|Regions with significant populations|
|Paraguay, Argentina (esp. Misiones), Brazil, Bolivia|
|Guaraní, Spanish, Portuguese|
|Catholicism, Protestantism, Animism|
|Related ethnic groups|
Guaraní are a group of culturally related indigenous peoples of South America. They are distinguished from the related Tupi by their use of the Guaraní language. The traditional range of the Guaraní people is in what is now Paraguay between the Uruguay River and lower Paraguay River, the Misiones Province of Argentina, southern Brazil, and parts of Uruguay and Bolivia. Although their demographic dominance of the region has been reduced by European colonisation and the commensurate rise of mestizos, there are contemporary Guaraní populations in these areas. Most notably, the Guarani language, still widely spoken across traditional Guaraní homelands, is one of the two official languages in Paraguay, the other one being Spanish. The language was once looked down upon by the upper and middle classes, but it is now often regarded with pride and serves as a symbol of national distinctiveness. The Paraguayan population learns Guaraní both informally from social interaction and formally in public schools. In modern Spanish Guaraní is also applied to refer to any Paraguayan national in the same way that Mexicans are labelled Aztecs and French are called Gauls.
- 1 Name
- 2 History, myth and legend
- 3 Guaraní people today
- 4 Language
- 5 See also
- 6 Notable Guaraní people
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The history and meaning of the name Guaraní are subject to dispute. Prior to their encounter with Europeans, the Guaraní referred to themselves simply as Abá, meaning "men" or "people." The term Guaraní was originally applied by early Jesuit missionaries to refer to natives who had accepted conversion to the Christian religion; Cayua or Caingua (ka'aguygua) was used to refer to those who had refused it. Cayua is roughly translated as "the ones from the forest". While the term Cayua is sometimes still used to refer to settlements of indigenous peoples who have not well integrated into the dominant society, the modern usage of the name Guaraní is generally extended to include all people of native origin regardless of societal status. Barbara Ganson writes that the name Guaraní was given by the Spanish as it means "warrior" in the Tupi-Guaraní dialect spoken there.
History, myth and legend
The history of the Guaraní people prior to contact with European explorers is not well documented. Their early history is based entirely on oral tradition, since they did not have a written language. Since the Guaraní people were a somewhat nomadic, decentralized society, there is little in the way of a reliable historical record.[not in citation given]
Early Guaraní villages often consisted of communal houses for 10 to 15 families. Communities were united by common interest and language, and tended to form tribal groups by dialect. It is estimated that the Guaraní numbered some 400,000 people when they were first encountered by Europeans. At that time, they were sedentary and agricultural, subsisting largely on manioc, maize, wild game, and honey.
Equally little is known about early Guaraní society and beliefs. They practiced a form of animistic pantheism, much of which has survived in the form of folklore and numerous myths. According to the Jesuit missionary Martin Dobrizhoffer, they practiced cannibalism at one point, perhaps as a funerary ritual, but later disposed of the dead in large jars placed inverted on the ground. Guaraní mythology is still widespread in rural Paraguay.
Much Guarani myth and legend was compiled by the Universidad Nacional de Misiones in northern Argentina and published as Myths and Legends: A journey around the Guarani lands, Anthology in 1870 (translated into English language in 1906). Guarani myth and legend can roughly be divided into the following broad categories:
- Cosmogonic and eschatological myths; the creation and destruction of all things as dictated by Ñamandú "the true father, the first one". After him comes a pantheon of gods, chief among them Yporú who is more frequently known as Tupã. Yaci is another "good" deity who rules the night while Aña is a malign deity who dwells at the bottom of Iguazu.
- Animistic mythology, that is animals, plants and minerals being animated and capable of becoming anthropomorphic beings or in reverse the transmutated souls of people, either born or unborn, who have become animals, plants and minerals. The course of such anthropomorphism appears dictated by the pantheon of god like deities because of their virtues or vices. Such animistic legends include that of the Lobizón, a werewolf type being, also the Mainimbi or hummingbird who transports good spirits that are resident in flowers back to Tupá "so he can cherish them". The Isondú or glow worms are the reincarnated spirits of certain people, as are the Panambi (the butterflies), Caá Yarîi a woman who became the sacred herb Yerba and Irupé, a woman who was turned into the giant lilly because she fell in love with the moon.
