7 June 1938|
|Died||21 September 1985
|Pen name||Gu Long|
Xiong Yaohua (7 June 1938 – 21 September 1985), better known by his pen name Gu Long, was a Chinese novelist, screenwriter, film producer and director. Xiong is best known for writing wuxia novels and serials, which include Juedai Shuangjiao, Xiaoli Feidao Series, Chu Liuxiang Series, Lu Xiaofeng Series and Xiao Shiyilang. Some of these works have been adapted into films and television series for numerous times. In the 1980s Xiong started his own film studio, Bao Sian, to focus on adaptations of his works. He graduated from Cheng Kung Senior High School in Taipei and from the Foreign Language Department of Tamkang University.
Xiong was born on 7 June 1938 in Hong Kong but his registered identity claimed that he was born in 1941. His ancestral home was in Nanchang, Jiangxi, China, and he lived in Hankou in his childhood. He moved to Taipei, Taiwan in 1952 with his parents, who divorced in 1956. With help from his friends and using the money he earned from part-time work to fund his education, Xiong graduated from the Foreign Language Department of Tamkang University. He found a job in the United States Army Advisory in Taipei later.
In 1960, Xiong published his first wuxia novel, Cangqiong Shenjian (蒼穹神劍), under the pen name "Gu Long". From 1960 to 1961, Xiong published eight novels but did not achieve the results he desired. He moved to Ruifang Town (瑞芳鎮) and lived there for three years, after which he changed his perspective and adopted a new writing style. Between 1967 and the late 1970s, Xiong rose to prominence in the genre of modern wuxia fiction for his works. As the sole representative of excellence in the wuxia genre from Taiwan for an entire decade, Xiong was named along with Jin Yong and Liang Yusheng as the "Three Legs of the Tripod of Wuxia".
While he was still in university, Xiong lived with a dance hostess, Zheng Yuexia (鄭月霞), and had a son, Zheng Xiaolong (鄭小龍), with her. However, later, he started a relationship with another dance hostess, Ye Xue (葉雪), who also bore him a son, Ye Yikuan (葉怡寬). Shortly after that, Xiong met a senior middle school graduate, Mei Baozhu (梅寶珠), who became his first legal spouse and bore him his third son, Xiong Zhengda (熊正達). Xiong's extramarital affairs with other women caused him to break up with Mei later.
In the later part of his life, Xiong suffered from depression and the quality of his works declined rapidly. He had to employ ghostwriters to co-write many of his later works because of his ailing health. He died on 21 September 1985 at the age of 48 due to illness wrought by alcoholism, namely cirrhosis and esophageal hemorrhage, at around 6pm. Xiong's friends brought him 48 bottles of XO at his funeral.
Xiong was said to be influenced not only by wuxia fiction, but also by the works of Ernest Hemingway, Jack London, John Steinbeck and Friedrich Nietzsche. His novels are usually made up of short sentences and paragraphs, and mostly dialogues between characters like a play script.
In contrast with Xiong, other writers such as Jin Yong and Liang Yusheng take an alternative route in writing wuxia fiction, incorporating Chinese history, culture and philosophical ideas in their works. Xiong initially intended to follow them but changed his decision after exposure to western works such as the James Bond series and The Godfather novels. The influence of these works, which relied on the idiosyncrasies of human life, razor-sharp wit, poetic philosophies, mysterious plots and spine-tingling thrills to achieve success, enabled Xiong to come up with a unique way of writing.
List of works
Some of these works were co-written with other writers.
