Financial Guard (Italy)

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Finance Guard
Guardia di Finanza
CoA Guardia di Finanza.svg
Coat of arms of the Guardia di Finanza, depicting the Cimon della Pala
Motto Nec Recisa Recedit
Does not retreat even if broken
Agency overview
Formed April 8, 1881
Employees 68,134[1]
Legal personality Governmental: Government agency
Jurisdictional structure
National agency ITA
Governing body Ministry of Economy and Finances (Italy)
General nature
Operational structure
Headquarters Rome
Elected officer responsible Pier Carlo Padoan, Minister of Economy and Finance
Agency executive Saverio Capolupo, General Commander
Website
www.gdf.it

The Financial Guard (Italian: Guardia di Finanza (short GdF) (Italian pronunciation: [ˈɡwardja di fiˈnantsa]) is an Italian law enforcement agency under the authority of the Minister of Economy and Finance and part of the Italian armed forces. The Guard is essentially responsible for dealing with financial crime and smuggling; it has also evolved into Italy's primary agency for suppressing the drugs trade. The Financial Guard maintains over 600 boats and ships and more than 100 aircraft to serve in its mission of patrolling Italy's territorial waters.

Roles[edit]

The mission and institutional tasks of Financial Guard are stated in the law 189 of April 23, 1959 and 68/2001 and are subdivided into priority ones (preventing, investigating and reporting financial evasions and violations, overseeing the compliance with the provisions of politico-economic interest and surveillance at sea for financial police purposes) and contribution ones (maintaining public order and safety and political-military defense of the borders).

The Financial Guard has around 68,000 policemen (agents, NCOs, and officers). Its policepersons are in service in the Europol and OLAF (European Agency of Fight against the Fraud). Its Latin motto since 1933 is Nec recisa recedit (Italian: Neanche spezzata retrocede, English: Does not retreat even if broken).

Its activities are connected with financial, economic, judiciary and public safety: tax evasion, financial crimes, smuggling, money laundering, international illegal drug trafficking, illegal immigration, customs and borders checks, copyright violations, anti-Mafia operations, credit card fraud, cybercrime, counterfeiting, terrorist financing, maintaining public order, and safety, political and military defense of the Italian borders.

Members have been known to occasionally demand VAT receipts for items from members of the public who have recently bought an item, dined at a restaurant, or otherwise incurred VAT; prior to 2003, failure to produce one could lead to a substantial fine on the customer as well as the seller. [2] As of October 2003, the customer no longer incurs a fine.[3]

History[edit]

Light Troops Legion (1774)[edit]

Guardia di Finanza police in central Rome
Patrol Boat of the Guardia di Finanza

The origins of the Guardia di Finanza date back to October 5, 1774, when the “Light Troops Legion” (Legione truppe leggere) was set up under the King of Sardinia, Victor Amadeus III. This was the first example in Italy of a special corps established and organized for financial surveillance duties along the borders, as well as for military defense.

Customs Guards Corps (1862)[edit]

Once the unification of Italy was completed in 1862, the "Customs Guards Corps" (Corpo delle Guardie doganali) was set up. Its main task was Customs surveillance and co-participation in the Country’s defense during war time.

Corpo della Regia Guardia di Finanza (1881)[edit]

By Law no. 141 dated April 8, 1881, the Customs Guards Corps became the "Corps of the Royal Finance Guard" (Corpo della Regia Guardia di Finanza) whose task was to "impede, suppress and report smuggling activities and any other violation and transgression of financial laws and regulations", and to safeguard the interests of the tax administration, as well as to co-participate in enforcing law and order and public security.

Twentieth century[edit]

By Royal Decree dated July 14, 1907, the Corps was issued 5-point star uniforms to mark its military status, even though the Army’s military discipline regulation was extended to the Financial Guard by Law dated July 12, 1908. The Corps served in the two World Wars and in the War of National Liberation, deserving 18 awards to its War Flag, which had been granted in 1914 to decree the total integration among the Italian Armed Forces.

Subsequently, the Corps took part in numerous rescue operations during serious natural disasters; for this commitment the Corps was decorated with 13 additional civil valor awards.

The re-organization of the police forces in 1919 also affected the Royal Guardia di Finanza. The responsibilities were divided between the Inspector General, who was an Army Officer with the rank of Lieutenant General responsible for military preparation, and the Commanding General, who was a Financial Guard Officer subordinate to the former, but authorized to maintain direct relations with the Minister for ordinary institutional duties and for personnel management. In 1923, the "Investigative Tax Police" was set up as a specialized branch of the Royal Financial Guard. Within a few years, its naval fleet, motor-vehicles and telecommunication structure underwent a complete change; the Statistical Service equipped with a data processing centre, the Air Service and the Canine Service (for anti-drugs checks) were set up. During the same years, the Corps’ general organization was defined pursuant to Law no. 189 dated April 23, 1959, which laid down its institutional tasks, subsequently amended by specific sector provisions assigning certain responsibilities.

