Group 10 element

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"Group 10" redirects here. For the rugby league competition, see Group 10 Rugby League.
Group 10 in the periodic table
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transition metal)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
group 9  group 11
IUPAC group number 10
Name by element nickel group
CAS group number
(US; pattern A-B-A)
part of VIIIB
old IUPAC number
(Europe; pattern A-B)
part of VIII

↓ Period
4
Image: A piece of nickel, about 3 cm in size
Nickel (Ni)
28 Transition metal
5
Image: Palladium crystal
Palladium (Pd)
46 Transition metal
6
Image: Platinum nugget
Platinum (Pt)
78 Transition metal
7 Darmstadtium (Ds)
110 unknown chemical properties

Legend
primordial element
synthetic element
Atomic number color:
black=solid

Group 10, numbered by current IUPAC style, is a group of chemical elements in the periodic table, which consists of nickel (Ni), palladium(Pd), platinum(Pt), and darmstadtium(Ds). All are d-block transition metals. All known isotopes of Ds are radioactive with short half-lives, and are not known to occur in nature; only minute quantities have been synthesized in laboratories.

Like other groups, the members of this group show patterns in electron configuration, especially in the outermost shells, although for this group they are particularly weak, with palladium being an exceptional case. The relativistic stabilization of the 7s orbital is the explanation to the predicted electron configuration of darmstadtium, which, unusually for this group, conforms to that predicted by the Aufbau principle.

Chemistry[edit]

Z Element No. of electrons per shell
28 nickel 2, 8, 17, 1
46 palladium 2, 8, 18, 18
78 platinum 2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1
110 darmstadtium 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 16, 2[1]

Darmstadtium has not been isolated in pure form, and its properties have not been conclusively observed; only nickel, palladium, and platinum have had their properties experimentally confirmed. All three elements are typical silvery-white transition metals, hard, and refractory, with high melting and boiling points.

Properties[edit]

Group 10 metals are white to light grey in color, and possess a high luster, a resistance to tarnish (oxidation) at STP, are highly ductile, and enter into oxidation states of +2 and +4, with +1 being seen in special conditions. The existence of a +3 state is debated, as the state could be an illusory state created by +2 and +4 states. Theory suggests that group 10 metals may produce a +6 oxidation state under precise conditions, but this remains to be proven conclusively in the laboratory other than for platinum.

Occurrence[edit]

Production[edit]

Applications[edit]

The group 10 metals share several uses. These include:

Biological role and toxicity[edit]

Nickel has an important role in the biochemistry of organisms, as part of the active center of enzymes. None of the other group 10 elements have a known biological role, but platinum compounds have widely been used as anticancer drugs. Aside from nickel, the elements are toxic for organisms.

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.chemistry-reference.com/pdictable/q_elements.asp?language=en&Symbol=Ds