Guangxi

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This article is about the region. For the sociological concept, see Guānxi.

Coordinates: 23°36′N 108°18′E / 23.6°N 108.3°E / 23.6; 108.3

Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
广西壮族自治区
Autonomous region
Name transcription(s)
 • Chinese 广西壮族自治区 (Guǎngxī Zhuàngzú Zìzhìqū)
 • Abbreviation 桂 (pinyin: Guì, Zhuang: Gvei)
 • Zhuang Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigih
 • Cantonese Jyutping gwong2 sai1 zong3 zuk6 zi6 zi6 keoi1
 • Cantonese Yale Gwóngsaì Jongjuhk Jihjihkeuī
Map showing the location of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
Map showing the location of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
Named for Abbreviated from "Guangnan Xi Lu" (A "lu" was equal to a province or a state in the Song Dynasty)
广 = wide
西 = west
literally, "The Western Expanse" (Guangdong being the East)
Capital
(and largest city)
Nanning
Divisions 14 prefectures, 109 counties, 1396 townships
Government
 • Secretary Peng Qinghua
 • Governor Chen Wu
Area[1]
 • Total 236,700 km2 (91,400 sq mi)
Area rank 9th
Population (2012)[2]
 • Total 46,800,000
 • Rank 11th
 • Density 207/km2 (540/sq mi)
 • Density rank 20th
Demographics
 • Ethnic composition

Guangxi people:

Han – 62%
Zhuang – 32%
Yao – 3%
Miao – 1%
Dong – 0.7%
Vietnamese – 0.6%
Gelao – 0.4%
 • Languages and dialects Southwestern Mandarin, Cantonese, Pinghua, Zhuang
ISO 3166 code CN-45
GDP (2013) CNY 1.44 trillion
US$ 234.91 billion (18th)
 - per capita CNY 30,769
US$ 5,019 (27th)
HDI (2010) 0.658[3] (medium) (26th)
Website Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
(Simplified Chinese)
Guangxi
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 广西
Traditional Chinese 廣西
Postal Map Kwangsi
Literal meaning "The Western Expanse"
Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
Simplified Chinese 广西壮族自治区
Traditional Chinese 廣西壯族自治區
Postal Map Kwangsi Chuang Autonomous Region
Zhuang name
Zhuang Gvangjsih
long: Gvangjsih Bouxcuengh Swcigih
1957 orthography Gvaŋзsiƅ
long: Gvaŋзsiƅ Bouчcueŋƅ Sɯcigiƅ
Sawndip long: 广西佈僮自治区

Guangxi (Chinese: 广西; pinyin: Guǎngxī; Wade–Giles: Kuang3-hsi1; pronounced [kwɑ̀ŋɕí]), officially Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR), is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam. Formerly a province, Guangxi became an autonomous region in 1958.

Guangxi's location, in mountainous terrain in the far south of China, has placed it on the frontier of Chinese civilization throughout much of China's history. The current name "Guang" means "expanse" and has been associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in AD 226. It was given provincial level status during the Yuan Dynasty, but even into the 20th century it was considered an open, wild territory.

The abbreviation of the province is "桂" (Pinyin: Guì; Zhuang: Gvei), which comes from the city of Guilin, the former capital, center of much of Guangxi's culture, politics, and history, and currently the third largest city in the autonomous region. But now Guilin overly relied on a tourism economy and its position was replaced by current capital city of Nanning, the largest city of Guangxi.[citation needed]

History[edit]

Originally inhabited by a mixture of tribal groups known to the Chinese as the Hundred Yue (Baiyue), the region first became part of China during the Qin Dynasty. In 214 BC, the Han general Zhao Tuo (Vietnamese: Triệu Đà) claimed most of southern China for Qin Shihuang before the emperor's death and the ensuing civil war permitted Zhao to establish a separate kingdom at Panyu known as Southern Yue (Nanyue). Alternatively submissive to and independent of Han control, Southern Yue expanded colonization and sinicization under its policy of "Harmonizing and Gathering the Hundred Yue" (和集百越) until its collapse in 111 BC during the southward expansion of the Han.[citation needed]

The name "Guangxi" can be traced to the "Expansive" or "Wide" province (廣州) of the Eastern Wu, who controlled south-eastern China during the Three Kingdoms period. Guilin formed one of its commanderies.[citation needed]