Recent history[edit]

Besides the review of its organizational structure, laid out by the issuance of Presidential Decree Law no. 34 dated January 29, 1999, the updating of the Corps’ institutional tasks was completed. Law Decree no. 68, dated March 19, 2001, whilst confirming the Corps’ configuration as a military structure, enhanced its role as a police force having general competence on all economic, financial and judicial matters for the safeguard of the public budget and that of the regions, of the local authorities and of the European Union.

The Guardia di Finanza Historical Museum is custodian of the traditions of the Corps. It preserves artifacts of relevance to the Guardia di Finanza and promotes historical research, to aid researchers, scholars and military history enthusiasts.

Guardia di finanza Agusta AW139

Anti-drug operations[edit]

From the statistic data of the anti-drug service central Direction, of the Department of the Interior,the 60% of the drug seized in Italy by all the strengths of law enforcement is found by the Guardia di Finanza. In 2005, the Financial Guard was responsible for 77% of the Heroin seizures, 69% of Cocaine seizures and 54% of cannabis (including Hashish) seizures.

The Chiasso financial smuggling case[edit]

On June 3, 2009 near Chiasso, Switzerland (near the Swiss/Italian border), officers of the Corps detained two Japanese nationals in their 50s who had attempted to enter Switzerland and had in their possession a suitcase with a false bottom containing U.S. Treasury Bonds worth $134.5 billion.[4][5][6] While assessment as to the authenticity of the bonds is on-going, if the bonds prove to be genuine, the Corps will have intervened in the largest single act of smuggling (with respect to financial value) in recorded history.[7]

Ranks[edit]

The Guardia di Finanza utilises a system of rank similar to that of the Italian Army

  • General of Army Corps with special responsibilities - Commandant General (Generale di Corpo d'Armata con incarichi speciali - Comandante Generale) (Lieutenant-General)
  • General of Army Corps - Second-in-Command (Generale di Corpo d'Armata - Comandante in Seconda) (Lieutenant-General)
  • General of Army Corps (Generale di Corpo d'Armata) (Lieutenant-General)
  • Divisional General posted to a higher grade - recorded as such (Generale di Divisione - incarico grado superiore - iscritto in quadro) (Major-General)
  • Divisional General posted to a higher grade - not recorded as such (Generale di Divisione - incarico grado superiore - non iscritto in quadro) (Major-General)
  • Divisional General (Generale di Divisione) (Major-General)
  • Brigade General posted to a higher grade - recorded as such (Generale di Brigata - incarico grado superiore - iscritto in quadro) (Brigadier-General)
  • Brigade General posted to a higher grade - not recorded as such (Generale di Brigata - incarico grado superiore - non iscritto in quadro) (Brigadier General)
  • Brigade General (Generale di Brigata) (Brigadier General)
  • Colonel posted to a higher grade - recorded as such (Colonello - incarico grado superiore - iscritto in quadro) (Senior Colonel/Brigadier)
  • Colonel posted to a higher grade - not recorded as such (Colonello - incarico grado superiore - non iscritto in quadro) (Senior Colonel/Brigadier)
  • Colonel - Corps Commandant (Colonello - Comandante di Corpo) (Colonel-Commandant/Brigadier)
  • Colonel (Colonello)
  • Lieutenant-Colonel posted to a higher grade - recorded as such (Tenente Colonello - incarico grado superiore - iscritto in quadro) (Senior Lieutenant Colonel)
  • Lieutenant-Colonel posted to a higher grade - not recorded as such/Corps Commandant (Tenente Colonello - incarico grado superiore - non iscritto in quadro/Comandante di Corpo) (Senior Lieutenant Colonel)
  • Lieutenant-Colonel posted to a higher grade - not recorded as such (Tenente Colonello - incarico grado superiore - non iscritto in quadro) (Senior Lieutenant Colonel)
  • Lieutenant-Colonel - Corps Commandant (Tenente Colonello - Comandante di Corpo) (Senior Lieutenant Colonel)
  • Lieutenant Colonel (Tenente Colonello)
  • Major - Corps Commandant (Maggiore - Comandante di Corpo)
  • Major (Maggiore)
  • Senior Captain (Primo Capitano)
  • Captain (Capitano)
  • Lieutenant - Company Commander and Naval Base Commandant when vacant (Tenente - Comandante di Compagnia e Stazione Navale in sede vacante)
  • Lieutenant (Tenente)
  • Second Lieutenant (Sottotenente)
  • Inspector - Lieutenant (Ispettore - Luogotenente) (Conductor/Command Sergeant Major/Warrant Officer)
  • Inspector - Adjutant Marshal(Ispettore - Maresciallo Aiutante) (Warrant Officer Class I/Command Sergeant Major)
  • Inspector - Chief Marshal (Ispettore - Maresciallo Capo) (Warrant Officer Class I/Sergeant Major)
  • Inspector - Ordinary Marshal (Ispettore - Maresciallo Ordinario) (Quartermaster Sergeant/First Sergeant)
  • Inspector - Marshal (Ispettore - Maresciallo) (Warrant Officer Class II/Master Sergeant)
  • Superintendent - Chief Brigadier (Sovrintendenti - Brigadiere Capo) (Staff Sergeant/Sergeant First Class)
  • Superintendent - Brigadier (Sovrintendenti - Brigadiere) (Sergeant/Staff Sergeant)
  • Superintendent - Vice Brigadier (Sovrintendenti - Vice Brigadiere) (Lance Sergeant/Sergeant)
  • Select Appointee (Appuntato scelto) (Corporal)
  • Appointee (Appuntato) (Lance Corporal/Private First Class)
  • Select Revenue Officer (Finanziere scelto) (Private/Private E-2)
  • Revenue Officer (Finanziere) (Private/Private E-1)