- Pombero who are goblin or elf like spirits who dwell in the forest and must be appeased. They have never been human. Principal among these is Yasi Yateré who has never been human and like all Pombero is from a different realm. His characteristics are vague and uncertain, and 'his' powers badly defined as is the place where 'he' resides. His characteristics are defined in one legend as a "handsome, thickly bearded, blond dwarf" who is naked and lives in tree trunks. Other versions say he loves honey, his feet are backwards and he is an "ugly, lame, old man". Most legends agree that he snatches children and "licks them", wrapping them in climbing plants or drowning them in rivers. To appease him gifts, such as honey, are left in places in the forest associated with him. Another Pombero is Cuarahú Yara who whistles like birds and is their protector. He can be your friend but is known for abducting young boys who are alone and trying to catch birds. If necessary he can take the form of a person, a tree or a hyacinth. Finally, Curupí is a phallic mythological figure who will copulate with young women. He has scaly skin like a lizard, hypnotic eyes and an enormous penis.
The sacred Iguazu waterfalls hold special significance for the Guarani and are the inspiration for numerous myths and legends. They reveal the sound of ancient battles at certain times, they are also the place where I-Yara - a malign Pomboro spirit - abducted Angá - a fair maiden - and hid her. The swallows that inhabit the falls to this day vainly search for her.
In 1537, Gonzalo de Mendoza traversed through Paraguay to about the present Brazilian frontier. On his return, he made acquaintance with the Guaraní and founded the city of Asunción, later the capital of Paraguay. The first governor of the Spanish territory of Guayrá initiated a policy of intermarriage between Europeans and the indigenous women, whose descendants characterize the Paraguayan nation today. He also initiated the enslavement of the natives.
The first two Jesuits, Father Barcena and Father Angulo, came to what is now the State of Paraná, Southern Brazil, in 1585, by land from the west. Others soon followed, and a Jesuit college was established at Asunción. In 1608, as a result of Jesuit protest against enslavement of the indigenous population, King Philip III of Spain gave authority to the Jesuits to convert and colonize the tribes of Guayrá. In the early period the name Paraguay was loosely used to designate all the basin of the river, including parts of what are now Uruguay, Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil.
Exploring expeditions were accompanied by Franciscan friars. Early in the history of Asunción, Father Luis de Bolaños translated the catechism into the Guaraní language and preached to Guaraní people who resided in the area around the settlement. In 1588–89 St. Francis Solanus crossed the Chaco wilderness from Peru and stopped at Asunción, but gave no attention to the Guaraní. His departure left the jesuits alone with their missionary work, and to defend the natives against slave dealers. The Jesuit provincial Torres arrived in 1607, and "immediately placed himself at the head of those who had opposed the cruelties at all times exercised over the natives".
