Grumman S-2 Tracker

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S-2 Tracker
S-2A VS-29 CVS-33.jpg
An S-2A from VS-29
Role ASW aircraft
Manufacturer Grumman
First flight 4 December 1952
Introduction February 1954
Status Active service in Argentine Naval Aviation
Primary users United States Navy (historical)
Royal Canadian Navy (historical)
Royal Australian Navy (historical)
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (historical)
Argentine Naval Aviation (current)
Brazilian Naval Aviation (current)
Number built 1,284
Variants Grumman C-1 Trader
Grumman E-1 Tracer
Conair Firecat

The Grumman S-2 Tracker (previously S2F prior to 1962) was the first purpose-built, single airframe anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraft to enter service with the U.S. Navy. Designed and initially built by Grumman, the Tracker was of conventional design with twin engines, a high wing and tricycle undercarriage. The type was exported to a number of navies around the world. Introduced in 1952 the Tracker saw service in the USN until the mid-1970s with a few aircraft remaining in service with other air arms into the 21st century. The last operating fleet is maintained by Argentina and Brazil.

Design and development[edit]

The Tracker was intended as a replacement for the Grumman AF Guardian, which was the first purpose-built aircraft system for ASW, using two airframes for two versions, one with the detection gear, and the other with the weapon systems. The Tracker combined both functions in one aircraft. Grumman's design (model G-89) was for a large high-wing monoplane with twin Wright Cyclone R-1820 nine cylinder radial engines, a yoke type arrestor hook and a crew of four. Both the two prototypes XS2F-1 and 15 production aircraft, S2F-1 were ordered at the same time, on 30 June 1950. The first flight was conducted on 4 December 1952, and production aircraft entered service with VS-26, in February 1954.

Follow-on versions included the WF Tracer and TF Trader, which became the Grumman E-1 Tracer and Grumman C-1 Trader in the tri-service designation standardization of 1962. The S-2 carried the nickname "Stoof" (S-two-F) throughout its military career; and the E-1 Tracer variant with the large overhead radome was colloquially called the "stoof with a roof.".[1]

Grumman produced 1,185 Trackers. Another 99 aircraft carrying the CS2F designation were manufactured in Canada under license by de Havilland Canada. U.S.-built versions of the Tracker were sold to various nations, including Australia, Japan, Turkey and Taiwan.

Sensors and armament[edit]

U.S. Navy S-2 Tracker on the port catapult of USS Lexington (CVS-16) ready for take-off, 22 January 1963

The Tracker carried an internal torpedo bay capable of carrying two lightweight torpedoes or one nuclear depth charge. There were six underwing hard points for rocket pods and conventional depth charges or up to four additional torpedoes. A ventrally mounted retractable radome for AN/APS-38 radar and a Magnetic Anomaly Detector (MAD) AN/ASQ-8 mounted on an extendable rear mounted boom were also fitted. Early model Trackers had an Electronic Surveillance Measures (ESM) pod mounted dorsally just aft of the front seat overhead hatches and were also fitted with a smoke particle detector or sniffer. Later S-2s had the sniffer removed and had the ESM antennae moved to four rounded extensions on the wingtips. A 70 million candlepower searchlight was mounted on the starboard wing. The engine nacelles carried JEZEBEL sonobouys in the rear (16 in early marks, 32 in the S-2E/G). Early Trackers also carried 60 explosive charges dispensed ventrally from the rear of the fuselage used for active sonar (JULIE) with the AN/AQA-3 and later AQA-4 detection sets, whereas the introduction of active sonobouys and AN/AQA-7 with the S-2G conversion saw these removed. Smoke dispensers were mounted on the port ventral surface of the nacelles in groups of three each.[2][3]

Operational history[edit]

A TS-2A aircrew training version of the Tracker in 1976

The Tracker was eventually superseded in U.S. military service by the Lockheed S-3 Viking, the last USN Tracker operational squadron (VS-37 with S-2G models) was disestablished in 1976. The last Navy S-2 was withdrawn from service on 29 August 1976.[4] For many years the TS-2A version of the Tracker was used by US Navy training units including VT-28 Squadron based at Corpus Christi Naval Air Station, Texas.

