|Owner||City of Guangzhou|
|Transit type||Rapid transit|
|Number of lines||8|
|Number of stations||144|
|Daily ridership||5.62 million (first half of 2013 average)
7.844 million (5 Nov 2010 record)
|Annual ridership||1.85 billion (2012)[note 1]|
|Began operation||28 June 1997|
|Operator(s)||Guangzhou Metro Corporation|
|Number of vehicles||1002 (as of 2010[update])|
|System length||236 km (147 mi)|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)|
|Cantonese Jyutping||Gwong²zau¹ Dei⁶tit³|
|Cantonese Yale||Gwóngjàu Dèihtít|
|Hanyu Pinyin||Guǎngzhōu Dìtiě|
Guangzhou Metro (simplified Chinese: 广州地铁; traditional Chinese: 廣州地鐵; Mandarin Pinyin: Guǎngzhōu Dìtiě; Jyutping: Gwong²zau¹ Dei⁶tit³) is the metro system of the city of Guangzhou in Guangdong Province of China. It is operated by the state-owned Guangzhou Metro Corporation and was the fourth metro system to be built in mainland China, after those of Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai.
The earliest efforts to build an underground rapid transit system in Guangzhou date back to 1960. In the two decades that followed, the project was brought into the agenda five times, but ended up abandoned each time due to financial and technical difficulties. Preparation of what would lead to today's Guangzhou Metro did not start until the 1980s, and it was not until 1993 that construction of the first line, Line 1, officially began. Line 1 opened four years later in 1997 with five stations in operation.
As of November 2013[update], Guangzhou Metro has eight lines in operation, namely Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 4, Line 5, Line 8, Guangfo Line, and Zhujiang New Town APM. A major portion of the metro system services the urban areas of the city, while Lines 2, 3 and 4 also reach into the suburban areas in Huadu, Baiyun District, Panyu and Nansha; Guangfo Line connects Guangzhou and Foshan and is the first intercity underground metro line in the country. Daily service hours start at 6:00 am and end at midnight, and ridership averages 5.6 million. Having delivered 1.85 billion rides in 2012, Guangzhou Metro is the sixth busiest metro system in the world, after the metro systems of Tokyo, Seoul, Moscow, Beijing, and Shanghai. Guangzhou Metro operates 144 stations,[note 2] including 14 interchange stations, and 236 km of tracks.
Extensive development of the metro network has been planned for the decade of 2011–2020. Two new lines, Line 6 and Line 9, and extensions of Line 8 and Guangfo Line are already under construction and expected to be completed between 2013 and 2016. Total operational capacity is scheduled to exceed 600 km by 2020.
- 1 History
- 2 Lines in operation
- 3 Future expansion
- 4 Fares and tickets
- 5 Power supply
- 6 Controversies
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Forays of the 1960s and 1970s
|“||A city cannot be modernized without a metro system!||”|
—Chen Yu, Governor of Guangdong[note 3]
Chen Yu (Chinese: 陈郁), Governor of Guangdong in 1957–1967, was the first to have proposed an underground metro system for Guangzhou. In the summer of 1960, he ordered a secret geological survey of groundwater levels of Guangzhou. Six holes with an accumulated depth of 1,980 m were drilled in the plateaus and alluvial plains in the city. Defying stereotype, the geological conditions of Guangzhou, despite their complexity, did not preclude the possibility of an underground metro system. Analysis of the survey data resulted in a confidential report titled Geological Survey for Guangzhou Underground Railway Project dated July 1961, the earliest one of such reports.
In 1965, Chen Yu along with Tao Zhu (Chinese: 陶铸), who had been the Governor of Guangdong and First Secretary of Guangdong Committee of the Communist Party of China, proposed in the wake of the Gulf of Tonkin incident that a tunnel be built in Guangzhou for wartime evacuations and post-war metro development. Approved by the central government, the project started in the spring of 1965. Due to its confidentiality in the context of intensification of the Vietnam War, the project adopted the obscure name of "Project Nine" (Chinese: 九号工程), where "Nine" was the number of strokes in "地下", the Chinese word for "underground".
As envisaged by Chen Yu, the metro system of Guangzhou would consist of two lines: a north-south line that would connect Nanfang Building to Sanyuanli via Renmin Lu and Jiefang Beilu, and an east-west line that would run from Xichang to Dongshan along today's Dongfeng Lu. The two lines roughly parallelled Line 2 and Line 1 of the modern days, respectively. The east-west line was never built, while Project Nine was dedicated to the north-south line. Over ten teams of miners were recruited for a project filled with hazards and perils. Constrained by extreme scarcity of time, monetary and material resources, the ambition to build a tunnel for metro operation was scaled back—capability to run trolleybuses was deemed acceptable. At a cost of ¥13 million, a 8 km long tunnel was completed in 1966. The tunnel was ready for use as an air-raid shelter; however, with a cross-section merely 3 m wide and 2.85 m tall, and exposed rocks and wooden trestles scattered everywhere, it was totally unusable for public transit. In the two decades that followed, four attempts were made to revive and expand Project Nine, first in 1970, next in 1971, then in 1974, and last in 1979. None of these efforts eventually materialized.
