Guanlong

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Guanlong
Temporal range: Late Jurassic, 160Ma
Guanlong fossil.jpg
One of the two known specimens
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Suborder: Theropoda
Superfamily: Tyrannosauroidea
Family: Proceratosauridae
Genus: Guanlong
Xu et al., 2006
Species: † G. wucaii
Binomial name
Guanlong wucaii
Xu et al., 2006

Guanlong ( meaning "crowned dragon") was a genus of proceratosaurid tyrannosauroid dinosaur, one of the earliest known examples of the lineage.

Description and discovery[edit]

The size of Guanlong compared to a human.

About 3 m (9.8 ft),[1][2] its fossils were found in the Shishugou Formation dating to about 160 million years ago, in the Oxfordian stage of the Late Jurassic period,[1] 92 million years before its well-known relative Tyrannosaurus. This bipedal saurischian theropod shared many traits with its descendants, and also had some unusual ones, like a large crest on its head. Unlike later tyrannosaurs, Guanlong had three long fingers on its hands. Aside from its distinctive crest, it would have resembled its close relative Dilong, and like Dilong may have had a coat of primitive feathers.

Guanlong was discovered in the Dzungaria area of China by scientists from George Washington University, and named by Xu Xing in 2006.[citation needed] Guanlong comes from the Chinese words for "crown" and "dragon",[1] referring to the crest.[citation needed] The specific epithet (五彩冠龙), wucaii (Hanyu Pinyin: wŭcái), means "five colours"[1] and refers to the colours of rock of the Wucaiwan, the multi-hued badlands where the creature was found.

Specimens[edit]

Fossil specimen

At present, Guanlong is known from two specimens.[1] The holotype (IVPP V14531)[citation needed] is a reasonably complete, partially articulated adult skeleton. Another, immature specimen is known from fully articulated and nearly complete remains. The crest on the skull of the immature specimen is notably smaller and restricted to the forward portion of the snout, while the adult has a larger and more extensive crest. The crests of both specimens are thin, delicate structures that likely served as display organs, possibly for events like mating.[1]

Classification[edit]

In a recent study, Guanlong was found to be in a clade with both Proceratosaurus and Kileskus. Together they formed the family Proceratosauridae with a clade containing Sinotyrannus, Juratyrant and Stokesosaurus.[3]

Below is a cladogram of Tyrannosauroidea published by Loewen et al. in 2013.[3]

Restoration
Tyrannosauroidea
Proceratosauridae


Proceratosaurus bradleyi



Kileskus aristotocus



Guanlong wucaii





Sinotyrannus kazuoensis




Juratyrant langhami



Stokesosaurus clevelandi







Dilong paradoxus




Eotyrannus lengi




Bagaraatan ostromi




Raptorex kriegsteini




Dryptosaurus aquilunguis





Alectrosaurus olseni



Xiongguanlong baimoensis





Appalachiosaurus montgomeriensis





Alioramus altai



Alioramus remotus




Tyrannosauridae











In popular culture[edit]

A number of Guanlong were featured in the 2009 film Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs. Character designer Peter de Sève stated in a 2009 interview that the dinosaur was chosen as "a twist on a Velociraptor", which is often featured in dinosaur films.[4]

Guanlong was featured in the National Geographic documentary Dino Death Trap, where the holotype was discussed, as well as its role in the ecosystem and its status as a tyrannosauroid.

Guanlong was also featured in the 2011 Discovery channel documentary Dinosaur Revolution, where a pair (named "Fatty" and "Skinny") chase a Castorocauda, but fail, and also chase a Volaticotherium, but fail and get surrounded by crocodiles on a tiny island.

Guanlongs Have been featured in the video game 'Dino Hunter:Deadly Shores' as one of the huntable dinosaurs.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Csotonyi, J.T.; White, S. (2014). Paleoart of Julius Csotonyi: Dinosaurs, Sabre-Tooths and Beyond. Titan Books. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-7811-6912-4. 
  2. ^ Holtz, Thomas R. Jr. (2008) Dinosaurs: The Most Complete, Up-to-Date Encyclopedia for Dinosaur Lovers of All Ages Supplementary Information
  3. ^ a b Loewen, M.A.; Irmis, R.B.; Sertich, J.J.W.; Currie, P. J.; Sampson, S. D. (2013). "Tyrant Dinosaur Evolution Tracks the Rise and Fall of Late Cretaceous Oceans". In Evans, David C. PLoS ONE 8 (11): e79420. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0079420.  edit
  4. ^ Wloszczyna, S. (2009). "'Ice Age' warms up to dinosaurs in third installment." USA Today, 30-JUN-2009.
  • Xu X., Clark, J.M., Forster, C. A., Norell, M.A., Erickson, G.M., Eberth, D.A., Jia, C., and Zhao, Q. (2006). "A basal tyrannosauroid dinosaur from the Late Jurassic of China". Nature 439 (7077): 715–718. doi:10.1038/nature04511. PMID 16467836. 

External links[edit]