A number live on as firefighting aircraft, however. Trackers continued to provide excellent service with the naval forces of other countries for years after the U.S. discontinued them. For example, the Royal Australian Navy continued to use Trackers as front line ASW assets until the mid-1980s.

Argentina[edit]

Argentine S-2T Turbo Tracker

The Argentine Naval Aviation received seven S-2A in 1962, six S-2E in 1978 and three S-2G in 1990s. They were used from both aircraft carriers, the ARA Independencia and the ARA 25 de Mayo and used in the COD (US-2A conversions [5]), Maritime Patrol and ASW roles. They were extensively used in the 1982 Falklands War, first from the 25 de Mayo, from where they detected the British Task Force and then from the mainland [6] when the carrier returned to port after the sinking of the ARA General Belgrano cruiser. In the 1990s, six remaining airframes where refurbished by Israel Aerospace Industries with turboprop engines as S-2T Turbo Trackers. As of 2010, with the retirement of Argentina's only aircraft carrier, the Trackers are annually deployed on board Brazilian Navy NAe São Paulo during joint exercises ARAEX and TEMPEREX.[verification needed][7] and with U.S. Navy's aircraft carriers during Gringo-Gaucho maneuvers.[8]

Australia[edit]

Australian Tracker 845 "in the chocks" prepares to launch from HMAS Melbourne, 1979

Between 1967 and 1984 the Royal Australian Navy operated two Squadrons of S-2E and S-2G variants, based at NAS Nowra (HMAS Albatross).[9] These were VS-816 front line squadron, which embarked in the Majestic class aircraft carrier HMAS Melbourne, as part of the 21st Carrier Air Group whenever that ship was deployed; and VC-851 training squadron.[9]

During approximately 17 years of operation of the Tracker, the RAN lost only one S-2 during aircraft operations due to an accident at sea on 10 February 1975.[9] However, on 4 December 1976, a deliberately lit fire in a hangar at Nowra destroyed or badly damaged a large proportion of the RAN's complement of Trackers.[9] These were subsequently replaced with ex-USN aircraft.[9] The replacement aircraft were all S-2Gs,[9] including the original aircraft modified by the USN to that status.[citation needed] This saw the introduction of AQA-7 acoustic gear into RAN service and all RAN operational Trackers were subsequently modified to this standard.

Brazil[edit]

The Brazilian Air Force used Trackers. They operated from the aircraft carrier NAeL Minas Gerais. Both S-2A and S-2E were used (respectively as P-16A and P-16E) at the end of its service in Brazilian Air Force, one S-2T Turbo Tracker was used as a possible upgrade, but due the high costs it was canceled. However, in 2010 the Brazilian Navy contracted Marsh Aviation to convert four S-2T[verification needed] to Airborne Early Warning configuration, and upgrading four additional Grumman C-1 Trader for tanking and Carrier Onboard Delivery duties. The latter are scheduled to be back in service by 2015. They will operate from the successor of Minas Gerais, NAe São Paulo.[10]

As noted under Argentina above, Trackers of that country have been using the São Paulo in the meantime.

