Growth differentiation factor

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Growth differentiation factors (GDFs) are a subfamily of proteins belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily that have functions predominantly in development.[1]

Types[edit]

Several members of this subfamily have been described, and named GDF1 through GDF15.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Herpin A, Lelong C, Favrel P (2004). "Transforming growth factor-beta-related proteins: an ancestral and widespread superfamily of cytokines in metazoans". Dev Comp Immunol 28 (5): 461–85. doi:10.1016/j.dci.2003.09.007. PMID 15062644. 
  2. ^ Rankin C, Bunton T, Lawler A, Lee S (2000). "Regulation of left-right patterning in mice by growth/differentiation factor-1". Nat Genet 24 (3): 262–5. doi:10.1038/73472. PMID 10700179. 
  3. ^ Lopez-Coviella I, Follettie M, Mellott T, Kovacheva V, Slack B, Diesl V, Berse B, Thies R, Blusztajn J (2005). "Bone morphogenetic protein 9 induces the transcriptome of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102 (19): 6984–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.0502097102. PMC 1088172. PMID 15870197. 
  4. ^ Truksa J, Peng H, Lee P, Beutler E (2006). "Bone morphogenetic proteins 2, 4, and 9 stimulate murine hepcidin 1 expression independently of Hfe, transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2), and IL-6". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103 (27): 10289–93. doi:10.1073/pnas.0603124103. PMC 1502450. PMID 16801541. 
  5. ^ Levine A, Brivanlou A (2006). "GDF3 at the crossroads of TGF-beta signaling". Cell Cycle 5 (10): 1069–73. doi:10.4161/cc.5.10.2771. PMID 16721050. 
  6. ^ Levine A, Brivanlou A (2006). "GDF3, a BMP inhibitor, regulates cell fate in stem cells and early embryos". Development 133 (2): 209–16. doi:10.1242/dev.02192. PMID 16339188. 
  7. ^ Chen C, Ware S, Sato A, Houston-Hawkins D, Habas R, Matzuk M, Shen M, Brown C (2006). "The Vg1-related protein Gdf3 acts in a Nodal signaling pathway in the pre-gastrulation mouse embryo". Development 133 (2): 319–29. doi:10.1242/dev.02210. PMID 16368929. 
  8. ^ O'Keeffe G, Dockery P, Sullivan A (2004). "Effects of growth/differentiation factor 5 on the survival and morphology of embryonic rat midbrain dopaminergic neurones in vitro". J Neurocytol 33 (5): 479–88. doi:10.1007/s11068-004-0511-y. PMID 15906156. 
  9. ^ Buxton P, Edwards C, Archer C, Francis-West P (2001). "Growth/differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) and skeletal development". J Bone Joint Surg Am. 83-A Suppl 1 (Pt 1): S23–30. PMID 11263662. 
  10. ^ Francis-West P, Parish J, Lee K, Archer C (1999). "BMP/GDF-signalling interactions during synovial joint development". Cell Tissue Res 296 (1): 111–9. doi:10.1007/s004410051272. PMID 10199971. 
  11. ^ Chang C, Hemmati-Brivanlou A (1999). "Xenopus GDF6, a new antagonist of noggin and a partner of BMPs". Development 126 (15): 3347–57. PMID 10393114. 
  12. ^ Asai-Coakwell M, French C, Berry K, Ye M, Koss R, Somerville M, Mueller R, van Heyningen V, Waskiewicz A, Lehmann O (2007). "GDF6, a novel locus for a spectrum of ocular developmental anomalies". American Journal of Human Genetics 80 (2): 306–15. doi:10.1086/511280. PMC 1785352. PMID 17236135. 
  13. ^ Hanel M, Hensey C (2006). "Eye and neural defects associated with loss of GDF6". BMC Dev Biol 6: 43. doi:10.1186/1471-213X-6-43. PMC 1609107. PMID 17010201. 
  14. ^ McPherron AC, Lawler AM, Lee SJ (May 1997). "Regulation of skeletal muscle mass in mice by a new TGF-beta superfamily member". Nature 387 (6628): 83–90. doi:10.1038/387083a0. PMID 9139826. 
  15. ^ Juengel J, Bodensteiner K, Heath D, Hudson N, Moeller C, Smith P, Galloway S, Davis G, Sawyer H, McNatty K (2004). "Physiology of GDF9 and BMP15 signalling molecules". Anim Reprod Sci. 82-83: 447–60. doi:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2004.04.021. PMID 15271472. 
  16. ^ Hreinsson J, Scott J, Rasmussen C, Swahn M, Hsueh A, Hovatta O (2002). "Growth differentiation factor-9 promotes the growth, development, and survival of human ovarian follicles in organ culture". J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87 (1): 316–21. doi:10.1210/jc.87.1.316. PMID 11788667. 
  17. ^ Hino J, Kangawa K, Matsuo H, Nohno T, Nishimatsu S (2004). "Bone morphogenetic protein-3 family members and their biological functions". Front Biosci 9: 1520–9. doi:10.2741/1355. PMID 14977563. 
  18. ^ Cunningham N, Jenkins N, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Reddi A, Lee S (1995). "Growth/differentiation factor-10: a new member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily related to bone morphogenetic protein-3". Growth Factors 12 (2): 99–109. doi:10.3109/08977199509028956. PMID 8679252. 
  19. ^ Andersson O, Reissmann E, Ibáñez C (2006). "Growth differentiation factor 11 signals through the transforming growth factor-beta receptor ALK5 to regionalize the anterior-posterior axis". EMBO Reports 7 (8): 831–7. doi:10.1038/sj.embor.7400752. PMC 1525155. PMID 16845371. 
  20. ^ Wu H, Ivkovic S, Murray R, Jaramillo S, Lyons K, Johnson J, Calof A (2003). "Autoregulation of neurogenesis by GDF11". Neuron 37 (2): 197–207. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(02)01172-8. PMID 12546816. 
  21. ^ Kim J, Wu H, Lander A, Lyons K, Matzuk M, Calof A (2005). "GDF11 controls the timing of progenitor cell competence in developing retina". Science 308 (5730): 1927–30. doi:10.1126/science.1110175. PMID 15976303. 
  22. ^ Zimmers T, Jin X, Hsiao E, McGrath S, Esquela A, Koniaris L (2005). "Growth differentiation factor-15/macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 induction after kidney and lung injury". Shock 23 (6): 543–8. PMID 15897808. 
  23. ^ Hsiao E, Koniaris L, Zimmers-Koniaris T, Sebald S, Huynh T, Lee S (2000). "Characterization of growth-differentiation factor 15, a transforming growth factor beta superfamily member induced following liver injury". Mol Cell Biol 20 (10): 3742–51. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.10.3742-3751.2000. PMC 85678. PMID 10779363. 
  24. ^ Ago T, Sadoshima J (2006). "GDF15, a cardioprotective TGF-beta superfamily protein". Circ Res 98 (3): 294–7. doi:10.1161/01.RES.0000207919.83894.9d. PMID 16484622. 

External links[edit]