Under the Tang, the Zhuang moved to support Piluoge's kingdom of Southern Zhao (Nanzhao) in Yunnan which successfully repulsed imperial armies in 751 and 754. Guangxi was then divided into an area of Zhuang ascendancy west of Nanning and an area of Han ascendancy east of Nanning.[citation needed]

After the collapse of the Southern Zhao, Liu Yan established the Southern Han (Nanhan) in Xingwangfu (modern Guangdong). Although this state gained minimal control over Guangxi, it was plagued by instability and annexed by the Song Dynasty in 971. The name "Guangxi" itself can be traced to the Song, who administered the area as the Guangnanxi ("West Southern Expanse") Circuit. Harassed by both Song and the Jiaozhi in modern Vietnam, the Zhuang leader Nong Zhigao led a revolt in 1052 for which he is still remembered by the Zhuang people. His independent kingdom was short-lived, however, and the tattooed Song general Di Qing returned Guangxi to China.[citation needed]

The Yuan Dynasty established control over Yunnan during its conquest of Dali in 1253 and eliminated the Southern Song following the Battle of Yamen in 1279. Rather than ruling Lingnan as a subject territory or military district, the Mongolians then established Guangxi ("Western Expanse") as a proper province. The area nonetheless continued to be unruly, leading the Ming Dynasty to employ the different local groups against one another. At the Battle of Big Rattan Gorge between the Zhuang and the Yao in 1465, 20,000 deaths were reported.[citation needed]

The Qing Dynasty left the region alone until the imposition of direct rule in 1726, but the 19th century was one of constant unrest. A Yao revolt in 1831 was followed by the Taiping Rebellion in 1850 and the Jintian Uprising on 11 January 1851. The execution of St. Auguste Chapdelaine by local officials in Guangxi provoked the Second Opium War in 1858 and the legalization of foreign interference in the interior. Although Brière de l'Isle was unable to invade its depot at Longzhou, the Guangxi Army saw a great deal of action in the 1884 Sino-French War. Largely ineffective within Vietnam, it was still able to repulse the French from China itself at the Battle of Zhennan Pass (modern Youyi Pass) on 23 March 1885.[citation needed]

Following the Wuchang Uprising, Guangxi seceded from the Qing Empire on 6 November 1911. The Qing governor, Shen Bingdan, initially remained in place, but was subsequently removed by a mutiny commanded by General Lu Rongting. General Lu's Guangxi Clique overran Hunan and Guangdong as well and helped lead the resistance to Yuan Shikai's attempt to re-establish an imperial government. Zhuang loyalty made his Self-Government Army cohesive but reluctant to move far beyond its own provinces. Subsequent feuding with Sun Yat-sen led to defeat in the 1920 and 1921 Yue-Gui Wars. After a brief occupation by Chen Jiongming's Cantonese forces, Guangxi fell into disunity and profound banditry for several years[4] until Li Zongren's Guangxi Pacification Army established the New Guangxi Clique dominated by Li, Huang Shaohong, and Bai Chongxi.[citation needed]

Successful action in Hunan against Wu Peifu led to the Zhuang GPA becoming known as the "Flying Army" and the "Army of Steel." After the death of Sun Yat-sen, Li also repulsed Tang Jiyao's revolt and joined the Northern Expedition establishing Republican control over other warlords. His was one of the few Nationalist units free from serious Communist influence and was therefore employed by Chiang Kai-shek for the Shanghai Massacre of 1927. Within Communist China, Guangxi is also noted for the Baise Uprising, a failed Communist revolt led by Chen Zhaoli and Deng Xiaoping in 1929.[citation needed]

After his own falling out with Chiang, Li joined Yan Xishan's revolt in the Central Plains War. His defeat did not remove him from control of Guangxi and the Mukden Incident and Japanese invasion kept Chiang and the Communists from removing his influence until 1949. The 1944 Operation Ichi-Go successfully expanded Japanese control along the rail lines through Guangxi into French Indochina, although the line remained harassed by American bombers and Zhuang guerrillas under Bai Chongxi.[citation needed]