Canada[edit]

Canadian Forces CP-121 Tracker from VU-33 folds its wings while taxiing at CFB Moose Jaw in 1982

In 1954, de Havilland Canada entered into a contract to build Trackers under license to replace the outmoded TBM-3E Avengers being used by the Royal Canadian Navy. A total of 99 Canadian-built Trackers entered service, starting in 1956. From 1957 onwards, these aircraft operated from the newly deployed aircraft carrier HMCS Bonaventure and various shore bases. All the Canadian Trackers were built to the earlier "A" model airframe design with a length of 42 feet (12.80 m) [11] (c.f. 43' 6" for later model Trackers) in order to fit in the Bonnie's hangar.[12] In 1960, 17 active duty CS2F-1 aircraft were transferred to the Royal Netherlands Navy. In 1964, a pair of CS2F-1 aircraft were stripped of armament and ASW electronics, converted to transports, and subsequently used for carrier onboard delivery. The CS2F-1, -2, and -3 were redesignated as the CP-121 Mk.1, Mk. 2, and Mk. 3 respectively following the unification of Canadian forces in 1968.

After Bonaventure was decommissioned in 1970, all remaining Canadian Trackers were transferred to shore bases. This limited their usefulness for ASW patrols, and between 1974 and 1981 gradually all but 20 were placed in storage and the remainder were stripped of their ASW gear. The remaining active-duty Trackers served until 1990 on fisheries protection and maritime patrol duties. A handful of Trackers were kept in flying condition until the late 1990s but were no longer used for active service.[13][14]

A single Grumman-built S2F-1, serial number X-500, was sold to de Havilland Canada before Canadian production commenced. It was initially used for quality control purposes during Canadian production, and was later given a new RCN serial number, upgraded to CS2F-1 standards, and used to train RCN ground and maintenance personnel. This aircraft was placed in storage in 1972 and as of August 2013 was undergoing restoration at the Shearwater Aviation Museum.[15]

Japan[edit]

Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force S2F-1 at Kanoya Air Base.

The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force received 50 S2F-1 in 1957 from U.S. stocks, and operated until 1984. After being received, six S2F-1 were reconfigured into four S2F-U and two S2F-C variants. The S2F-1 is nicknamed Aotaka(あおたか, Blue Hawk).

Netherlands[edit]

Dutch Grumman S-2 Tracker

The Royal Netherlands Navy, (Netherlands Naval Aviation Service or MLD) received 28[16] [Serials 146 to 173] S-2A (S2F-1) aircraft under MDAP from US Navy in 1960. 17[17] [Serials 180-196] additional CS-2A (CS2F-1) aircraft formerly operated by the Royal Canadian Navy. were delivered between December 1960 and September 1961 after being overhauled by Fairey Canada. These aircraft were operated from Valkenburg Naval Air Base as well as from the light carrier Karel Doorman until a fire in 1968 took that ship out of Dutch service.[18]

A total of 18 aircraft were converted to S-2N (for Netherlands) standard by Fairey Canada in 1968–1970 for ASW and MR use with 1 Sqn (at Hato International Airport), of which four were converted to US-2N trainer/transport standards in May 1971. Most of the de Havilland Canada-built CS-2As were scrapped by 1970 or used for ground instruction. The last Tracker in MLD service was withdrawn in January 1976, with some transferred to the Turkish Navy.[16]

Peru[edit]

Peruvian Navy S-2E Trackers

The Peruvian Navy operated with S-2E and S-2G from 1975 until 1989, they were assigned to Naval Aviation Squadron N°12 (Escuadron Aeronaval N°12). A total of 12 S-2Es were bought from the U.S. Navy in 1975 and 4 S-2G in 1983.

Taiwan[edit]

Grumman received a contract for the conversion of 32 S-2T Trackers (from 25 S-2Es and 7 S-2Gs) in service with the Republic of China Air Force in late 1980s. Only 27 were ultimately converted due to a shortage of parts supplied by Grumman resulting in the use of remaining conversion kits as spare parts. The 27 S-2Ts were transferred to the ROC Navy Aviation Command on 1 July 1999 and while the ROCN continues to operate the type, less than half of the fleet is in operational condition, will be replaced by 12 rebuilt P-3C from the U.S. Navy.[citation needed] On 2 July 2013, the rest of 11 S-2Ts were transferred back to ROC Air Force.[citation needed]