Construction of Line 1
The metro project of Guangzhou was launched for the sixth time in 1984 as the Preparation Office of Guangzhou Metro, established back in 1979 as part of the last attempt to resurrect Project Nine, was moved out of the civil air defence system and became a subordinate body of the Construction Commission of Guangzhou, bringing Guangzhou Metro into the scope of urban infrastructure development. Prior to the 1980s, war preparedness was the dominant tenet of underground infrastructure projects in mainland China. The construction of Guangzhou Metro marked the first deviation from the old doctrine as traffic itself became the prime consideration of the project.
Design of the metro network was a collaborative effort between China and France. Four tentative designs were published on 14 March 1988 edition of Guangzhou Daily. From the four designs, one was selected based on expert and mass feedbacks. The selected design, featuring two intersecting lines, provided an embryonic form of the eventual layout of Line 1 and Line 2.
Construction of Line 1 officially commenced on 28 December 1993, although work at a trial section at Huangsha had begun in October 1992, five months before the feasibility study of the line was ratified by the State Planning Commission[note 4] in March 1993. Various technologies novel to China's construction industry at the time were adopted in different sections of the project, notably including immersed tubes (Pearl River Tunnel) and tunnel boring machines (Huangsha–Martyrs' Park section). As the most massive urban infrastructure project in history of Guangzhou, Line 1 required a funding of ¥12.75 billion, all of which was raised by the local government. Approximately 100,000 residents in 20,000 households along the line were relocated, and buildings in areas totalling 1.1 km2 were demolished.
Three and a half years after construction started, the 5.4 km section from Xilang to Huangsha opened for trial operation on 28 June 1997. The remaining 13 km, from Huangsha to Guangzhou East Railway Station, was completed eighteen months later on 28 December 1998. The entire line opened for sightseeing tours between 16 February and 2 March 1999, delivering 1.39 million rides during 15 days before closing for final testing. Operation of Line 1 officially began on 28 June 1999, 34 years after the start of Project Nine in 1965.
Lines in operation
as of 2010[update]
|Line 1||Guangzhou East Railway Station||Xilang||1997||1999||18.5||16||28|
|Line 2||Jiahewanggang||Guangzhou South Railway Station||2002||2010||31.4||24||36|
|Line 3||Airport South / Tianhe Coach Terminal||Tiyu Xilu / Panyu Square||2005||2010||67.3||28||42|
|Line 8||Fenghuang Xincun||Wanshengwei||2003||2010||14.8||13||17|
Line 1 runs from Xilang to Guangzhou East Railway Station, with a total length of 18.5 km. Except Kengkou and Xilang, all stations in Line 1 are underground. The line interchanges with Line 2 at Gongyuanqian, Line 3 at Tiyu Xilu and Guangzhou East Railway Station, and Line 5 at Yangji. Its first section, from Xilang to Huangsha, opened on 28 June 1997, making Guangzhou the fourth city in mainland China to have a metro system. The full line started operation two years later on 28 June 1999.
Line 2 is a north-south line that runs from Jiahewanggang to Guangzhou South Railway Station. It interchanges with Line 1 at Gongyuanqian, Line 5 at Guangzhou Railway Station, and Line 8 at Changgang. Until 21 September 2010, it ran from Sanyuanli to Wanshengwei. Its first section, between Sanyuanli and Xiaogang, opened on 29 December 2002. It was extended from Xiaogang to Pazhou on 28 June 2003 and further to Wanshengwei a year later. The section between Xiaogang and Wanshengwei was split off to form part of Line 8 during 22–24 September 2010, when operation was paused. The latest extension, from Jiangnanxi to Guangzhou South Railway Station and from Sanyuanli to Jiahewanggang, opened on 25 September 2010 as the whole line resumed operation. The length of the current line is 31.4 km. All stations in Line 2 are underground.