In traditional animist Guarani worldview, there is no distinction between the physical and spiritual worlds, and spirits are present throughout the world. The Guarani once believed that the entire world was a forest (and used the same word, ömë, for both). The Oriente’s rainforest remains the essential basis of their physical and cultural survival. For them, the forest is home, while the outside world is considered unsafe: living in the forest offered protection from being attacked and enslaved by Spanish Conquistadors, cultural deprivation from Jesuit and Franciscan Missionaries and Inquisition tribunals. Today The Guarani struggle to maintain their Cultural beliefs while under continuous pressure from Protestant missionaries willing to pay the Guarani to convert to Christianity and move out of the forest. Presently Guarani Shaman are working as hard as they can to preserve their spiritual and cultural beliefs and their story has been recorded in the book Guarani Shamans of the Forest by Bradford Keeney Phd. In short, as one Guarani put it, “The rivers and trees are our life.”  In all its specificities, the forest is woven into each Guarani life and conceptions of the world. They have remarkably detailed knowledge of its geography and ecology. The Guarani have preserved a beautiful Sense of spirituality that has been historically held by cultures throughout the globe and has been removed from modern societies. They believe that all life exists spiritually and physically and do not observe a separation between these states of being. To the Guarani as many other cultures the directions North, South, East and West are sacred. They believe that a person who dies walks a trail to the afterlife from the West to the East, which has a large anaconda snake lying in wait. Those who have not led a good life will not escape the snake and not be able to travel east, instead they will journey to the West and return to Earth to become animals, often termites. This underlies a mix of practices that recognize and respect animals, but does not shield them from harm for human use. Hunting supplies a major part of the Guarani diet and is of cultural significance. Before a hunting or fishing party ensues the community Shaman will often pray for a day to ensure its success. Traditionally, the creatures hunted were limited to monkeys, birds, and wild peccaries. Neither land-based predators nor birds of prey are hunted. Traditionally there was an extensive collection of hunting and eating taboos. They refused to eat deer, on the grounds that deer eyes look similar to human eyes. While a joyful activity, hunting (even permitted animals) has ethical ramifications: “The Guarani must kill animals to live, but they believed dead animal spirits live on and must be placated or else do harm in angry retribution.”  To counterbalance the offense of hunting, a shaman demonstrated respect through the ritual preparation of the poison, curare, used in blow darts. Hunting with such darts is not considered killing, but retrieving, essentially a kind of harvesting from the trees. . While never hunted, two other animals, the snake and the jaguar, have special significance for the Guarani. Snakes are considered "the most evil force in the Guarani cosmology", particularly the imposing (though nonvenemous) anaconda, or obe. A giant obe stands in the way of the forest trail that the dead follow to an afterlife with the creator in the sky. Here on earth, snakes are a bad omen, and traditionally killing them is considered taboo. Their Shaman Identify with Jaguars spiritually, A guarani may become a shaman at any age but must be chosen. In the Guarani belief system, jaguar shamans are able “to become as or enact as a jaguar, at this time they can telepathically travel through time and distance to communicate with other Guarani and shaman anywhere.” This skill has been documented throughout world history in many spiritual cultures and is taught through initiations often called the ancient mysteries in European, Asian and Middle eastern texts. Plants, especially trees, continue to hold a complex and important interest for the Guarani. Their store of botanical knowledge is extensive, ranging from knowledge of materials to poisons to hallucinogens to medicines. They also relate plants to their own experiences, particularly that of growing. Among trees, certain kinds are auspicious. Canopy trees, with their distinctly colored young leaves and striking transformation as they mature to towering giants, are “admired for their solitary character … as well as for their profuse entanglement” with other plants. Other significant trees are the pioneer species of the peach palm (used for making spears and blowguns, as well as for fruit), and fast-growing balsa wood, used for ceremonial purposes. Peach palm trees are associated with past settlements and the ancestors who live there. As with many peoples, the Waos maintain a strong in-group/out-group distinction, between Guarani (people who are kin), Guarani (others in their culture who are unrelated) and Cowodi. The use of Guarani as a term for their entire culture emerged in the last fifty years in a process of ethnogenesis. This was accelerated by the creation of ONHAE, a radio service, and a soccer league. The Guarani notion of time is particularly oriented to the present, with few obligations extending backwards or forwards in time. Their one word for future times, baane, also means "tomorrow".
The centre and depot of the slave trade was the town of São Paulo. Originally a rendezvous place for Portuguese, Dutch, and Spanish pirates, it later became a refuge for criminals, who mixed with Native American and African women and actively participated in the capturing and selling of Guaranís as slaves.
To oppose these armed and organized robbers, the tribes had only their bows and arrows, since the Spanish government prohibited the use of firearms by all natives. Many Guaranís were slain or enslaved by the slave-hunters active in Brazil during those years.
With royal protection, the first Guayrá mission, Loreto, was established on the Paranapané by Father Cataldino and Father Marcerata in 1610. As the mission provided the only real possible protection against enslavement, the Guaraní flocked there in such numbers that twelve more missions were created in rapid succession, containing in all 40,000 Guaranis. Stimulated by this success, Father Gonzalez and two companions journeyed to Uruguay and established two or three small missions in 1627. The local tribes killed the priests and the neophytes and burned the missions.