The conversion involved: two Garrett/Honeywell TPE-331-15AW turboprop engines, each rated at 1,227 kW (1,645 shp), with four-blade propellers. The upgrade also included new mission equipment of AN/AQS-92F digital sonobuoy processor, A/NARR-84 99-channel sonobuoy receiver, Litton AN/APS-504 radar, AN/ASQ-504 MAD and AN/AAS-40 FLIR. The new turboprop engines resulted in a payload increase of 500 kg. Usually carries depth charges, Mk. 44, and Mk 46 lightweight ASW homing torpedoes.[19]

Turkey[edit]

S-2E Tracker in the Istanbul Aviation Museum.

The Turkish Navy received a number of ex-U.S. Navy S-2E Trackers under the MAP program and operated them from the Cengiz Topel Naval Air Base starting in the 1960s. These were later supplemented by retired S-2A (or S-2N as called by the Dutch) airframes from Netherlands. Turkish Trackers were retired in 1994 after a series of accidents caused by the advanced age and fatigue of the airframes.

Uruguay[edit]

Uruguayan Naval Aviation Grumman S-2G Tracker (G-121)

The Uruguayan Navy received the first three S-2A Trackers on 10 April 1965 at the Capitan Curbelo Navy Base. On 15 September 1982, one S-2G arrived. On 2 February 1983, another two S-2Gs arrived. By September 2004, the remaining Uruguayan Trackers were not in flight condition.[20]

Civilian use[edit]

In the late 1980s and early '90s Conair Aviation of Abbotsford, British Columbia, Canada took possession of retired U.S. and Canadian Trackers and converted them into Firecats, with a retardant tank replacing the torpedo bay. The Firecats were made in two variants, a piston engine Firecat and a turboprop-powered Turbo Firecat.

Variants[edit]