Line 3 is a 67.3 km Y-shaped line connecting Airport South and Tianhe Coach Terminal to Panyu Square. All stations in the line are underground. When the line opened on 26 December 2005, trains operated between Guangzhou East Railway Station and Kecun. Following completion of the Tianhe Coach Terminal–Tiyu Xilu and Kecun–Panyu Square sections, the line was rerouted on 30 December 2006 to offer transfer-free connections between Panyu Square and Tianhe Coach Terminal via Tiyu Xilu. The Guangzhou East Railway Station–Tiyu Xilu section became a shuttle until it was extended northwards to Airport South on 30 October 2010. In official distinctions, the main route consists of the entire Airport South–Panyu Square section, while the Tianhe Coach Terminal–Tiyu Xilu section is a spur line. The spur line will be split off in the long term to form part of Line 10. The line interchanges with Line 1 at Tiyu Xilu and Guangzhou East Railway Station, Line 5 at Zhujiang New Town, and Line 8 at Kecun. Line 3 had been notorious for its crowding since it opened, for it ran three-car trains. That was partly relieved when all three-car trains started operating as six-car ones, connected in sets of two, on 28 April 2010.
Line 4 is a north-south line running parallel to Line 2 along the east of the city. It is 43.7 km long with 16 stations. The section of the line from Huangcun to Xinzao are built at underground, while that from Xinzao to Jinzhou are built at elevated track. It was the first metro line in mainland China to use linear motor trains. The line interchanges with Line 5 at Chebeinan, and Line 8 at Wanshengwei. Its first section, from Wanshengwei to Xinzao, opened on 26 December 2005. Southwards, it was extended from Xinzao to Huangge on 30 December 2006 and further to Jinzhou on 28 June 2007. Northwards, it was extended to Chebeinan on 28 December 2009. Its latest extension, from Chebeinan to Huangcun, opened on 25 September 2010. A 12.6 km extension in Nansha District has been approved with six underground stations and will interchange with the planned Line 15.
The 31.9 km long Line 5 starts at Jiaokou and runs to Wenchong. It entered operation on 28 December 2009. All stations in the line except Jiaokou and Tanwei are underground. Until Line 8 was split off from Line 2, it was the only line that interchanged with all other lines. Currently it interchanges with Line 1 at Yangji, Line 2 at Guangzhou Railway Station, Line 3 at Zhujiang New Town, and Line 4 at Chebeinan. Similarly to Line 4, Line 5 also uses linear motor trains.
The first section of Line 8, from Xiaogang to Wanshengwei, opened in 2002 and ran as part of Line 2 until the extension to the line was completed in September 2010. Line 8 runs from Fenghuang Xincun to Wanshengwei. The section from Changgang to Wanshengwei opened on 25 September 2010 when the split-off from Line 2 was complete; The section west of Changgang did not open until 3 November 2010 due to disputes over the environmental impact of the cooling facilities at Shayuan. Current interchange stations along the line are Changgang with Line 2, Kecun with Line 3, and Wanshengwei with Line 4. Extension of Line 8 to cross the Pearl River and reach Culture Park, an interchange station with Line 6.
The Guangzhou–Foshan Section of Pearl River Delta Region Intercity Rapid Transit (Chinese: 珠江三角洲地区城际快速轨道交通广州至佛山段) is an intercity metro line that connects Guangzhou and Foshan. It is commonly known as Guangfo Metro and Guangfo Line of Guangzhou Metro. The section within Foshan also doubles as Line 1 of FMetro (Foshan Metro). The line is operated by Guangdong Guangfo Inter-City Co., Ltd., a subsidiary co-owned by Guangzhou Metro (51%) and Foshan Metro (49%). Its first section, from Xilang to Kuiqi Lu in Foshan, started operation on 3 November 2010 with 21 km of tracks and 14 stations. Eleven of the stations are located in Foshan, while the other three are in Guangzhou. Relocation disputes at Lijiao were not resolved until October 2013 and have delayed completion of the extension from Xilang to Lijiao till December 2015. When the line is completed, it will have 32.2 km of tracks and 21 stations, of which 17.4 km of tracks and 10 stations will be located in Guangzhou. The line will interchange with Line 1 at Xilang, Line 2 at Nanzhou, Line 3 at Lijiao, and Line 8 at Shayuan. It will run four-car trains. All its stations are underground.
Zhujiang New Town APM Line
The Automated People Mover System of Zhujiang New Town Core District Municipal Traffic Project (Chinese: 珠江新城核心区市政交通项目旅客自动输送系统) is an underground automated people mover that serves the central business district of Zhujiang New Town. It is commonly known as Zhujiang New Town Automated People Mover System or the APM for short. At a length of 3.9 km, it connects Linhexi and Chigang Pagoda with nine stations on the line. Operation started on 8 November 2010, but the stations of Haixinsha and Chigang Pagoda remained closed during the 2010 Asian Games. Chigang Pagoda Station opened on 28 November 2010, one day after the Asian Games ended; Haixinsha Station remained unopened until 24 February 2011. There is no direct platform-to-platform connection between the APM and Line 3 albeit they share the stations of Linhexi and Chigang Pagoda. Transfer passengers need to exit and reenter with a new ticket. The APM runs two-car rubber-wheeled driverless trains.