Being in the far south, Guangxi did not fall during the Chinese Civil War, but joined the People's Republic in December 1949, two months after its founding. In 1958, Guangxi was converted into an autonomous region for the Zhuang at the recommendation of Premier Zhou Enlai. This decision was made because the Zhuang are the largest minority group in China and are mostly concentrated in the province.[citation needed]

For most of its history, Guangxi was landlocked. In 1952, a small section of Guangdong's coastline was given to Guangxi, giving it access to the sea. This was reversed in 1955, then restored in 1965.[citation needed]

While some development of heavy industry occurred in the 1960s and 1970s, the province remained largely a scenic tourist destination.[citation needed] Even the economic growth of the 1990s seemed to leave Guangxi behind. However, in recent years, there has been a growing amount of industrialization and increasing concentration on cash crops. Per capita GDP has begun rising more rapidly, as industries in Guangdong seek a way to locate production to lower-wage areas.

Geography[edit]

Located in the southern part of the country, Guangxi is bordered by Yunnan to the west, Guizhou to the north, Hunan to the northeast, and Guangdong to the east and southeast. It is also bordered by Vietnam in the southwest and the Gulf of Tonkin in the south.

Guangxi is partly a mountainous region. The Nanling Mountains form the north-east border, with the Yuecheng and Haiyang Mountains branching from them. Also in the north are the Duyao and Fenghuang Mountains. Near the center of the region are the Da Yao and Da Ming Mountains. On the southeastern border are the Yunkai Mountains.

The highest point is Kitten Mountain, in the Yuecheng Mountains, at 2,141 metres (7,024 ft).

Many rivers cut valleys through the mountains. Most of these rivers form the tributary basin of the West River:

Xi River system schematic
(italics indicates rivers outside Guangxi)
He River (贺江) Xi River
Li River Gui River (桂江)
Beipan River Hongshui River Qian River Xun River
Nanpan River
Rong River Liu River
Long River
You River Yong River Yu River
Zuo River

Guangxi has a short coastline on the Gulf of Tonkin. Important seaports include Beihai, Qinzhou and Fangchenggang.

Along the border with Vietnam there is the Detian waterfall (pinyin: Dé Tiān Pùbù), which separates the two countries.

Guangxi has a subtropical climate. Summers are generally long and hot. Average annual temperature is 17 to 23°C, while average annual precipitation is 1250 to 1750 mm.

Major cities include: Nanning, Liuzhou, Guilin, Beihai.

Notable towns include: Longmen, Sanjiang, Yangshuo.

Image gallery[edit]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Guangxi is divided into fourteen prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities:

Map # Name Administrative Seat Chinese
Hanyu Pinyin
Zhuang Population (2010)
Guangxi prfc map.png
Prefecture-level city
1 Baise Youjiang District 百色市
Bǎisè Shì
Bwzswz Si 3,466,800
2 Hechi Jinchengjiang District 河池市
Héchí Shì
Hozciz Si 3,369,200
3 Liuzhou Chengzhong District 柳州市
Liǔzhōu Shì
Liujcouh Si 3,758,700
4 Guilin Xiangshan District 桂林市
Guìlín Shì
Gveilinz Si 4,748,000
5 Hezhou Babu District 贺州市
Hézhōu Shì
Hocouh Si 1,954,100
6 Chongzuo Jiangzhou District 崇左市
Chóngzuǒ Shì
Cungzcoj Si 1,994,300
7 Nanning
(Autonomous Regional seat)
Qingxiu District 南宁市
Nánníng Shì
Namzningz Si 6,661,600
8 Laibin Xingbin District 来宾市
Láibīn Shì
Laizbinh Si 2,099,700
9 Guigang Gangbei District 贵港市
Guìgǎng Shì
Gveigangj Si 4,118,800
10 Wuzhou Wanxiu District 梧州市
Wúzhōu Shì
Vuzcouh Si 2,882,200
11 Fangchenggang Gangkou District 防城港市
Fángchénggǎng Shì
Fangzcwngzgangj Si 866,900
12 Qinzhou Qinnan District 钦州市
Qīnzhōu Shì
Ginhcouh Si 3,079,700
13 Beihai Haicheng District 北海市
Běihǎi Shì
Bwzhaij Si 1,539,300
14 Yulin Yuzhou District 玉林市
Yùlín Shì
Yilinz Si 5,487,400

These fourteen prefecture-level divisions are further divided into 56 counties, 34 districts, twelve ethnic autonomous counties and seven county-level cities.:

Demographics[edit]

The Han Chinese are the largest ethnic group. Of these, the main subgroups are those that speak Southwestern Mandarin and Yue varieties of Chinese.