Slave raiders saw the Guaraní missions as "merely an opportunity of capturing more Indians than usual at a haul". In 1629, an army of Paulistas surrounded the San Antonio mission, set fire to the church and other buildings, killed those who resisted or were too young or too old to travel, and carried the rest into slavery. San Miguel and Jesus Maria quickly met the same fate. Eventually, reinforcements gathered by Father Cataldino drove off the slavers. Within two years, all but two of the establishments were destroyed, and 60,000 Christian and converts were carried off for sale to São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. The attacks usually took place on Sunday, when the whole mission population was gathered for Mass. The priests were usually spared, but several were killed.
The guarani that survived were expected to denounce their spiritual beliefs under the authority of the Missionaries and Inquisition tribunals. These and all Native Americans suffered the fate of the largest Spiritual genocide in world history. The recorded letters from Columbus to Cortes detail the horrific massacres that men, woman and children suffered at the hands of the Spanish conquistadors and Catholic Priests.
Only a few thousand natives were left of nearly 100,000 just before the Paulista invasion. Father Antonio Ruiz de Montoya purchased 10,000 cattle, and was able to convert the natives from farmers to stock raisers. Soon under Fathers Rançoncier and Romero the Uruguay missions were re-established. In 1632 the Mamelucos discovered a new line of attack from the south. In 1638, despite some successful resistance, all twelve of the missions beyond the Uruguay were abandoned and their people consolidated with the community of the Missions Territory. In the last raid Father Afaro was killed.
In the same year Father Montoya, after having successfully opposed the governor's and the bishop of Asunción's attempts to reduce the native's liberties and the mission administration, sailed for Europe. On this trip he was successful in obtaining letters from Pope Urban VIII forbidding the enslavement of the missionaries under the severest church penalties, and from King Philip IV of Spain, permitting guaraníes to carry firearms for defense and to be trained in their use by veteran soldiers who had become Jesuits.
When the next Paulista army, 800 strong, attacked the missions in 1641 they were met by a body of Christian Guaraní armed with guns on the Acaray River. In two battles, the Paulista army suffered a defeat that warded off invasions for ten years. In 1651, the war between Spain and Portugal encouraged another Paulista attack to gain territory for Portugal. Before Spanish troops could arrive to help defend the missions, the fathers themselves led a Guaraní army against the enemy. In 1732, at the time of their greatest prosperity, the Guaraní missions were guarded by a well-drilled and well-equipped army of 7,000 guaraníes. On more than one occasion this mission army, accompanied by their priests, defended the Spanish colony.
In 1732, there were 30 Guaraní missions with 141,252 converted guaraníes. Two years later a smallpox epidemic killed approximately 30,000 of them. In 1765, a second outbreak killed approximately 12,000 more, and then spread westward through the tribes of the Chaco.
Uruguay missions saved
In 1750, a treaty between Spain and Portugal (the Treaty of Madrid) transferred to Portugal the territory of the seven missions on the Uruguay, and the guaraníes were ordered to be removed. They refused to leave, being familiar with the Portuguese as slave-hunters. Seven years of guerrilla warfare killed thousands of them (see Guarani War). The Jesuits secured a royal decree restoring the disputed mission territory to Spanish jurisdiction. Two missions in 1747 and a third in 1760 were established in the sub-tribe of the Itatines, or Tobatines, in Central Paraguay, far north of the older mission group. In one of these, San Joaquin[disambiguation needed] (1747), Martin Dobrizhoffer ministered for eight years.
In 1767, the Jesuits were expelled from Spanish dominions by royal edict. Fearing the outcome of this decision, viceroy Antonio María Bucareli y Ursúa entrusted the execution of the mandate in 1768 to two officers with a force of 500 troops. Despite their mission army of 14,000, the Jesuits submitted without resistance.