The first two phases of Line 6 are under construction. The 24.3 km long phase one will run from Xunfenggang to Changban with 22 stations and is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2013; the 17.6 km long phase two will run from Changban to Xiangxue with 10 stations and will open by 2015. Three stations of phase one and four stations of second phase will be elevated. The line will run four-car trains, but stations of phase two will be constructed to accommodate six-car trains in preparation for a split-off in the future. The line will interchange with Line 1 at Huangsha and Dongshankou, Line 2 at Haizhu Square, Line 3 at Yantang and Tianhe Coach Terminal, Line 5 at Tanwei and Ouzhuang, and Line 8 at Culture Park, Line 11 at Ruyifang and Shahe and Line 21 at Suyuan. However, due to long delays in residence relocation, Shahe Station will remain uncompleted and thus inoperative when the line opens. Construction of the station will resume when construction of Line 11 starts.
Capacity of the four-car trains of Line 6 has long been questioned and drew concentrated criticism from local media in July 2009. In November 2013, mayor Chen Jianhua publicly admitted that planning of the line lacked foresight, and the line would be crowded upon opening. He also promised to ensure that trains of future lines and expansions would have at least six cars.
The first phase of Line 7 is under construction and will run from Guangzhou South Railway Station to Higher Education Mega Center South in Panyu District over the course of 18.6 km when completed. Six-car trains will be used. All nine stations are underground. The line will interchange with Line 2 at Guangzhou South Railway Station and Shibi, Line 3 at Hanxi Changlong, and Line 4 at Higher Education Mega Center South. The planned second phase will extend the line by 11.3 km and four more stations to reach north of the Pearl River and provide interchanges with Line 5 at Dashadong, the planned east extension of Line 8 at Changzhou, and the planned Line 13 at Fengle Lu.
The 20.1 km long Line 9 serves Huadu District. It will start at Fei'eling and end at Gaozeng, where it will interchange with Line 3. All stations are underground. The line will run six-car trains. In the long term, after the Tianhe Coach Terminal–Tiyu Xilu spur line of Line 3 is split off to form part of Line 10, it will be connected into Line 3 using the reserved switches at Gaozeng and become a new spur line.
Summary of future lines
- All construction plans are subject to approval by national authorities. A line is considered "approved" in this table if the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) has greenlighted establishment of its construction project. For actual construction to start, the project must obtain follow-up approvals including the NDRC's endorsement of its feasibility study. The construction plan may not stabilise until construction starts. For this reason, discrepancies exist among certain references due to evolution of construction plans and inaccuracies in news reports. This table reflects information deemed the most credible. In general, more recent reports take priority over older ones.
- The Tiyu Xilu–Tianhe Coach Terminal section currently operates as part of Line 3.
Guangzhou–Foshan metro connections
|#||Guangzhou Metro line||FMetro line||Status|
|6||Extension of Line 12, Guangzhou Metro from Chatou to Lishui||Planned|
|7||Extension of Line 19, Guangzhou Metro to Suiyan Lu||Planned|
Fares and tickets
Fares of Guangzhou Metro currently range from ¥2 (a couple of stations) to ¥14 (the longest journeys). A journey shorter than 4 km costs ¥2; ¥1 is charged for every 4 km after 4 km, every 6 km after 12 km, and every 8 km after 24 km. Between 30 October 2010 and 30 October 2011, an additional, undiscountable ¥5 fee was charged for any journey to or from Airport South. Collection of such a fee was approved for one year in July 2010 and expired without extension. The fare for the longest possible journey to the exiting station will be charged if a journey exceeds four hours. Passengers may carry luggage below weight and size limits at no cost or a ¥2 surcharge.
Current ticket types
Single journey ticket
Single journey tickets can be bought at a kiosk at every station or at the automatic ticket vending machines. The ticket itself is a contactless radio-frequency plastic token. The user has to tap it on the sensor on the ticket barrier when entering and insert it into a slot at the exit gate where the token is reclaimed. Full base fares are charged for single journey tickets for individuals. Passengers travelling in groups of 30 or larger can enjoy a 10% discount.
Yang Cheng Tong and Lingnan Tong
Yang Cheng Tong offers discounts for rides on buses and the metro. Within each month, bus and metro rides combined, a 5% discount is available for the first 15 journeys and a 40% discount for all journeys beyond. Full-time students enrolled in primary, secondary, and vocational schools can apply for student passes, which allow them bus and metro rides at half price. Senior citizens can also obtain special passes. Half price is charged for seniors aged 60–64. Seniors aged 65 and above as well as people with major disabilities ride free on the metro.
Yang Cheng Tong was rebranded in November 2010 as a type of Lingnan Tong (Chinese: 岭南通; literally "Lingnan Pass"), a new transport card that is valid in multiple cities across the Pearl River Delta. Lingnan Tong cards issued in Guangzhou will be named Lingnan Tong·Yang Cheng Tong. Existing cards were automatically upgraded and need not be replaced.
