Grosse Point Light

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Grosse Point Light
Grosse Point Lighthouse.jpg
Grosse Point Light Station
Grosse Point Light is located in Illinois
Grosse Point Light
Location 2601 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, Illinois
Coordinates 42°3′50″N 87°40′34″W / 42.06389°N 87.67611°W / 42.06389; -87.67611Coordinates: 42°3′50″N 87°40′34″W / 42.06389°N 87.67611°W / 42.06389; -87.67611
Year first constructed 1873[1]
Year first lit 1874[1]
Automated 1935[2]
Deactivated 1941[3] but reactivated 1946 as Private Aid to Navigation[4]
Foundation Stone/Concrete[2]
Construction Cream City Brick[5] encased in concrete[2] Italianate bracketing
Tower shape Frustum of a Cone tower attached to storage building[2]
Markings / pattern yellow w/red trim & red roof[6][7]
Height 113 ft (34 m) tower[8]
Focal height Focal plane - 119 feet (36 m)[9]
Original lens Second order Fresnel lens[3]
Current lens Second order Fresnel lens
Intensity 68,000 candlepower
Range Original: 18 nautical miles; 34 kilometres (21 mi)[10]
Characteristic 2 white flashes every 15 seconds[7][11]
ARLHS number USA-359[12][13]
USCG number

7-20190

Grosse Point Light Station
Grossepoint.jpg
Undated USCG photo
Area 3.5 acres (1.4 ha)
Governing body Local
NRHP Reference # 76000707[14]
Added to NRHP September 08, 1976

The historic Grosse Point Light is located in Evanston, Illinois. Following several shipping disasters near Evanston, residents successfully lobbied the federal government for a lighthouse. Construction was completed in 1873. The lighthouse was added to the National Register of Historic Places on September 8, 1976.[14] On 20 January 1999, the lighthouse was designated a National Historic Landmark.[15] It is maintained under the jurisdiction of the Evanston Lighthouse Park District, an independent taxing authority.[3][16][17]

History[edit]

Impetus[edit]

The United States government agreed to construct the lighthouse at Grosse Point after several maritime disasters near the area showed need for it. Shoals were a real hazard, and ship traffic was increasing concurrent with development in the Midwest, the growth of Chicago, the aftermath of the Chicago Fire, and the increased trade and exploitation of natural resources throughout the Great Lakes.[10] Particularly influential was the 1860 sinking of the Lady Elgin, a disaster which claimed more than 300 lives.[10][18] The citizens of Evanston petitioned the government for the light station, but the Civil War (1861-1865) delayed any funding for the project.[1] Lighthouses in Chicago proper were proving themselves insufficient, so there was a perceived need for action.[11]

Construction[edit]

The project to construct a lighthouse began in 1872, supervised by Orlando Metcalf Poe, who designed the buildings.[19] Most of the construction was completed by June 30, 1873, although the lamp would not be lit for several months. Finally, in March 1874, the light commenced operation.[1] The building is designed in Italianate architecture.[6]

In summer 1865 Colonel Poe became the Lighthouse Board's chief engineer; in 1870 he was promoted to the position of Chief Engineer of the Upper Great Lakes 11th Lighthouse District. In this capacity he designed eight "Poe style lighthouses" and oversaw construction of several. Poe was named District Engineer for the Eleventh Lighthouse District, Those lights are New Presque Isle Light (1870) on Lake Huron, Lake Michigan's South Manitou Island Light (1872), Grosse Point Light (1873) in Evanston, Illinois, Lake Superior's Au Sable Light (1874), Racine, Wisconsin's Wind Point Light (1880); Outer Island Light (1874) in the Apostle Islands, Little Sable Point Light (1874) on Lake Michigan, Manistique, Michigan's Seul Choix Light (1895) and Spectacle Reef Light.[20]

Deactivation and conversion to private aid to navigation[edit]

In 1935, the federal government turned over the grounds and the buildings, except for the lighthouse tower and light, to the city of Evanston. In 1941, the Grosse Point Light Station was decommissioned by the United States Coast Guard as a precaution against possible air raids in the wake of the attack on Pearl Harbor. After the decommissioning, the city received the tower and the light.[1] But the lease allows the government to take the light station back if they ever needed it for official use.[1]

The light was reignited in 1945 and has served as a secondary navigational aid ever since.[10] The lighthouse is operated by the Lighthouse Park District of Evanston, Illinois, once known as the Northeast Park District, but since renamed in honor of the lighthouse.[1][10]

Illinois has two well-known and historic light stations in the Chicago area, plus two pierhead lights. [21] Chicago has no area lighthouse preservation group, and this light has been the primary beneficiary of preservation efforts in the area. The Calumet Harbor Light -- just across the border in Indiana, and one of eleven past or present lighthouses in Indiana, [21][22] was demolished in 1995.[21]

Architecture and design[edit]

Light tower[edit]