The region has over 14 million Zhuang, the largest minority ethnicity of China. Over 90 percent of Zhuang in China live in Guangxi, especially in the central and western regions. There is also a significant number of both Dong and Miao minority peoples. Other ethnic groups include: Yao, Hui, Yi (Lolo), Shui, and Gin (Vietnamese). There is a minor Christian population, which is subject to rigorous official regulations.[5]

Politics[edit]

Secretaries of the CPC Guangxi Committee:

  1. Zhang Yunyi: 1949–1953
  2. Chen Manyuan (陈漫远): 1953–1957
  3. Liu Jianxun (刘建勋): 1957–1961
  4. Wei Guoqing: 1960–1966
  5. Qiao Xiaoguang (乔晓光): 1966–-1967
  6. Wei Guoqing: 1970–1975
  7. An Pingsheng (安平生): 1975–1977.
  8. Qiao Xiaoguang (乔晓光): 1977–1985
  9. Chen Huiguang (陈辉光): 1985–1990
  10. Zhao Fulin (赵富林): 1990–1997
  11. Cao Bochun: 1997–2006
  12. Liu Qibao: 2006–2007
  13. Guo Shengkun: 2007–2012
  14. Peng Qinghua: 2012–incumbent

Chairmen of Government:

  1. Zhang Yunyi: 1949–1953
  2. Chen Manyuan: 1953–1958
  3. Wei Guoqing: 1958–1975
  4. An Pingsheng (安平生): 1975–1977
  5. Qiao Xiaoguang: 1977–1979
  6. Tan Yingji (覃应机): 1979–1983
  7. Wei Chunshu (韦纯束): 1983–1990
  8. Cheng Kejie: 1990–1998
  9. Li Zhaozhuo: 1998–2003
  10. Lu Bing: 2003–December 2007
  11. Ma Biao: December 2007–incumbent

Economy[edit]

View of Nanning, the capital and economic center of Guangxi.

Important crops in Guangxi include rice, maize and sweet potatoes. Cash crops include sugar cane, peanuts, tobacco, and kenaf.

85 percent of the world's star anise is grown in Guangxi. It is a major ingredient in the antiviral Tamiflu.[6]

Guangxi is one of China's key production centers for nonferrous metals. The province holds approximately 1/3 of all tin and manganese deposits in China.[7]

Liuzhou is the main industrial center and is a major motor vehicle manufacturing center. General Motors have a manufacturing base here in a joint venture as SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile. The city also has a large steel factory and several related industries. The local government of Guangxi hopes to expand the province's manufacturing sector, and during the drafting of China's Five Year Plan in 2011, earmarked 2.6 trillion RMB for investment in the province's Beibu Gulf Economic Zone(See Below).[7]

In recent years Guangxi's economy has languished behind that of its wealthy neighbor and twin, Guangdong. Guangxi's 2011 nominal GDP was about 1171.4 billion yuan (US$185.9 billion) and ranked 18th in China. Its per capita GDP was 15,800 yuan (US$2,300).

Due to its lack of a major manufacturing industry in comparison to other provinces, Guangxi is the fourth most energy efficient province in China, helping to further boost its green image.[8]

Economic and Technological Development Zones[edit]

  • Beihai Silver Beach National Tourist Holiday Resort
  • Beihai Export Processing Zone

Approved by the State Council, Beihai Export Processing Zone (BHEPZ) was established in March 2003. Total planned area is 1.454 square kilometres (0.561 sq mi). The first phase of developed area is 1.135 square kilometres (0.438 sq mi). It was verified and accepted by Customs General Administration and eight ministries of the state, on December 26, 2003. It is the Export Processing Zone nearest to ASEAN in China and also the only one bordering the sea in western China. It is situated next to Beihai Port.[9]