Guangzhou Metro introduced day passes on 1 January 2013. A day pass holder can travel an unlimited number of times in the metro system during a limited period of validity starting from the first use. Two variants are currently available:
- One-day pass: ¥20 each and valid for 24 hours
- Three-day pass: ¥50 each and valid for 72 hours
Day passes are not rechargeable. They can be fully refunded until the first use, at which time they become nonrefundable. Used passes are not reclaimed, although they can be voluntarily recycled at drop boxes in the stations.
The passes are decorated with illustrations of the Cantonese language and cuisine to promote the local culture. The art design was favored by over 70% of those who responded to public opinion surveys compared to two other competing designs.
Discontinued ticket types
Guangzhou Metro discontinued the following ticket types in favor of Yang Cheng Tong.
Stored value ticket
Stored value tickets were very similar to Yang Cheng Tong, but were admissible only for metro rides and could not be used to pay bus or taxi fares.
- ¥55 monthly pass for 20 single journeys
- ¥88 monthly pass for 35 single journeys
- ¥115 monthly pass for 50 single journeys
Each journey could travel from one station to any other station regardless of distance. A monthly pass was valid within a calendar month, not the one-month period from the first day it was used. Unused journeys in a month could not be rolled over to a pass for the following month.
Student pass and senior citizen pass
Both were issued by the metro company and used on metro only, allowing the holders to travel free or at half price.
All Guangzhou Metro lines in operation except the APM are powered by 1,500 V DC. For power transmission, Lines 1, 2, 3 and 8 as well as Guangfo Line use overhead lines, while Lines 4 and 5 use third rails. Future lines to be built in the short term, including Lines 6, 7, 9 and 13 will also run on 1,500 V DC. All those lines will use overhead lines except for Line 6, which will use third rails. In contrast to the heavy-rail lines, the light-rail APM runs on 600 V AC supplied by third rails.
Free rides for relatives of metro employees
Starting from 1997, Guangzhou Metro implemented a policy that allowed free rides for, in addition to its employees, their relatives. The policy was exposed to the public after its validity was questioned at a hearing on metro fares in December 2005. At first, it was reported that up to three lineal kins of each metro employee were allowed free access to the metro. Based on Guangzhou Metro having about 6,000 employees at the time, participants of the hearing estimated that up to 18,000 relatives of metro employees could ride free at an approximate cost of ¥13 million per year.
In response to questions on the policy raised at the hearing, Lu Guanglin, then-General Manager of Guangzhou Metro, claimed that relatives of employees with free access would volunteer as security personnel of the metro. He cited counter-terrorism when explaining that the policy was not exclusively an employee benefit but also a safety measure. Guangzhou Metro later clarified that only the spouse and at most one pre-college child under 18 of each employee were allowed free access, limiting the number of such people to about 2,000. Free rides were strictly regulated and tracked, with abuse subject to disciplinary actions. An unnamed metro employee estimated that the actual cost per year was ¥3 million rather than ¥13 million.
Following its publicity, the policy sparked widespread criticism. A Nanfang Daily editorial criticised the policy as Guangzhou Metro exploiting public resources to its own interests. It also questioned the competence of relatives of metro employees in counter-terrorism. It further argued that if Guangzhou Metro indeed needed voluntary security personnel, it could have recruited them openly from the public. Such criticism was echoed by hearing participants as well as members of the Municipal People's Congress of Guangzhou. Guangzhou Metro officially abandoned the policy under pressure on 16 December 2005.
Quality inspection of Line 3 north extension
Exposure of quality issue
On 11 October 2010, news broke that the concrete structures of two connecting passages in the north extension of Line 3 between Jiahewanggang and Longgui had substandard compressive strength. The quality of the two connecting passages was found to be questionable as early as August 2009. But it not was brought to light until a technician who worked for a company that inspected their quality posted scanned copies of the original inspection reports in his blog in August 2010, and the media picked up the story in October 2010.
The connecting passages were intended as connections between two metro tunnels for the maintenance crew and emergency escape corridors for passengers. Their compressive strength was designed to reach 30 MPa. However, the lowest values measured in two inspections were only 21.9 MPa and 25.5 MPa, respectively. Guangzhou Metro and Beijing Chang Cheng Bilfinger Berger Construction Engineering Co., Ltd. (BCBB), contractor of the Jiahewanggang–Longgui section, commissioned two inspection companies to perform a total of three inspections. All three inspections reported results below standard. According to the technician who disclosed the issue and another technician who participated in the first inspection, possible consequences of weaker-than-standard concrete structures included collapse of the passages, blockage of groundwater drains, and even paralysation of the metro tunnels.