An early S2F-1 in 1954.
S2F production line in 1956.
XS2F-1
Two prototype anti-submarine warfare aircraft powered by 1,450 hp R-1820-76WA engines.
YS2F-1
Designation of the first 15 production aircraft used for development, redesignated YS-2A in 1962.
S2F-1
Initial production variant with two 1,525 hp R-1820-82WA engines, re-designated S-2A in 1962, 740 built.
S2F-1T
Trainer conversion of S2F-1, redesignated TS-2A in 1962.
S2F-1U
Utility conversion of S2F-1, redesignated US-2A in 1962.
S2F-1S
S2F-1 conversion with Julie/Jezebel detection equipment, redesignated S-2B in 1962. Survivors converted to US-2B after removal of ASW gear.
S2F-1S1
S2F-1S fitted with updated Julie/Jezebel equipment, redesignated S-2F in 1962.
S2F-2
As S2F-1 with asymmetrical (port-side) extension of bomb bay, slightly enlarged tail surfaces, 77 built, most redesignated S-2C in 1962.
S2F-2P
Photo reconnaissance conversion of S2F-2, redesignated RS-2C in 1962.
S2F-2U
Utility conversion of S2F-2/S-2C, redesignated US-2C in 1962. Some were used as target tugs.
S2F-3
Enlarged forward fuselage, enlarged tail surfaces, additional fuel capacity, and enlarged engine nacelles bays for 32 sonobouoys, redesignated S-2D in 1962, 100 built.
S2F-3S
As S2F-3 but with Julie/Jezebel equipment, redesignated S-2E in 1962, 252 built.
YS-2A
YS2F-1 redesignated in 1962.
S-2A
S2F-1 redesignated in 1962.
TS-2A
S2F-1T training version redesignated in 1962 and 207 conversion from S-2A.
US-2A
S-2A converted as light transports/target tugs, 51 conversions.
S-2B
S2F-1S redesignated in 1962.
US-2B
Utility and target tug conversions of S-2A and S-2B; most S-2Bs were converted and 66 S-2As.
S-2C
S2F-2 redesignated in 1962.
RS-2C
S2F-2P photo-reconnaissance version redesignated in 1962.
US-2C
S2F-2U utility version redesignated in 1962.
A US-2F of VC-3.
S-2D
S2F-3 redesignated in 1962.
YAS-2D/AS-2D
Proposed self-contained night attack aircraft to be developed under Operation Shed Light; none produced.
ES-2D
Electronic trainer conversion of the S-2D.
US-2S
Utility conversion of the S-2D.
S-2E
S2F-3S redesignated in 1962.
S-2F
S2F-1S1 redesignated in 1962.
US-2F
Transport conversion of S-2F.
The final S-2G with its S-3A replacement in 1976.
S-2G
S-2E conversions with updated electronics (primarily AN/AQA-7 DIFAR sonobuoy processor and AN/ARR-75 sonobuoy receiver)
CS2F-1
Initial production run of anti-submarine warfare aircraft for Canada based on S2F-1. A total of 42 built by De Havilland Canada.[13]
CS2F-2
Improved version of CS2F-1 with Litton Industries tactical navigation equipment. A total of 57 were built by De Havilland Canada.[13]
CS2F-3
New designation given to 43 CS2F-2 aircraft upgraded with additional electronics.
CP-121
New designation given to all CS2F-1, -2, and -3 aircraft following unification of Canadian military in 1968.
Military S-2T Turbo Tracker For Argentina
6 upgraded S-2E turboprop engines conversion by IAI in 1990s for the Argentine Navy.
Military S-2T Turbo Tracker For Taiwan
27 out of 32 upgraded S-2E and S-2G turboprop engines conversion by Northrop Grumman in 1990s for then Taiwan/ROC Air Force, now operates by Taiwan/ROC Navy aviation.
S-2T Turbo Tracker
Civil conversion
S-2AT
Civil firefighter conversion with turboprop engines.
S-2ET
CDF S-2F3AT Turbine Tracker landing at Fox Field, Lancaster, California, while fighting the North Fire.
Civil conversion.
Marsh S-2F3AT Turbo Tracker
Turboprop conversion, powered by two Garrett TPE331 engines;[21] A total of 22 are operated by the CDF.
Conair Firecat or Turbo Firecat
Civil conversion as a single-seat firefighting aircraft.

Operators[edit]

Military operators (current and former)[edit]

Argentine Tracker operating from the Brazilian carrier NAe São Paulo
View from an Australian Tracker on final approach to Australian aircraft carrier HMAS Melbourne
Tracker 848 about to take the wire aboard HMAS Melbourne, 1980
Starboard wing root and fold mechanism (note: wing removed)
 Argentina
 Australia
 Brazil
 Canada
 Italy
 Japan
 Netherlands
 Peru
 South Korea
 Republic of China (Taiwan)
  • Republic of China Navy currently has 26 S-2T (upgraded S-2E/S-2G), not all operational, to be replaced by 12 rebuilt U.S. Navy P-3C Orions).
 Thailand
 Turkey
 United States
 Uruguay
 Venezuela

Civil operators[edit]

CDF S-2T on the Sawtooth Complex fire, 2006
French Sécurité Civile S-2FT Tracker used for fire-fighting duties

Many retired Trackers were sold to private owners for fire-fighting duties. Some were rebuilt and re-engined with turboprop engines.

 Canada
 France
 Netherlands
  • KLM used ex-Dutch Navy Tracker to train its mechanics.
 United States

Aircraft on display[edit]

Canadian-made CS2F-2 Tracker on permanent static display at Base Borden Military Museum.

Although still in active service in South America numbers of Trackers are on public display mainly in countries that formerly operated the type.