Decline of the missions
The missions were turned over to priests of other orders, chiefly Franciscans, but under a code of regulations drawn up by the viceroy and modeled largely on the Jesuit system. Under a chaotic political regulation, the missions rapidly declined. Most guaraníes returned to the countryside. According to the official census of 1801, fewer than 45,000 guaraníes remained; cattle, sheep, and horses had disappeared; the fields and orchards were overgrown or cut down and the churches were in ruins. The long period of revolutionary struggle that followed completed the destruction. In 1814, the mission Indians numbered 8,000, and in 1848 the few who remained were declared citizens.
Guaraní people today
|This section requires expansion. (January 2010)|
The Guaraní people and culture persist. Nearly all the forest tribes on the borders of Paraguay are Guaraní. Many are descendants of mission exiles. In Paraguay, Guaraní lineage predominates in the population and the Guaraní language is spoken in most provinces to this day.
The Guaraní ethnic group in Bolivia lives in a region of the country near the Paraguayan and Argentine borders, including portions of Santa Cruz, Chuquisaca, Tarija Departments. This region reaches nearly as far north as Santa Cruz de la Sierra and includes portions of the Guapay, Parapetí, and Ɨtɨka Guasu (or Pilcomayo) River valleys. Bolivian Guaraní are represented by the Assembly of the Guaraní People.
- Around fifty thousand Ava Guaraní principally in the Andean foothills. Ava means man in Guaraní, and thus Ava Guaraní has become the name for numerous Guaraní ethnic groups in Paraguay and Brazil.
- Simba (Quechua: braid) Guaraní who live near the Pilcomayo River and have been identified by men maintaining a tradition of braided hair, although most young men no longer uphold this practice. They are sometimes called Guaraní katui (Guaraní: Guaraní par excellence)
- The Izoceño Guaraní or Tapɨi of Izozog who live in the region of Ɨsoso or Izozo on the Parapetí River
The Guaraní language has been much cultivated, its literature covering a wide range of subjects. Many works were written by priests, either wholly or partly in the native language, and were published by the mission press in Loreto. Among the most important treatises on the language are the "Tesoro de la Lengua Guaraní" (Madrid, 1639) by Father Montoya, published in Paris and Leipzig in 1876; and the "Catecismo de la Lengua Guaraní" of Father Diego Díaz de la Guerra (Madrid, 1630).
The language was also used in other tribes such as the Chaco in Paraguay.
The Guaraní were later described, amongst many other historical documents in existence today, in 1903 by Croatian explorers Mirko and Stjepan Seljan. Several English words can be traced to Guaraní roots, such as "tapioca", "toucan" and "jaguar."
Presently, the language is still the main binding characteristic of the Guaraní people. The Argentinian communities speak mainly Mbya-Guaraní, as opposed to the Tupi-Guaraní and Guaraní-Jopara spoken in Paraguay and Brazil. These varieties are mutually intelligible. The Guarani villages located in the south of Brazil and in the north of Argentina are more marginalized due to European immigration following the First and Second World Wars. Many Guaraní do not speak Spanish and the European immigrant population does not speak Guaraní. The Mbya-Guaraní still live in secluded villages and only the "cacique" and some other officials in their community learn Spanish. Recently the government of Argentina has partly financed bilingual schools in the northern province of Misiones.
Paraguay is a bilingual country and most of its Spanish-speaking population also speaks a form of Guaraní. The Paraguayan population learns Guaraní both informally from social interaction and formally in public schools. Guaraní became part of the required curriculum in public schools during the ten years since the fall of ex-President Alfredo Stroessner in 1989. The native populations in Paraguay speak the traditional Tupi-Guaraní while the majority of bilingual Paraguayans speak Guaraní-Jopara ("Jopara" meaning mixed). Many words have been borrowed from Spanish but include traditional Tupi-Guaraní prefixes and suffixes. For example "Nde rentede pa?" meaning "Do you understand?" The "entende" root is borrowed from the Spanish verb "entender" meaning "to understand." The evolution of Guaraní-Jopara is very similar to "Border Spanish" or "Spanglish" where the mixture of the two languages begins to develop its own rules and uses. An understanding of both Guaraní and Spanish is required for full fluency.