Alleged fraud attempts
According to the two technicians, BCBB rejected a negative inspection report and conspired with their employer company to produce a fraudulent positive report. In response, both the inspection company and BCBB denied their involvement in any fraud attempts. Su Zhenyu, a deputy manager of the Quality and Safety Division of Guangzhou Metro, admitted the quality issue with the connecting passages but maintained the innocence of Guangzhou Metro. According to him, Guangzhou Metro never received the original inspection reports in 2009 and was unaware of the issue until it received them on 30 September 2010. Su blamed the incident on deceit by BCBB and declared the structures safe for train operation. Su's comments were acknowledged by Guangzhou Metro.
According to Su, Guangzhou Metro had launched an investigation into the incident and demanded remedial plans for fortifying the structures from the designer after its experts verified that the quality of the passage did not meet the design standard. In its official response, Guangzhou Metro claimed that it had been monitoring the connecting passages since they were completed in August 2009 and noticed no cracks, deformation or leaks. It also commissioned a re-inspection in September 2010 and obtained results comparable to previous ones. Evaluation by the designer of the connecting passages based on these results recognised their structures as safe. Previously in 2009, the designer also evaluated one of the two connecting passages as safe upon demand of BCBB with the standard for its compressive strength at the lowest permissible value of 25 MPa.
In the wake of widespread media coverage, the Construction Commission of Guangzhou launched an investigation into the incident. The commission invited an independent expert group to inspect the connecting passages. The expert group reaffirmed that despite their quality was indeed below the design standard, the passages were safe for operation and needed not be strengthened or rebuilt. The commission also confirmed that BCBB violated regulations in concealing negative inspection reports from related parties. The cause of weaker-than-standard concrete structures was blamed by deputy mayor Su Zequn on cement being mixed manually instead of using machinery due to space limitation at the construction site.
The scheduled opening of the north extension of Line 3 on 30 October 2010 was eventually unaffected.
Universal free access in November 2010
In January 2010, then-mayor Zhang Guangning revealed to the media that the local government was considering rewarding residents with an "Asian Games gift package" in acknowledgement of their support for the Games. On 27 September 2010, contents of the gift package were officially announced. Included was universal free access to public transit on 30 workdays in November and December 2010 that would coincide with the schedules of the 2010 Asian Games and Asian Para Games in urban areas excluding the districts of Panyu, Nansha and Huadu and the cities of Zengcheng and Conghua. The measure was intended to compensate for the inconvenience caused by a temporary traffic rule that would ban cars from the streets by the parity of the last digits of their license plates during the Games.
The free rides policy prompted unprecedented enthusiasm from local residents on 1 November 2010, the first day it went into effect. The metro system carried 7.80 million rides, doubling the figure of an average day. Ridership of the day exceeded the previous peak of 5.13 million on National Day 1 October 2010 by a significant margin and set a national record. Metro traffic remained intense in the days that followed. The daily ridership record was refreshed twice on 3 and 5 November 2010, reaching 7.844 million; total ridership amounted to 38.77 million over the entire workweek. Provisional flow control measures were put into force at all stations, but were utterly inadequate to contain traffic far beyond the design capacity of the metro system. Trains were often crammed, and stations were filled with people queuing in swarms to take a free ride. Guangzhou Metro estimated that when the Asian Games opened, daily ridership would surpass 8 million.
Five days after the free rides policy came into force, local authorities decided to rescind the free public transit offer starting from 8 November 2010 and replace it with a cash subsidy program as they deemed the enormous public response a potential security threat to the Games. Registered households and migrant households with presence in the city longer than half a year would each receive a public transit subsidy of ¥150 in cash; individuals in corporate households would each receive ¥50. Residents could claim the subsidies between 12 January and 31 March 2011. Public transit discount policies that were in effect before November 2010 remained unchanged.
Kangwang Lu sinkhole incident
Around 16:40 on 28 January 2013, in the immediate neighbourhood of the construction site of the Culture Park Station of Line 6 and Line 8 on Kangwang Lu (Chinese: 康王路), a sinkhole of approximately 100 m2 in area and 10 m in depth collapsed, consuming several houses and trees. Six collapses occurred within 40 minutes. Two more collapses occurred later at 21:45, when workers were pouring concrete into the sinkhole. Nearby roads were immediately closed for emergency engineering. The affected section of Kangwang Lu remained closed until the Spring Festival holidays and was closed for a second time on 12 February due to discovery of additional risks.