The Gross Point Light's primary structure is the conical light tower. The tower stands on a concrete foundation with wooden piles that reach to a depth of 30 feet (9.1 m). The tower's two outer walls include an inner air space between them. The inner wall has a thickness of 8 inches (200 mm) and rises vertically. The outer wall, at a thickness of 12 inches (300 mm), rises at a slight incline and gives the tower its conical shape. The tower begins with a 22-foot (6.7 m) circumference at its base and 13 feet 3 inches (4.04 m) at its parapet. The tower lantern is of glass and iron construction and is topped by a copper sheeting roof.[17]

Lantern and optics[edit]

The second order Fresnel lens /frˈnɛl/ is the largest lens (one of five) placed on the Great Lakes, which underscores the importance of this light.[4] The lens was manufactured by Henry-Lepaute Company of Paris.[11] It is still in place, which makes it even more unique;[19] it has been said that this is the single remaining 2nd Order Fresnel lens that is still in place and in service on the Great Lakes.[4]

This is one of only 70 such Fresnel lenses that are still operational in the United States, sixteen of which are in use on the Great Lakes of which eight are in Michigan.[23]

Grosse Point legends[edit]

The site of the Grosse Point Lighthouse is the purported site where Father Jacques Marquette landed in 1674 during his trip down the west side of Lake Michigan to visit various Illinois Native American tribes. This tale is largely anecdotal as there is no real historical proof that this ever occurred.[1]

Current activities[edit]

The light is 13 miles (21 km) north of Chicago, just north of Northwestern University. Notwithstanding that it is outside the corporate limits of Chicago, it is said: "The keeper's house is Chicago's only maritime museum; one fog signal building serves as a visitor center while the other houses a nature center"[21] The dwelling and tower are opened during summer weekends for tours.[24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Grosse Point Lighthouse" (PDF). HAARGIS Database. Illinois Historic Preservation Agency. Retrieved 2008-07-20. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Historic Light Station Information and Photography: Illinois". United States Coast Guard Historian's Office. Retrieved 2008-07-20. 
  3. ^ a b c "Grosse Point Lighthouse". National Historic Landmark. National Park Service. Retrieved 2008-07-20. 
  4. ^ a b c Wobser, David. "Grosse Point Light". boatnerd.com. Retrieved 2008-07-20. 
  5. ^ "Terry Pepper, Seeing the Light, Grosse Point Light.". 
  6. ^ a b "Grosse Point Light". Maritime Heritage Program, Inventory of Historic Lights. National Park Service. Retrieved 2008-07-20. 
  7. ^ a b Light List, Volume VII, Great Lakes (PDF). Light List. United States Coast Guard. 2007. 
  8. ^ Pepper, Terry. "Database of Tower Heights". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com. 
  9. ^ Pepper, Terry. "Database of Focal Heights". Seeing the Light. terrypepper.com. 
  10. ^ a b c d e "Grosse Point Lighthouse - History". Lighthouse Park District at grossepointlighthouse.net. Retrieved 2008-07-20. 
  11. ^ a b c Pepper, Terry. "Grosse Point Lighthouse". Seeing the Light: Lighthouses on the western Great Lakes. terrypepper.com. Retrieved 2008-07-20. 
  12. ^ "Amateur Radio Lighthouse Society, Grosse Point (Lake Michigan) Light ARLHS USA-359". 
  13. ^ "Amateur Radio Lighthouse Society, World List of Lights.". 
  14. ^ a b "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13. 
  15. ^ "National Historic Landmarks Survey, National Park Service, Listing of National Historic Landmarks by State" (PDF). 
  16. ^ "List of National Historic Landmarks" (PDF). National Park Service. November 2007. pp. page 27. Archived from the original on 2008-06-24. Retrieved 2008-07-20. 
  17. ^ a b Terras, Donald J. (1998-08-03). "National Historic Landmark Nomination: Grosse Point Light Station" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved 2008-07-20.  - "Accompanying 9 images" (PDF). 
  18. ^ Claims vary as to the exact number killed in the sinking of the Lady Elgin. Estimates of 300 are available in the January 1990 issue of Illinois Issues via Northern Illinois University Libraries. The estimate was reasserted by Northwestern University's Medill News Service on April 15, 1999. An excerpt from the 1860 diary of Fannie Seward indicates that the reports of the day stated 300 dead. However, other sources such as information hosted on Stanford University's servers estimates 470 dead.
  19. ^ a b Terras, Donald J. "Grosse Point Light Station - National Historic Landmark Study". Maritime Heritage Program, Maritime Landmarks. National Park Service. Retrieved 2008-07-20. 
  20. ^ "Wobser, David, Boatnerd.com, Orlando Poe.". 
  21. ^ a b c d Rowlett, Russ. "Lighthouses of the United States: Illinois". The Lighthouse Directory. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 
  22. ^ Rowlett, Russ. "Lighthouses of the United States: Indiana". The Lighthouse Directory. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 
  23. ^ "United States Coast Guard, Fresnel Lenses Still in Operation" (PDF). 
  24. ^ "Anderson, Kraig. Lighthouse friends, Grosse Point Light.". 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]