[8]

Unit awards[edit]

The unit awards, as depicted on the unit coat-of-arms, are:

  • 3 blue and gold ribbons for 3 Gold Medals of Military Valour
  • 4 white and gold ribbons for 4 Silver Medals of Military Valour
  • 1 blue ribbon with VI for six Bronze Medals of Military Valour
  • 1 blue and white ribbon with II for two Crosses of Military Valour
  • 1 green-white-red ribbon with IX for nine Gold Medals of Civil Valour
  • 1 blue and red ribbon, with a cross, for 5 Knight's Crosses of the Military Order of Italy

Awards not included in the coat of arms but are included in its State Color are:

  • 1 Gold Medal of Valor of the Finance Guard (2011)
  • 1 Silver Medal of Civil Valor
  • 9 Gold Medals of Civil Merit
  • 2 separate Medals of Merited Service in Earthquake Relief (1908 and 1915, respectively)
  • 2 Medals of Benemerited Financial Service
  • 6 Gold Medals of Benemerited Service to Education, Culture and the Arts
  • 2 Gold Medals of Benemerited Service to Public Health
  • 2 Gold Medals of Benemerited Service to the Environment
  • 1 Gold Medal of Merit of the Department of Civil Defense
  • 3 Gold Medals of Merit of the Italian Red Cross
  • UN Peacekeeping Medal (for service as part of UNMIK Kosovo 1995-2004)
  • Gold Medal of the Eagle of the Republic of Albania (1997-2005)
  • Military Double Gold Star of Sports Merit (2007)

Special departments[edit]

  • Gruppo di Investigazione Criminalità Organizzata (GICO): Organized Crime Investigation Group.
  • Gruppo Operativo Antidroga (GOA): Counter-narcotics Group
  • Gruppo Anticrimine Tecnologico (GAT): Counter-cybercrime Group
  • Comando Operativo Aeronavale (ROAN): Air-Naval Operational Command
  • Gruppo Tutela Patrimonio Archeologico: Stolen Art Recovery Group
  • Antiterrorismo Pronto Impiego (ATPI): Antiterrorism and Rapid Response Service
  • Servizio Cinofili: Police Dog Division (K9).

Weapons[edit]

Vehicles[edit]

Cars[edit]

Aircraft[edit]

Type Origin Picture In service [9] Note
ATR42-400MP  Italy
 France
Guardia di Finanza ATR-42.JPG 4
Piaggio P.166DP1  Italy Piaggio P.166 DL 3.JPG 8
Piaggio P.180 Avanti II  Italy Piaggio P-180AM Avanti, Italy - Guardia di Finanza JP7359591.jpg 2

Helicopters[edit]

Type Origin Picture In service Note
AgustaWestland AW139  Italy Agusta-Westland AW-139, Italy - Guardia di Finanza JP7359603.jpg 2
Agusta-Bell AB 412  Italy AB412 - RIAT 2005 (3047285581).jpg 22
Agusta A109AII / A109C / AW109N  Italy Agusta A109A Hirundo, Italy - Guardia di Finanza JP7359595.jpg 33
Nardi Hughes NH-500MC / NH-500MD  Italy NH-500 Guardia di Finanza.JPG 28

List of Guardia di Finanza vessels[10][edit]

Patrol boats[edit]

Ship Launched Commissioned Shipyard
Origin
Picture Displacement Length Max
speed
knots
Weapon Note
Cutters
P580 class:[11]

