Ground Launched Cruise Missile
A ground launched cruise missile (GLCM) is an unmanned aircraft for military attack (e.g., "pilotless bomber"/"surface-to-surface missile") which uses aerodynamic lift in flight after being launched (usually by firing) from a surface (ground or sea) launcher or site. GLCMs generally used automatic flight control, some GLCMs used airburst nuclear detonations to damage the surface target,:12 and GLCMs include the following:
- Kettering Bug, a pre-WWII manned aircraft tested with remote control in the United States
- V-1 flying bomb, "the first true operational GLCM" used in 1944 for the WWII Robot Blitz
- Republic-Ford JB-2, a US Army Air Forces variant of the V-1
- Operation Aphrodite and Anvil aircraft, USAAF B-17 or US Navy B-24 bombers flown to targets by remote control after bailout of take-off crews
- Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg, a planned V-1 with cockpit that became a missile when the German pilot bailed out (cf. Japanese manned V-1 models used for kamikaze)
- KGW-1 Loon, a post-war US Navy variant of the V-1
- MGM-1 Matador, a USAF jet-propelled missile with rocket-assisted take off (RATO) guided by MARC and preceded by 15 SSM variants:9
- Martin MGM-13 Mace, a variant of the Matador
- Regulus I & II, USN cruise missiles
- Snark, a USAF cruise missile
- Navaho missile, a USAF GLCM program carried "AN/APW-11 radar transponder" avionics for tracking by a ground control radar[specify] to allow—during the autopilot's "automatic stable flight"--command guidance by radio control via an AN/ARW-56 airborne receiver processing commands from the AN/ARW-55 transmitter at the radar station.
- General Dynamics BGM-109G Gryphon, a Boost Guided Missile of the class prohibited by the 1988 INF Treaty
- Lanning, Lt Col Randall L. (1992) (AD-A258 351 Research Report). United States Air Force Ground Launched Cruise Missiles (Report). Air War College. "MARC (Manual Airborne Radio Control). [sic] It used an AN/MSQ-I mobile ground radar set and an AN/APW-IIA airborne radar assembly (12:129). … "Mace A" … MM-1 Teracruzer … TM-61C Missile Operations Handbook, undated, published by the 701st TMW. … TM-76A Training Plan, Document No. TODO-30021, 9 Mar 61." (In misnaming "Manual Airborne Radio Control", Lanning cites: 12. "History of USAFE, 1 Jan through 30 Jun 1957, Vol I, Narrative, 15 Nov 57".
- "The North American RTV-A-5/X-10". The 456th Fighter Interceptor Squadron: The Protectors of S. A. C. last update 6/13/2009. (cites: James N. Gibson: "The Navaho Missile Project", Schiffer Publishing Ltd, 1996 & Jay Miller: "The X-Planes, X-1 to X-45", Midland Publishing, 2001