Specifications (S-2F)[edit]

S-2 Tracker.png

Data from Canada Aviation and Space Museum[14]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

  • 4,800 lb (2,200 kg) of payload could be carried in the internal bomb bay and on 6× under-wing hardpoints

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ O'Rourke, G.G., Captain USN. "Of Hosenoses, Stoofs, and Lefthanded Spads". United States Naval Institute Proceedings, July 1968.
  2. ^ "Grumman C-1 Trader / S-2 Tracker". Warbird Alley. 1952-12-04. Retrieved 2013-07-26. 
  3. ^ "Tracker History". S2ftracker.com. 1952-12-04. Retrieved 2013-07-26. 
  4. ^ "The Seventies." history.navy.mil. Retrieved: 15 June 2010.
  5. ^ Jackson, David D. "Grumman S2F / S-2 Trackers in service with the Argentina Navy." Surviving Grumman S2F Tracker Information Repository, 2010. Retrieved: 15 June 2010.
  6. ^ "Escuadrilla Aeronaval Antisubmarina." (in Spanish) institutoaeronaval.org. Retrieved: 15 June 2010.
  7. ^ "Pictorial and historical data (Spanish)." histarmar.com.ar. Retrieved: 15 June 2010.
  8. ^ "S-2 video." youtube.com. Retrieved: 15 June 2010.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Gillett 1987, p. 206.
  10. ^ "Brazilian Traders set for modernisation." flightglobal.com, 14 December 2011 Retrieved: 23 December 2011
  11. ^ Taylor 1987
  12. ^ "de Haviland Grumman CP-121 Tracker." airforce.forces.gc.ca. Retrieved: 19 November 2012.
  13. ^ a b c "Grumman Tracker." Shearwater Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 27 March 2008.
  14. ^ a b Tate, Colonel D.H. "Grumman CS2F / CP-121 Tracker." Canada Aviation and Space Museum. Retrieved: 22 March 2009.
  15. ^ "Grumman CS2F/CP 121 Tracker". Shearwater Aviation Museum. Retrieved 21 August 2013. 
  16. ^ a b "Netherlands Naval Aviation Service". Aeroflight.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-07-26. 
  17. ^ "Netherlands Naval Aviation Service". Aeroflight.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-07-26. 
  18. ^ "KDoorman". Steelnavy.com. Retrieved 2013-07-26. 
  19. ^ "Northrop Grumman S-2T Turbo Tracker." taiwanairpower.org, 19 October 2008. Retrieved: 22 September 2010.
  20. ^ Jackson, David D. "Uruguay Museum or Outside Display S2F / S-2 Grumman Trackers." Surviving Grumman S2F Tracker Information Repository, 2010. Retrieved: 23 August 2010.
  21. ^ "Marsh S-2F3AT Turbo Tracker." FAA registry entry showing manufacturer, model and engine type. Retrieved: 15 June 2010.
  22. ^ "Argentina S2F Trackers". S2ftracker.com. Retrieved 2014-01-07. 
  23. ^ a b Jerry Proc. "Radio Research Paper - Tracker In Canadian Service". Jproc.ca. Retrieved 2014-01-07. 
  24. ^ "Grumman CS2F Tracker." Canadian Bushplane Heritage Centre, 2011. Retrieved: 10 July 2011.
  25. ^ "P2V Neptune." p2vneptune.com. Retrieved: 15 June 2010.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Gillett, Ross. Australia's Military Aircraft. Sydney, Australia: Aerospace Publications Pty Ltd, 1987. ISBN 0-7316-0363-X.
  • Hotson, Fred W. The de Havilland Canada Story. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: CANAV Books, 1983. ISBN 0-07-549483-3.
  • Sullivan, Jim. S2F Tracker in Action Aircraft number 100, Carrolton, TX: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1990. ISBN 0-89747-242-X.
  • Taylor, Michael, ed. Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. New York: Gallery Books, 1987. ISBN 0-8317-2808-6.
  • Winchester, Jim (ed.). "Grumman S-2E/F/G/UP Tracker." Modern Military Aircraft (Aviation Factfile). Rochester, Kent, UK: Grange Books plc, 2004. ISBN 1-84013-640-5.

External links[edit]