  • Dongxing Border Economic Cooperation Area
  • Guilin National New & Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Guilin Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was established in May 1988. In 1991, it was approved as a national-level industrial zone. It has an area of 12.07 square kilometres (4.66 sq mi). Encouraged industries include electronic information, biomedical, new materials and environmental protection.[10]

  • Nanning Economic & Technological Development Area

Established in 1992, Nanning Economic and Technological Development Zone was approved to be a national level zone in May 2001. Its total planned area of 10.796 square kilometres (4.168 sq mi). It is located in the south of Nanning. It has become the new developing zone with fine chemical engineering, auto parts, aluminum processing, biological medicine and other industries.[11]

  • Nanning National Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Nanning Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was established in 1988 and was approved as a national-level industrial zone in 1992. The zone has a planned area of 43.7 square kilometres (16.9 sq mi), and it encourages industries that do electronic information, bioengineering and pharmaceutical, mechanical and electrical integration and new materials industry.[12]

  • Pingxiang Border Economic Cooperation Zone

In 1992, Pinxiang Border Economic Cooperation Zone was established. It has a total area of 7.2 square kilometres (2.8 sq mi). It focuses on development of hardware mechanical and electrical products, daily-use chemical processing, the services, and international logistics-based storage and information industry.[13]

  • Yongning Economic Development Zone

Investment[edit]

Seventy-one Taiwanese ventures started up in Guangxi in 2007, with contracts bringing up to US$149 million of investment, while gross exports surpassed US$1 billion. There are a total of 1182 Taiwan ventures in Guangxi, and by the end of 2006, they have brought a total of US$4.27 billion of investment into the autonomous region. During the first half of 2007, 43 projects worthy of RMB2.6 billion (US$342 million) have already been contracted between Guangxi and Taiwan investors. Cooperation between Guangxi and Taiwan companies mainly relates to manufacturing, high-tech electronic industries, agriculture, energy resources and tourism.[citation needed]

Power[edit]

Guangxi Power Grid invested 180 million yuan in 2007 in projects to bring power to areas that still lacked access to electricity. The areas affected include Nanning, Hechi, Bose and Guigang. Around 125,000 people have gained access to electricity. The money has been used to build or alter 738 10-kilovolt distribution units with a total length of wire reaching 1,831.8 kilometers.[citation needed]

Due to lack of investment in construction in the power grid net in rural areas, more than 400 villages in Guangxi Province were not included in the projects. Around 500,000 cannot participate in the policy known as "The Same Grid, the Same Price." Guangxi Power Grid will invest 4.6 billion yuan in improving the power grid during the 11th Five Year Plan.[citation needed]

Guangxi Power Grid has invested 2.5 billion yuan in building electric power system in the first half of 2007. Of the total investment, 2.3 billion yuan has been put into the project of the main power grid. So far, four new transformer substations in Guangxi are in various stages of completion. Wenfu substation went into operation in the city of Hechi on January 2007, and since then it has become a major hub of the electrical power system of the surrounding three counties. When Cangwu substation was completed, it doubled the local transformer capacity. In June 2007, the new substation in Chongzuo passed its operation tests. And in the same month, Qiulong commenced production too. This shall support the power supply system of Qiulong City, as well as the northern part of Guangxi province, and facilitate the nationwide project to transmit power from west to east.[citation needed]

Beibu Gulf Economic Zone[edit]

In late February 2008, the central government approved China's first international and regional economic cooperation zone in Guangxi. The construction of the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone began in 2006. With the approval, the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone will be formally incorporated into national development strategies.[citation needed]

The Beibu Gulf Economic Zone covers six coastal cities along the Beibu Gulf. It integrates the cities of Nanning, the region's capital, Beihai, Qinzhou, Fangchenggang, Chongzuo and Yulin. The state will adopt policies and measures to support mechanism innovation, rational industry layout and infrastructure construction in the Beibu Gulf Economic Zone.[citation needed]

Guangxi has pledged a 100 billion yuan (US$ 14 billion) investment over the next five years[when?] for building and repairing 2,500 km (1,600 mi) railways to form a network hub in the area. Beibu Gulf Zone will serve as the logistics base, business base, processing and manufacturing base and information exchange center for China-ASEAN cooperation. Beibu Gulf Zone promises broad prospects for further development and its growth potential is rapidly released. But the shortage of talent and professionals in petrochemicals, iron and steel, electricity, finance, tourism, port planning, logistics and marine industries are bottlenecks.[citation needed]

