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'Group insurance' is an insurance that covers a group of people, usually who are the members of societies, employees of a common employer, or professionals in a common group. Group coverage can help reduce the problem of adverse selection by creating a pool of people eligible to purchase insurance who belong to the group for reasons other than for the purposes of obtaining insurance. In other words, people belong to the group not because they possess some high-risk factor which makes them more apt to purchase insurance (thus increasing adverse selection); instead they are in the group for reasons unrelated to insurance, such as all working for a particular employer.
Investopedia defines Group Life Insurance as "Life insurance offered by an employer or large-scale entity (i.e. association or labor organization) to its workers or members. Group life insurance is typically offered as a piece of a larger employer or membership benefit package.By purchasing coverage through a provider on a "wholesale" basis for its members, the coverage costs each individual worker/member much less than if they had to purchase an individual policy. . People who elect coverage through the group policy receive a "certificate of credible coverage," which will be necessary to provide to a subsequent insurance company in the event that the individual leaves the company or organization and terminates their coverage." ( Source : Investopedia)
From the above paragraphs we can infer the following are the characteristics of Group Life Insurance
a. there must be a group of people to be insured which should have something in common other than the purpose of obtaining insurance
b. there must be a Master Policy Holder who will retain the contract on the behalf of the member and the carriers
c. Such covers are typically available at a discount to the respective individual rates.
Insurable Groups can broadly be classified as mainly two types - " employer - employee " groups where all members work for the employer proposing to cover them or "affinity" groups, whose members have a commonality other than employment - say deposit holders of a bank.
The Master Policy Holder of a Group Life Insurance Plan in the case of an "Employer Employee Group" is basically the Employer and for other groups would be the entity that has an insurable interest in the lives of its members. So in the case of a bank it could be said to have an insurable interest in the lives of its members who hold a deposit or have taken a loan. The Master Policy Holder also ensures each member gets their certificate of coverage stating the details of the premium paid, cover available, term of the cover and the claims process
A feature which is sometimes common in group insurance is that the premium cost on an individual basis is not individually risk-based. Instead it is the same amount for all the insured persons in the group. So, for example, in the United States, often all employees of an employer receiving health or life insurance coverage pay the same premium amount for the same coverage regardless of their age or other factors. In contrast, under private individual health or life insurance coverage in the U.S., different insured persons will pay different premium amounts for the same coverage based on their age, location, pre-existing conditions, etc.Group policies are also attractive to consumers because the average price per policy is often lower. Carriers are interested in gaining customers and will cut prices a bit to accommodate members of group. Data shows that, for example, drivers save 29% on average by attaching themselves to a group policy..
All members for whom the premium is paid for the period and the risks in respect of such members accepted by the underwriters of the insurance company are generally eligible to purchase or renew coverage all whilst he or she is a member of the group subject to certain conditions. Again, using U.S. health coverage as an example, under group insurance a person will normally remain covered as long as he or she continues to work for a certain employer and pays the required insurance premiums, whereas under individual coverage, the insurance company often has the right to non-renew a person's individual health insurance policy when the policy is up for renewal, which it may do if the person's risk profile changes (though some states limit the insurance company's ability to non-renew after the person has been under individual coverage with a given company for a certain number of years).
In Canada group insurance is usually purchased through larger brokerage firms because brokers receive better rates than individual companies or unions. There may be slight differences in terms of administration and market related practices world wide, even though the concept may be the same. For example, In India, broker procured group term insurance, unlike Canada, does not intrinsically have any price advantage to the buyer i.e. the Master Policy Holder.
Group Life Insurance covers may be either compulsory - in which case every member has no say in opting for the cover or voluntary where all eligible members may decide within an enrolment window to opt for the available Group Insurance. This is irrespective of who pays the premium.
Since compulsory covers offer no scope for adverse selection they come with far relaxed underwriting requirements than voluntary covers, Underwriting requirements even for Voluntary Group Life Covers are far lower than the respective requirements for individual lives.
Group Health Insurance is also provided in India. It provides healthcare coverage to a group of people belonging to a common community (typically as employees of a company). These plans are generally uniform in nature, offering the same benefits to all employees or members of the group.
Most professionally run companies today provide Group Health Insurance as a part of their Employee Welfare program. Each company however gets the plan customized based on the employee demographics.