.

GNP does not distinguish between qualitative improvements in the state of the technical arts (e.g., increasing computer processing speeds), and quantitative increases in goods (e.g., number of computers produced), and considers both to be forms of "economic growth".[1]

When a country's capital or labour resources are employed outside its borders, or when a foreign firm is operating in its territory, GDP and GNP can produce different measures of total output. In 2009 for instance, the United States estimated its GDP at $14.119 trillion, and its GNP at $14.265 trillion.[2]


The United States used GNP as its primary measure of total economic activity before 1991, when it began to use GDP.

[3] In making the switch, the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) noted both that GDP provided an easier comparison of other measures of economic activity in the United States and that "virtually all other countries have already adopted GDP as their primary measure of production."[4]

List of countries by GDP (nominal, Atlas method) (millions of current US$)[5] (Top 10)[edit]

Rank 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008
1  United States 16,967,740  United States 16,430,393  United States 15,783,451  United States 15,143,680  United States 14,738,387  United States 15,006,629
2  China 8,905,336  China 7,724,734  China 6,592,664  China 5,669,446  China 4,808,292  Japan 4,835,553
3  Japan 5,875,019  Japan 6,084,013  Japan 5,775,633  Japan 5,376,602  Japan 4,797,984  China 4,040,756
4  Germany 3,716,838  Germany 3,632,843  Germany 3,653,868  Germany 3,549,011  Germany 3,484,998  Germany 3,487,319
5  France 2,789,619  France 2,749,106  France 2,797,949  France 2,756,160  France 2,742,734  United Kingdom 2,842,307
6  United Kingdom 2,506,906  United Kingdom 2,439,784  United Kingdom 2,411,262  United Kingdom 2,412,708  United Kingdom 2,561,347  France 2,699,777
7  Brazil 2,342,556  Brazil 2,312,072  Italy 2,152,932  Italy 2,153,083  Italy 2,141,109  Italy 2,139,80
8  Italy 2,058,172  Italy 2,072,306  Brazil 2,107,017  Brazil 1,859,084  Brazil 1,575,963  Canada 1,484,344
9  Russia 1,988,216  India 1,913,178  India 1,769,419  India 1,555,615  Spain 1,473,956  Spain 1,451,086
10  India 1,960,072  Russia 1,824,088  Canada 1,609,363  Canada 1,511,464  Canada 1,447,920  Brazil 1,434,287
  • as can be seen almost all European countries couldn't get their GNP at pre 2009 levels back, with the exception for Germany and Russia who could increase their GDP level of that before the crisis. Britain's Crisis started earlier therefore the UK's peak was in 2007, accounting for a GNP of about 2.891 Trillion Dollars in that year.[6]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Daly, Herman E. (1996), Beyond Growth. Beacon Press
  2. ^ "Flow of Funds Accounts of the United States" (PDF). Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. 17 September 2010. p. 9. 
  3. ^ "BEA: Glossary "G"". Bureau of Economic Analysis. 5 September 2007. 
  4. ^ "Gross Domestic Product as a Measure of U.S. Production" (PDF). August 1991. 
  5. ^ GNI, Atlas method
  6. ^


External links[edit]