There were no casualties in the incident thanks to the fact that metro construction workers detected geological anomalies 20 minutes before the initial collapse and promptly evacuated the neighbourhood. The sinkhole caused disruptions to electricity, gas and water supplies and drainage pipelines. Preliminary analysis blamed the incident on inaccurate geological drawings used for underground blast operations. In total, 412 households, 103 businesses and 69 warehouses were evacuated, and 257 residents were relocated. Guangzhou Metro offered provisional compensations that amounted to ¥50,000 for each collapsed business and ¥2600 for each resident of the collapsed houses among other compensations.
- List of Guangzhou Metro stations
- Dongguan Rail Transit
- List of rapid transit systems
- Metro systems by annual passenger rides
- Calculated from a daily ridership of 5.07 million.
- Interchange stations are counted once for each interchanging line by the convention adopted by Guangzhou Metro.
- The original text was "一个城市，没有地铁就没有现代化！".
- The State Planning Commission has since evolved into the National Development and Reform Commission.
- "广州地铁18年赶上西方国家两百年历程" [Guangzhou Metro catches up with western countries' 200 years of development in 18 years] (in Chinese). Guangzhou Metro Corporation. 29 December 2010. Retrieved 2011-01-04.
- "缘定"3"生 情牵一线" (in Chinese). Guangzhou Daily. 1 November 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-04.
- "第二届地铁春联今起征集" [Second Metro Spring Duilian Contest starts today] (in Chinese). Guangzhou Metro Daily. 10 January 2011. Retrieved 2010-01-23.
- "'三好学生'的成绩单" (in Chinese). Guangzhou Metro Corporation. 7 March 2013. Retrieved 2012-03-10.
- "为了缓解交通压力 地铁投53亿买新车增90列" [Metro spends ¥5.3b in purchase of 90 new trains to relieve traffic pressure] (in Chinese). Guangzhou Daily. 19 November 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- Jin Shoujie; He Zhixin (2010). "广州市轨道交通接触网形式选择" [Selection of overhead catenary system for Guangzhou urban rail transit]. Urban Rapid Rail Transit (in Chinese) 23 (1). doi:10.3969/j.issn.1672-6073.2010.01.003.
- "城际轨道直通穗莞深惠 广佛地铁设九座换乘站" [Intercity railways to connect Guangzhou, Dongguan, Shenzhen, Huizhou; Guangfo Metro to have nine interchange stations] (in Chinese). Guangzhou Daily. 24 June 2008. Retrieved 2010-10-29.
- Yu Dingyu 2006, §1–1.
- Yu Dingyu 2006, §1–2.
- Yu Dingyu 2006, §3–2.
- "广州地铁发展历程" [Development of Guangzhou Metro] (in Chinese). NetEase. 29 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-08.
- "地铁广佛线开通成就广佛人的梦想" [Dreams of Guangzhou, Foshan residents come true as Guangfo Metro opens] (in Chinese). Yangcheng Evening News. 27 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-29.
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- "地铁六号线二期工程正式启动" [Construction of 2nd phase of Metro Line 6 officially starts] (in Chinese). Guangzhou Metro Daily. 21 June 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-01.
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- "站台设计只能容下四节车厢" [Platform design [of Line 6] can accommodate only four cars] (in Chinese). New Express Daily. 17 July 2009. Retrieved 2013-11-04.
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- "基本票价" [Base fares] (in Chinese). Guangzhou Metro Corporation. Retrieved 2010-07-21.
- "关于2010年广州地铁线网票价的批复" [Reply on 2010 Guangzhou Metro fares] (in Chinese). Bureau of Commoditiy Prices of Guangzhou. 26 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-04.
- "地铁去机场明起省5元" [Metro rides to airport to be ¥5 cheaper] (in Chinese). Guangzhou Daily. 30 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-30.
- "票务规则" [Ticketing rules] (in Chinese). Guangzhou Metro Corporation. Retrieved 2010-07-21.
- "车票种类" [Ticket types] (in Chinese). Guangzhou Metro Corporation. Retrieved 2010-10-06.
- "公交地铁票务新优惠指南" [Guide of new discounts for bus and metro tickets] (in Chinese). Guangzhou Yang Cheng Tong Co., Ltd. Retrieved 2010-07-19.
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- "羊城通亚运前刷通广东五市 '岭南通'今日首发" [Yang Cheng Tong to become valid in five Guangdong cities before Asia Games, Lingnan Tong launches today] (in Chinese). Guangzhou Daily. 8 November 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-22.
- "广州地铁元旦起发行日票" [Guangzhou Metro starts issuing day passes on New Year's Day] (in Chinese). Guangzhou Metro Corporation. 6 January 2013. Retrieved 2013-01-11.
- "公交地铁坐得多才能享优惠" [Discounts only available to frequent bus and metro riders] (in Chinese). Information Times. 29 September 2008. Retrieved 2010-10-10.
- "广州地铁限次月票今起取消" [Guangzhou Metro limited-ride monthly passes discontinued today] (in Chinese). Nanfang Daily. 1 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-10.
