Northern Shoshone

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Northern Shoshone
Native Americans from Southeastern Idaho, "Lemhi. Chief. Tindoor" - NARA - 519297.tif
Tindoor, Lemhi Shoshone chief and his wife, Idaho, ca. 1897, photograph by Benedicte Wrensted
Regions with significant populations
 United States ( Idaho, Utah,  Wyoming)
Languages
Shoshone,[1] English
Religion
Native American Church, Sun Dance,
traditional tribal religion,[2] Christianity, Ghost Dance
Related ethnic groups
other Shoshone people, Bannock

Northern Shoshone are Shoshone indigenous peoples of the Great Basin who primarily live in southern Idaho and the westernmost edge of Wyoming. They are culturally affiliated with the Bannock people.

Language[edit]

Northern Shoshone is a dialect of the Shoshone language, a Central Numic language in the Uto-Aztecan language family. It is primarily spoken on the Fort Hall and Wind River Reservations.[1]

Bands[edit]

Bands of Shoshone people were named for their geographic homelands and for their primary foodsources.

Mountain Shoshone Bands:

Northwestern Shoshone Bands:

  • Kammitikka or Kamu-deka (Jack Rabbit Eaters, Bannock Creek Shoshone), Snake River, Great Salt Lake[3] living from a base on Bannock Creek and Arbon Valley they claimed lands extending from Raft River to the Portneuf River and Portneuf Range in northern Utah and southern Idaho, so that their country took in part of the Fort Hall Reservation when it was established in 1867. In 1873, the three major Bannock Creek bands (Pocatello’s, with 101 people; San Pitch, with 124; and Sagwitch, with 158) moved to the reservation at Fort Hall, and a small group went to Wind River; possibly synonymous with Hukundüka or Hukan-deka (Porcupine Grass Seed Eaters, Wild Wheat Eaters).[3]
  • Painkwitikka or Pengwideka (Penkwitikka, Fish Eaters, Bear Lake Shoshone), ranged from McCammon to Bear Lake along the Bear River and Logan River in the border region between Idaho and Utah, and on over to the continental divide.
  • Cache Valley Shoshone (This band of Eastern Shoshoni ranged into Idaho and Utah with their major base in Cache Valley - called in Shoshone Seuhubeogoi - ″Willow Valley″ - not far from the later Wyoming border. They were practically wiped out at the Bear River Massacre (Battle of Bear River) (Idaho’s largest Indian battle), January 29, 1863, by Colonel P. E. Connor’s California Volunteers. Followed two month’s later by a similarly destructive campaign by Jefferson Standifer’s Placerville Volunteers against the Shoshone at Salmon Falls, this fight led to a series of Shoshone and Bannock treaties (Fort Bridger, July 2; Box Elder, July 30; Ruby Valley, October 1; Soda Springs, October 14) affecting Idaho, as well as the Toole Valley Band of Goshute of the Western Shoshone.
  • Weber Utes, a Shoshone band farther south along the Weber River to the Great Salt Lake in Utah, because having intermarried with neighboring Cumumba Band of Utes, they speak the same dialect as the other Northwestern bands with a slight Ute accent, and were therefore usually called Weber Utes - but they speak Shoshone and are primary of Shoshone stock; were overlooked in the treaty-making process and never got a reservation.

Fort Hall Shoshone Bands:

Western Bands of Northern Shoshone:

  • Yahandeka or Yahantikka (Yakandika, Groundhog Eaters, grouped into three main geographical groupings of bands):
    • Boise Shoshone, among the early mounted Shoshone bands, they traveled over a considerable range by the beginning of the nineteenth century, with their main hunting lands along the lower Boise River and Payette River. When Donald MacKenzie developed the Snake country fur trade after 1818, the most prominent of the Boise Shoshone, Peiem (a Shoshoni rendition of “Big Jim,” their leader’s English name), became the most influential leader of the large composite Shoshoni band that white trappers regularly encountered in the Snake country. Peiem served as the most important Shoshone spokesman at MacKenzie’s great peace conference on Little Lost River in 1820, and figured conspicuously in Shoshone affairs when Alexander Ross and Peter Skeene Ogden led the Snake expedition later in the decade. Peiem’s son, and successor, Captain Jim, was a leader of the Boise Shoshone at the time of their removal, March 12-April 13, to the Fort Hall Reservation, which had been established for the Boise and Bruneau Shoshone, June 14, 1867
    • Bruneau Shoshone, were not organized into bands, occupied southwestern Idaho, mainly south of Snake River along the Bruneau River, when the gold rush to Boise Basin brought settlers in after 1862. After their treaty of April 12, 1866, went unratified, the Fort Hall Reservation was set aside partly for them. Later in 1877, the Duck Valley Reservation was established in their lands.
    • Weiser Shoshone or Shewoki Shoshone, lived along the lower Weiser River to New Plymouth[3][4], this country was called Shewoki or si.wo.kki?i - "willow-striped" by the Shoshone, some of whom resisted placement on the Malheur Reservation, finally settled at Fort Hall and on the Duck Valley Indian Reservation.

Tribes and reservations[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]