In August 2009 Bolivia launched a Guaraní-language university at Kuruyuki in the southeastern province of Chuquisaca which will bear the name of the indigenous hero Apiaguaiki Tumpa. The education minister of Bolivia said that indigenous universities “will open up not only the Western and universal world of knowledge, but the knowledge of our own identity”.
- Guaraní currency
- Guaraní mythology
- Guarani War
- Indigenous peoples in Brazil
- Jesuit Reductions
- Tupi people
Notable Guaraní people
- Manuel Ortiz Guerrero Guarani poet
- Emiliano Rivarola Fernàndez
- Félix Fernández Galeano
- Rudy Torga Guarani poet
- Teodoro S. Mongelòs
- Julio Correa
- Narciso R. Colman
- Gregorio Gomez Guarani poet
- Agustín Pío Barrios
- "Paraguay". Embassy of Paraguay in the United States of America.
- "Catholic Encyclopedia".
- Ganson, Barbara (2003). The Guarani Under Spanish Rule in the Rio de la Plata
- "Paraguay". US Department of State.
- Salvo, Rosita Escalada & Zamboni, Olga; Myths and Legends: A journey around the Guarani lands. Anthology (translated by students from the Instituto Superior Lenguas Vivas, 1906), Editorial Universitaria, Universidad Nacional de Misiones, 1870, revised and corrected by Gloria Acosta, 2007. ISBN 978-987-9121-99-3 pp.9-29
- Salvo, Rosita Escalada & Zamboni, Olga; Myths and Legends: A journey around the Guarani lands. Anthology (translated by students from the Instituto Superior Lenguas Vivas, 1906), Editorial Universitaria, Universidad Nacional de Misiones, 1870, revised and corrected by Gloria Acosta, 2007. ISBN 978-987-9121-99-3 pp.29-63
- Salvo, Rosita Escalada & Zamboni, Olga; Myths and Legends: A journey around the Guarani lands. Anthology (translated by students from the Instituto Superior Lenguas Vivas, 1906), Editorial Universitaria, Universidad Nacional de Misiones, 1870, revised and corrected by Gloria Acosta, 2007. ISBN 978-987-9121-99-3 pp.63-67
- "The larger portion of the population regarded it as a right, a privilege by virtue of conquest, that they should enslave the Indians" (Page, 470).
- Page, 470
- Graham 57
- Gustafson, Bret Darin (2009). New languages of the state : indigenous resurgence and the politics of knowledge in Bolivia. Durham: Duke University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-8223-4529-9.
- Gustafson, Bret Darin (2009). New languages of the state : indigenous resurgence and the politics of knowledge in Bolivia. Durham: Duke University Press. p. xix. ISBN 978-0-8223-4529-9.
- Combes, Isabelle; Kathleen Lowrey (2006-10-01). "Slaves without Masters? Arawakan Dynasties among the Chiriguano (Bolivian Chaco, Sixteenth to Twentieth Centuries)". Ethnohistory 53 (4): 689–714 . doi:10.1215/00141801-2006-019.
- Combes, Isabelle; Kathleen Lowrey (2006-10-01). "Slaves without Masters? Arawakan Dynasties among the Chiriguano (Bolivian Chaco, Sixteenth to Twentieth Centuries)". Ethnohistory 53 (4): 689–714 . doi:10.1215/00141801-2006-019.
- Gustafson, Bret Darin (2009). New languages of the state : indigenous resurgence and the politics of knowledge in Bolivia. Durham: Duke University Press. p. 102. ISBN 978-0-8223-4529-9.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Guaraní Indians". Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Guaraní.|
|Guarani edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
- http://www.unavenirpourlesguaranis.org – Campaign for the Guarani, French NGOs
- Guarani Survival Fund – Fund opened by the British NGO Survival International in support of the Guarani
- Guarani, The Language of the People
- Catholic Encyclopedia article
- Circuits of Culture: Media, Politics, and Identity in the Andes
- Indigenous peoples, and The Language (Spanish)
- Bolivian Indians see Rocky Exodus from Serfdom by the Associated Press, January 2, 2010
- The Guarani - Survival International Charitable Trust