The (1st) Grote Mandrenke (/ɣroːtə mandrɛŋkə/, Low Saxon for "Great Drowning of Men") was a massive southwesterly Atlantic gale (see also European windstorm) which swept across England, the Netherlands, northern Germany, and Schleswig around 16 January 1362, causing at minimum 25,000 deaths. 16 January is the feast day of St. Marcellus (pope Marcellus I), hence the terrible storm tide is also called the "2nd St. Marcellus flood". The "1st St. Marcellus flood" which drowned 36,000 people mainly in West Friesland and Groningen (today provinces in the north of the Netherlands) took place on the same day (16 January) in 1219.
An immense storm tide of the North Sea swept far inland from the Netherlands to Denmark, breaking up islands, making parts of the mainland into islands, and wiping out entire towns and districts, such as Rungholt on the island of Strand in North Frisia and Ravenser Odd in East Yorkshire.
This storm tide, along with others of like size in the 13th century and 14th century, played a part in the formation of the Zuiderzee, and was characteristic of the unsettled and changeable weather in northern Europe at the beginning of the Little Ice Age.
See also