- "广州地铁宣布正式取消家属免费乘坐政策" [Guangzhou Metro announces official cancellation of policy allowing free rides for relatives of employees] (in Chinese). Southern Metropolis Daily. 16 December 2005. Retrieved 2010-10-10.
- "地铁员工亲属免票达1.8万人遭质疑" [Free access for up to 18,000 relatives of metro employees questioned] (in Chinese). New Express Daily. 13 December 2005. Retrieved 2010-10-10.
- "南方时评：地铁公司焉能助长搭便车之风" [Editorial: Guangzhou Metro should not encourage free ride practices] (in Chinese). Nanfang Daily. 14 December 2005. Retrieved 2010-10-10.
- "广州地铁：'家属免票'是反恐需要？" [Guangzhou Metro: 'Free rides for relatives' for the sake of counter-terrorism?] (in Chinese). Yangcheng Evening News. 13 December 2005. Retrieved 2010-10-10.
- "广州地铁三号线北延段验收作假？" [Fraud in inspection-on-acceptance of north extension of Guangzhou Metro Line 3?]. New Express Daily. 11 October 2010. Archived from the original on 11 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
- "广州三号线北延段有问题？" [North extension of Guangzhou Metro Line 3 problematic?] (in Chinese). Southern Metropolis Daily. 12 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-12.
- "记者探访施工方 项目经理都'休假'" [Correspondent visits constructor, project manager 'on vacation'] (in Chinese). New Express Daily. 12 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-12.
- "广州地铁三号线北延段隧道结构安全 可如期开通" [Tunnel structure of north extension of Guangzhou Metro Line 3 is safe, will open on schedule] (in Chinese). Nanfang Daily. 12 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-12.
- "广州地铁三号线调查结果：确有不达标问题 但不需加强或重做" [Conclusions of Guangzhou Metro Line 3 investigation: quality standard indeed not met, but no strengthening or rebuild needed] (in Chinese). Southern Weekly. 15 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-29.
- "'通道水泥硬度不达标不影响主隧道安全'" [Below-standard strength of cement in passages does not affect safety of main tunnels] (in Chinese). Southern Metropolis Daily. 19 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-29.
- "张广宁：想给市民送'亚运大礼包'" [Zhang Guangning: intending to give an "Asian Games gift package" to residents] (in Chinese). Yangcheng Evening News. 6 January 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
- "亚运大礼包公布 全城市民30天免费乘公交" [Asia Games gift package announced, residents to enjoy 30-day free public transit] (in Chinese). dayoo.com. 27 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
- "Guangzhou restricts traffic for green Asian Games". China Radio International. Xinhua. 1 November 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
- "多个地铁站仍须控客流" [Flow control still in effect at multiple metro stations] (in Chinese). Yangcheng Evening News. 2 November 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-02.
- "513万客流扑向国庆地铁" [5.13 million rides hit metro on National Day] (in Chinese). Yangcheng Evening News. 2 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-02.
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- "亚运公交补贴明起发放 市民可打电话咨询" [Asian Games public transit subsidies to be given out tomorrow; residents can enquire over phone] (in Chinese). New Express Daily. 11 January 2011. Retrieved 2010-01-24.
- "关于调整广州亚运会亚残运会期间公共交通惠民措施的通告" [Announcement of adjustments to public transit benefits during Guangzhou Asian Games and Asian Para Games] (in Chinese). Communications Commission of Guangzhou; Guangzhou Metro Corporation. 6 November 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-06.
- "好大一个坑 吞楼又吞树" [Big hole consumes houses and trees] (in Chinese). Southern Metropolis Daily. 29 January 2013. Retrieved 2013-02-15.
- "地质与图纸不符爆破致地陷" [Blast operation based on inaccurate drawings caused sinkhole] (in Chinese). Information Times. 29 January 2013. Retrieved 2013-02-15.
- "广州康王南路下陷路段再封闭" [Sunken section of Kangwang Nanlu in Guangzhou closed again] (in Chinese). Southern Metropolis Daily. 12 February 2013. Retrieved 2013-02-15.
- "塌拆商铺补贴5万元 每户搬家费2000元" [¥50,000 compensation for each collapsed/demolished business, ¥2000 for each relocated household] (in Chinese). Southern Metropolis Daily. 31 January 2013. Retrieved 2013-02-15.
- "已塌档口每户临时补贴5万元" [Collapsed businesses to receive ¥50,000 in provisional compensation] (in Chinese). Southern Metropolis Daily. 31 January 2013. Retrieved 2013-02-15.
- "30日康王路塌陷事件进展" [30 January status report of Kangwang Lu sinkhole incident] (in Chinese). Guangzhou Metro. 30 January 2013. Retrieved 2013-02-15.
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