Place of origin
|Variations||Mantequilla de pobre|
Guacamole (//; Spanish: [wakaˈmole] or [ɡwakaˈmole] ( )) is an avocado-based dip that originated with the Aztecs in Mexico. In addition to its use in modern Mexican cuisine it has also become part of American cuisine as a dip, condiment and salad ingredient. It is traditionally made by mashing ripe avocados and sea salt with a molcajete (mortar and pestle). Some recipes call for tomato, onion, garlic, lemon juice, chili, yogurt and/or additional seasonings.
Guacamole was made by the Aztecs by at least the 16th century. The name comes from an Aztec dialect via Nahuatl āhuacamolli [aːwakaˈmolːi], which literally translates to "avocado sauce", from āhuacatl [aːˈwakat͡ɬ] ("avocado") + molli [ˈmolːi] ("sauce", literally "concoction"). In Mexican Spanish it is pronounced [wakaˈmole], in American English it is sometimes pronounced //, and in British English sometimes //. The name of the Guatemalan version has the final "e" omitted (Spanish: [wakaˈmol]).
A Spanish-English pronunciation guide from 1900 lists guacamole as a "salad of alligator pear." Early recipes from the California Avocado Advisory Board (Calavo), published in the 1940s, were accompanied with a pronunciation suggestion: "Say Huakamole". Later marketing tried to create a "luau" or Pacific Island image of the avocado in the 1960s, and a Spanish or Mediterranean image in the 1970s. Guacamole has pushed avocado sales to 30 million pounds on two days a year: Super Bowl Sunday and Cinco de Mayo.
Thinner and more acidic, or thick and chunky, Guasacaca is a Venezuelan avocado-based sauce; it is made with vinegar, and is served over parrillas (grilled food), arepas, empanadas and various other dishes. It is common to make the guasacaca with a little hot sauce instead of jalapeño, but like a guacamole, it is not usually served as a hot sauce.
Mantequilla de pobre
Mantequilla de pobre (Spanish for: poor-man's butter) is a mixture of avocado, tomato, oil, and citrus juice. Despite its name, it predates the arrival of dairy cattle in the Americas, and thus was not originally made as a butter substitute.
Guatemala has its own version, called Guacamol (Spanish: [ɣwakaˈmol]). It is made with avocado, lemon or lime juice, salt, cilantro and sometimes oregano.
Prepared and fresh guacamoles are available in stores, often available refrigerated. The non-fresh guacamole that is most like fresh is preserved by freezing or sometimes high pressure packaging. Other non-fresh preparations need higher levels of fillers and artificial preservatives to be shelf stable.
- Zeldes, Leah A. (November 4, 2009). "Eat this! Guacamole, a singing sauce, on its day". Dining Chicago. Chicago's Restaurant & Entertainment Guide, Inc. Retrieved November 5, 2009.
- Beard, James; Bittman, Mark (September 4, 2007). Beard on Food: The Best Recipes and Kitchen Wisdom from the Dean of American Cooking. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. pp. 86–87. ISBN 978-1-59691-446-9. Retrieved March 14, 2012.
- Smith, Andrew F. (May 1, 2007). The Oxford companion to American food and drink. Oxford University Press. pp. 144–146. ISBN 978-0-19-530796-2. Retrieved March 14, 2012.
- Edward Gray, A New Pronouncing Dictionary of the Spanish and English Languages, Part 1 (D. Appleton, 1900) 349.
- Charles, Jeffrey (2002). "8. Searching for gold in Guacamole: California growers market the avocado, 1910–1994". In Belasco, Warren; Scranton, Philip. Food nations: selling taste in consumer societies. Routledge. pp. 131–154. ISBN 0-415-93077-4. Retrieved September 20, 2011.
- "Caracas Calling". New York Press (Manhattan Media). July 13, 2004. Retrieved March 4, 2010.
- "Guasacaca - Venezuelan-style Guacamole". About.com. July 2, 2009. Retrieved October 6, 2013.
- Serpa, Diego (1968). "Avocado Culture in Venezuela" (PDF). California Avocado Society 1968 Yearbook 52: 153–168. ISSN 0096-5960. Retrieved March 4, 2010.
- Steve Connor (February 5, 2000). Eureka! Scientists discover how to keep guacamole green. The Independent.
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