The regional government is also working on speeding up key cooperation projects including transportation, the marine industry, agriculture, forestry, fisheries, energy development, cross-border tourism, and environmental protection. Beibu Gulf has already attracted a number of major projects such as Qinzhou oil refinery projects and Stora Enso, a Fortune 500 forest products company based in Finland. In January 2008 trade import and export in the Beibu Gulf zone exceeded US$1.3 billion, a record high.[citation needed]

Bauxite reserves[edit]

In September 2007, China's Ministry of Commerce said that it has found 120 million tons of new bauxite reserves in Guangxi. The ministry said that the new reserves, which are located in Chongzhou in the southern region of Youjiang, have a very high-quality of bauxite, a raw material for making aluminum. Currently, the proven reserves of bauxite in Guangxi are about 1 billion tons, making the province one of the country's biggest bauxite sources.

Transport[edit]

Rail[edit]

The Guizhou–Guangxi Railway near the Layi Station in Nandan County, Hechi.

The Hunan–Guangxi Railway (Xianggui Line), which bisects the autonomous region diagonally from Quanzhou in the northeast on the border with Hunan to Pingxiang in the southwest on the border with Vietnam, passes through Guangxi's three principal cities, Nanning, Liuzhou and Guilin. Most other railways in Guangxi are connected to the Xianggui Line.

From Nanning, the Nanning–Kunming Railway heads west through Baise to Kunming, Yunnan and the Nanning–Fangchenggang Railway runs south to Qinzhou, Fangchenggang and Beihai on the coast. From Liuzhou, the Guizhou–Guangxi Railway extends northwestward through Hechi to Guizhou and the Jiaozuo–Liuzhou Railway runs due north to Hunan, and eventually Hubei and Henan in central China. From Litang Township on the Xianggui Line between Nanning and Liuzhou, the Litang–Qinzhou Railway runs south to Qinzhou on the coast and the Litang–Zhanjiang Railway (Lizhan Line) extends southeastward through Guigang and Yulin to Zhanjiang, Guangdong.

The Luoyang–Zhanjiang Railway (Luozhan Line), which intersects with the Xianggui Line on the Hunan side of the border at Yongzhou, runs south through Hezhou and Wuzhou in eastern Guangxi and joins the Lizhan Line at Yulin. At Cenxi, a branch of the Luozhan Line heads east to Maoming, Guangdong, forming a second rail outlet from Guangxi to Guangdong.

Roads[edit]

Aviation[edit]

Culture[edit]

"Guangxi" and neighbouring Guangdong literally mean "Western" and "Eastern Expanse". Together, Guangdong and Guangxi are called the "Two Expanses" (simplified Chinese: 两广; traditional Chinese: 兩廣; pinyin: Liǎngguǎng).

Its culture and language are reflected in this. Though now associated with the Zhuang ethnic minority, Guangxi's culture traditionally has had a close connection with the Cantonese. Cantonese culture and language followed the Xi River valley from Guangdong and is still predominate in the eastern half of Guangxi today. Outside of this area there is a huge variety of ethnicities and language groups represented.

Guangxi is known for its ethno-linguistic diversity. In the capital of Nanning, for example, three varieties of Chinese are spoken locally: Southwestern Mandarin, Yue, and Pinghua, in addition to various Zhuang languages and others.[citation needed]

Tourism[edit]

Pagodas in Guilin.

The major tourist attraction of Guangxi is Guilin, a city famed across China and the world for its spectacular setting by the Li Jiang (Li River) among karst peaks. It also used to be the capital of Guangxi and Jingjiang Princes' City, the old princes' residence, is open to the public. South of Guilin down the river is the town of Yangshuo, which has become a favourite destination for foreign tourists.

Ethnic minorities in Guangxi, such as the Zhuang and Dong, are also interesting for tourists. The northern part of the province, bordering Guizhou, is home to the Longsheng Rice Terraces, some of the steepest in the world. Nearby is Sanjiang Dong Autonomous County.

Education[edit]

Sister regions[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]