Guanabara (state)

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State of Guanabara
Former State
Flag of State of Guanabara
Coat of arms of State of Guanabara
Coat of arms
Location of State of Guanabara in Brazil
Location of State of Guanabara in Brazil
Coordinates: 22°54′S 43°11′W / 22.900°S 43.183°W / -22.900; -43.183Coordinates: 22°54′S 43°11′W / 22.900°S 43.183°W / -22.900; -43.183
Country  Brazil
Established 1960
Dissolved 1975
Capital and Largest City Rio de Janeiro
 • Governor Antônio de Pádua Chagas Freitas (last governor, 1971–75)
 • Total 1,356 km2 (524 sq mi)
 • Estimate (1975) 4,858,000
Demonym carioca or guanabarino(a)1
Time zone BRT (UTC-3)
 • Summer (DST) BRST (UTC-2)
ISO 3166 code BR-GB
^1 Only used in official documents

The State of Guanabara (Portuguese: Estado da Guanabara, IPA: [ɡwanaˈbaɾa]) was a former Brazilian state that existed from 1960 to 1975. It comprised the city of Rio de Janeiro, after the national capital was moved to Brasília in 1960. It was named after Guanabara Bay, which bordered its Eastern coast.

In 1834, the city of Rio de Janeiro became a municipality and was elevated to Imperial capital, but it was not part of any of the provinces of Brazil, having special status as the so-called "Neutral municipality" (Portuguese: Município Neutro). When Brazil became a republic in 1889, the city of Rio de Janeiro remained the national capital and became the Federal District (Distrito Federal), while the surrounding Rio de Janeiro Province became the Rio de Janeiro State, with Niterói as the capital.

With the moving of the national capital to Brasília in 1960, a new Federal District was carved out of the state of Goiás to contain it, while the old Federal District became Guanabara State.

Throughout its 15-year existence, Guanabara State was a peculiar, even anomalous state in many ways. Comprising only one city (albeit a large one), Guanabara was the smallest Brazilian state. It also had the peculiarity of being the only state that had no municipalities. Although for some practical purposes it was sometimes counted as having one single municipality, and Rio de Janeiro was officially named its capital, there was no mayor, municipal legislature or any other municipal government institutions there: the city of Rio de Janeiro was directly administered by the state government. On the other hand, this also meant that the Guanabara State government had some functions that were normally assigned to municipalities elsewhere, such as regulating urban zoning, inspecting the safety of buildings or issuing licenses for commercial venues, for example.

All these anomalies disappeared in 1975, when Guanabara State and Rio de Janeiro State merged, forming a new Rio de Janeiro State. The city of Rio de Janeiro became a new municipality and the capital of that state.