Guan Ping

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Guan Ping
Guan Ping Qing portrait.jpg
A Qing dynasty portrait of Guan Ping
General of Liu Bei
Born (Unknown)
Died 220
Names
Traditional Chinese 關平
Simplified Chinese 关平
Pinyin Guān Píng
Wade–Giles Kuan P'ing
This is a Chinese name; the family name is Guan.

Guan Ping (died 220)[1] was a military general serving under the warlord Liu Bei in the late Eastern Han dynasty. He was the eldest son of Guan Yu. Little about him is documented in historical records except that he was captured along with his father west of Maicheng (麦城, southeast of present day Dangyang, Hubei) by the forces of Sun Quan in 220. They were executed in Linju (臨沮; in present-day Nanzhang County, Xiangyang, Hubei) later.[2]

Since the deification of Guan Yu in the Sui dynasty, Guan Ping and Zhou Cang (sometimes including Liao Hua) would often appear at the sides of Guan Yu in statues placed in temples and shrines. In portraits, the trio would often appear together as well. Guan Ping's face is traditionally painted white, is a stark contrast to Zhou Cang's coal black complexion, while Guan Yu's tends to be shades of red.

In fiction[edit]

Guan Ping appears in the 14th century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Guanzhong. He is the second son of Guan Ding (關定), a farmer. His elder brother is Guan Ning (關寧). Guan Yu encounters Guan Ding and his family during his journey across five passes to find Liu Bei. He is so impressed with Guan Ping on first sight that he accepts him as his foster son. During the Battle of Runan, Guan Ping, Guan Yu and Zhou Cang lead 300 men to rescue Liu Bei, who is under attack by Cao Cao's general Zhang He.

Guan Ping participates in some of Liu Bei's subsequent military exploits, including the Battle of Bowang against Cao Cao's general Xiahou Dun, and the Yi Province campaign against Liu Zhang. Later, he is relocated to Jing Province to join his foster father in defending Liu Bei's territories in Jing Province. In 219, Guan Ping follows Guan Yu to the Battle of Fancheng and scores some initial victories over Cao Cao's forces, including flooding seven enemy armies. However, in the meantime, Sun Quan (Liu Bei's ally) secretly breaks the alliance and sends his general Lü Meng to attack and conquer Jing Province in a stealth invasion. Guan Yu is completely caught off guard and eventually isolated in Maicheng with a fraction of his remaining forces. While trying to break out of the siege, Guan Yu and Guan Ping are captured in an ambush by Sun Quan's forces. Sun Quan tries to persuade them to surrender, but they refuse so Sun has them executed.

Modern references[edit]

Guan Ping appears as a playable character in Koei's Dynasty Warriors and Warriors Orochi video game series.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ de Crespigny, Rafe (2007). A biographical dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23–220 AD). Brill. p. 276. ISBN 978-90-04-15605-0. 
  2. ^ (權已據江陵,盡虜羽士衆妻子,羽軍遂散。權遣將逆擊羽,斬羽及子平于臨沮。) Sanguozhi vol. 36.