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|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|Designer||V. Gryazev, A. Shipunov|
|Barrel length||1,500 mm|
|Action||Short recoil operated|
|Rate of fire||1,500–1,800 rounds/min|
|Muzzle velocity||860 m/s|
The Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-30-1 (the actual Russian designation is GSh-301; also known by the GRAU index designation 9A-4071K) is a 30 mm cannon designed for use on Soviet and later Russian military aircraft, entering service in the early 1980s. Its current manufacturer is the Russian company Izhmash JSC.
The GSh-301 is a single-barreled, recoil operated cannon weighing 46 kg (101 lb). Unlike many postwar cannons, it is linear action, not a revolver cannon or Gatling gun, with the Russians feeling that the reduction in rate of fire is compensated by reduced mass and bulk.
The GSh-301 has a rate of fire of 1,800 rounds per minute, customarily limited to 1,500 rounds per minute to reduce barrel wear. Despite that, its barrel life is quite short: 2,000 rounds. When firing a continuous burst of 100–150 rounds, the barrel is put under so much stress that it has to be replaced. The gun uses an evaporation cooling system to prevent the detonation of a high explosive round inside a heated barrel. This cooling system consists of a cylindrical water tank around the rear end of the barrel. The GSh-301 is equipped with a unique pyrotechnic mechanism to clear misfires: a small pyrotechnic cartridge is located to the left of the 30mm cartridge chamber. This pyrotechnic cartridge fires a small steel bolt through the side wall of the 30mm cartridge. The hot propellant gases following the bolt into the dud 30mm round ignite the powder charge of that round and firing continues.
The gun's maximum effective range against aerial targets is 200 to 800 m and against surface or ground targets is 1,200 to 1,800 m.
In combination with a laser rangefinding/targeting system, it is reported to be extremely accurate as well as powerful, capable of destroying a target with as few as three to five rounds. It has been deployed on several different types of fighter aircraft:
- Su-27, Su-30, Su-33, Su-34, Su-35 and Su-37: 1 GSh-301 in starboard wing root (150 rds. ammunition load)
- MiG-29: 1 GSh-301 in port wing root (150 rds. ammunition load)
- Yak-141: 1 GSh-301 on the belly (120 rds. ammunition load)
- 9A4273 gun pod: 1 GSh-301 flexibly mounted, pod weight 480 kg (150 rds. ammunition load)
The 30x165mm rounds, fitted with distance-armed and delayed action fuze, are commonly fired from the GSh-301. This type of ammunition is intended to engage air and ground targets. The 30x165mm round can have several projectiles. Its variants are:
- Armour Piercing Tracer (AP-T)
- Armour Piercing Incendiary Tracer (API-T)
- Armour Piercing Tracer, Tungsten Alloy Penetrator (APT-T)
- Inert Armour Piercing (AP Inert)
- High Explosive Tracer (HE-T)
- Short Range High Explosive Tracer (HE-T-SR)
- Inert High Explosive Tracer (HE-T Inert)
- High Explosive Incendiary (HEI)
- High Explosive Incendiary Tracer (HEI-T)
- Target Practice (RTP)
- Target Practice Tracer (RTP-T)
- Soviet Union (passed on to successor states)
- Koll, Christian (2009). Soviet Cannon: A Comprehensive Study of Soviet Arms and Ammunition in Calibres 12.7mm to 57mm. Austria: Koll. p. 308. ISBN 978-3-200-01445-9.
- Yefim Gordon. Yakovlev Yak-36, Yak-38 & Yak-41: / The Soviet 'Jump Jets' / Translation by Dmitriy Komissarov. — Hinckley, England, UK: Midland Publishing, 2008. — P. 130—131. ISBN 978-1-85780-287-0