Adaptations of works
- The Jade Faced Assassin 玉面俠 (1971), Juedai Shuangjiao
- Clans of Intrigue 楚留香 (1977), Chu Liuxiang Series
- Jade Tiger 白玉老虎 (1977), Bai Yu Lao Hu
- Sentimental Swordsman 多情剑客无情剑 (1977), Xiaoli Feidao Series
- Legend of the Bat 楚留香之二蝙蝠传奇 (1978), Chu Liuxiang Series
- Clan of Amazons 陆小凤之绣花大盗 (1978), Lu Xiaofeng Series
- The Last Duel 英雄对英雄 (1978), Lu Xiaofeng Series
- The Legend of Broken Sword 折剑传奇 (1979), Chu Liuxiang Series
- The Proud Twins 绝代双骄 (1979), Juedai Shuangjiao
- Chu Liu Hsiang and Hu Tieh Hua 楚留香与胡铁花 (1980), Chu Liuxiang Series
- Everlasting Chivalry 侠影留香 (1980), Chu Liuxiang Series
- The Sun Moon Legend 新月传奇 (1980), Chu Liuxiang Series
- Middle Kingdom's Mark of Blood 中原一点红 (1980), Chu Liuxiang Series
- The Duel of the Century 陆小凤之决战前后 (1981), Lu Xiaofeng Series
- The Spirit of the Sword 浣花洗剑录 (1982), Wanhua Xijian Lu
- Perils of the Sentimental Swordsman 楚留香之幽灵山庄 (1982), Lu Xiaofeng Series
- Demon Fighter 午夜兰花 (1983)
- The Denouncement of Chu Liu Hsiang 楚留香大结局 (1983), Chu Liuxiang Series
- Handsome Siblings 绝代双骄 (1992), Juedai Shuangjiao
- Butterfly and Sword (film) 流星蝴蝶剑 (1993), Liuxing Hudie Jian
- Legend of the Liquid Sword 笑侠楚留香 (1993), Chu Liuxiang Series
- The Duel (film) 决战紫禁之巅 (2000), Lu Xiaofeng Series
- Luk Siu-fung 陆小凤 (1976), Lu Xiaofeng Series
- Juedai Shuangjiao 绝代双骄 (1977), Juedai Shuangjiao
- The Romantic Swordsman 小李飞刀 (1978), Xiaoli Feidao Series
- Reincarnated 天蚕变 (1979)
- Chor Lau-heung 楚留香 (1979), Chu Liuxiang Series
- The Twins 绝代双骄 (1979), Juedai Shuangjiao
- Wan Fa Sai Kim Luk (1979), Wanhua Xijian Lu
- The New Adventures of Chor Lau-heung 楚留香之蝙蝠传奇 (1984), Chu Liuxiang Series
- Chor Lau-heung 楚留香新传 (1985), Chu Liuxiang Series
- Xin Juedai Shuangjiao 新绝代双骄 (1986), Juedai Shuangjiao
- The Return of Luk Siu-fung 陆小凤之凤舞九天 (1986), Lu Xiaofeng Series
- Two Most Honorable Knights 绝代双骄 (1988), Juedai Shuangjiao
- Against the Blade of Honour 圆月弯刀 (1994), Yuanyue Wandao
- Chor Lau-heung 香帅传奇 (1995), Chu Liuxiang Series
- The Romantic Swordsman 小李飞刀 (1995), Xiaoli Feidao Series
- Master Swordsman Lu Xiaofeng 陆小凤之决战前后 (2001), Lu Xiaofeng Series
- Master Swordsman Lu Xiaofeng 2 陆小凤之凤舞九天 (2001), Lu Xiaofeng Series
- The New Adventures of Chor Lau-heung 新楚留香 (2001), Chu Liuxiang Series
- The Legendary Siblings, 绝代双骄 (2002), Juedai Shuangjiao
- The Legendary Siblings 2 绝世双骄 (2002), Juedai Shuangjiao
- Treasure Raiders (2002), Xiao Shi Yi Lang
- Flying Daggers 飞刀又见飞刀 (2003), Xiaoli Feidao Series
- The Proud Twins 小鱼儿与花无缺 (2005), Juedai Shuangjiao
- The Legend of Lu Xiaofeng 陆小凤传奇 (2006), Lu Xiaofeng Series
- The Legend of Chu Liuxiang 楚留香传奇 (2007), Chu Liuxiang Series
- The Banner Heroes (2007), Da Qi Ying Xiong Zhuan
- The Spirit of the Sword (2007), Wanhua Xijian Lu
- The Legend of Brown Sugar Chivalries 黑糖瑪奇朵 (2008)
- The Legend of Chu Liuxiang 楚留香新传 (2012), Chu Liuxiang Series
- New Gulong Online, a game based on Gu Long's novels, developed by Taiwanese company Zealot Digital International Corp. It will be released by IAH in Southeast Asia.
Translations of works
Xiong's works have been translated into many languages such as French, English and Vietnamese:
- The Eleventh Son, English translation of Xiao Shiyilang, ISBN 1-931907-16-1.
- Les quatre brigands du Huabei, French translation of Huanle Yingxiong, ISBN 2-87730-371-3
- Stateless Subjects: Chinese Martial Arts Literature and Postcolonial History, Chapter 5. Petrus Liu. (Cornell University, 2011)
- 《傲世鬼才一古龙：古龙与武侠小说国际学术研讨会论文集》林保淳 （学生书局出版，2006）
- Gu Long at the Internet Movie Database
- Gu Long Reading Room - A webpage of fan translations.
- Wuxia Translations Forum - Wuxia translations forum by fans.
- Wuxiapedia - English translations of Gu Long novels, collection of excerpts, and information about his life.
- WuxiaSociety - The only English wuxia portal with focus on discussion forum, dedicated to Gu Long, society of wuxia fans around the world, formerly known as wuxiamania forum
- Qiqi.com - Gu Long's works in Chinese