P01 Monte Sperone [12]
P02 Monte Cimone


7.10.2013 [13]
5.11.2013


8.2014 [14]
12.2014
Cantere Navale Vittoria - Rovigo on Damen Stan Patrol 5509 [15] plans

 Italy
 Netherlands
460 t 58 m 28,2 - 1 x Oerlikon 1S, 20/70 mm
- 2 MG 42/59 x 7,62 mm
Zara class
II batch

P03 Denaro [16]
28.3.1998 Fincantieri Spa - Cantieri Navali del Muggiano (La Spezia)

 Italy
Pattugliatore Classe Zara.jpg 320 t 51 m 35 1 x Breda 30/82 mm
2 x MG 42/59 7,62 mm
Mazzei class
Bigliani - Batch IV
(Intermarine MV 115) :

G.1 Mazzei [17]
G.2 Vaccaro [18]




4.1998
5.1998 [19]
Cantiere Navale Intermarine Spa - Sarzana (La Spezia)

 Italy
Pattugliatori classe Mazzei.jpg 116 t 35,5 m 38 1 x Breda 30/82 mm
2 x MG 42/59 7,62 mm
Di Bartolo class
Bigliani - Batch V
(Intermarine MV 115):[20]

G.3 Di Bartolo
G.4 Avallone [21]
G.5 Oltramonti [22]
G.6 Barbarisi [23]
G.7 Sottotenente Paolini [24]




26.2.2003 [25]
28.5.2003
16.7.2003 [26]
26.7.2006 [27]
26.7.2006 [28]




3.10.2003 [29][30]
29.1.2004 [31]
24.6.2004 [32]
12.7.2007 [33]
20.12.2007 [34]
Cantiere Navale Intermarine Spa - Sarzana (La Spezia)

 Italy
Guardia di Finanza (7257220678).jpg 134 t 35,5 m 35 1 x Breda 30/82 mm
2 x MG 42/59 7,62 mm
Di Bartolo class
Bigliani - Batch VII
(Intermarine MV 115):[35]

G.8 Brigadiere Greco [36]
G.9 Cinus [37]




9.2.2007 [38]
23.7.2007 [39]




15.5.2008 [40]
14.10.2008 [41]
Cantiere Navale Intermarine Spa - Sarzana (La Spezia)

 Italy
137 t 36,5 m 35 1 x Breda 30/82 mm
2 x MG 42/59 7,62 mm
Corrubia class
Batch II:[42]

G.92 Alberti
G.93 Angelini
G.94 Cappelletti
G.95 Ciorlieri [43]
G.96 D'Amato
G.97 Fais
G.98 Feliciani
G.99 Garzone
G.100 Lippi
G.101 Lombardi [44]
G.102 Miccoli
G.103 Trezza [45]
12 x Batch II:
between 1995/1997
Cantieri Navali del Golfo - Gaeta (Latina) (first 11 hulls)
Cantiere Navale Intermarine Spa - Sarzana (La Spezia)

 Italy
MV Fais Guardia di Finanza in VE.JPG 92,12 t 26,8 m 43 1 x Breda 30/82 mm
2 x MG 42/59 7,62 mm
Corrubia class
Batch III:[46]

G.104 Apruzzi
G.105 Ballali
G.106 Bovienzo [47]
G.107 Carreca [48]
G.108 Conversano [49]
G.109 Inzerilli [50]
G.110 Letizia
G.111 Mazzarella
G.112 Nioi
G.113 Partipilo [51]
G.114 Puleo
G.115 Zanotti
G.108 1998
G.109 1998
G.113 1999
Cantiere Navale Intermarine Spa - Sarzana (La Spezia)

 Italy
94 t 26,8 m 43 1 x Royal Ordnance GAM B01 “Astra” 20/85 mm
2 x MG 42/59 7,62 mm
Bigliani class
Batch III
(Intermarine MV 85):[52]

G.78 Ottonelli [53]
G.79 Barletta [54]
G.88 La Malfa
G.89 Rosati




1996
1996
1997
1997




1996
1996
1997
1997
Cantiere Navale Intermarine Spa - Sarzana (La Spezia)

 Italy
95 t 27 m 43 1 x Breda 30/82 mm
2 x MG 42/59 7,62 mm
Bigliani class
Batch VI
(Intermarine MV 85):[55]

G.116 Laganà
G.117 Sanna
G.118 Inzucchi
G.119 Vitali
G.120 Calabrese [56]
G.121 Urso [57]
G.122 La Spina [58]
G.123 Salone
G.124 Cavatorto
G.125 Fusco




18.9.2003 [59]
18.12.2003 [60]
12.3.2004 [61]
12.6.2004 [62]
28.7.2004 [63]
22.10.2004 [64]
28.1.2005 [65]
29.4.2005 [66]
28.7.2005 [67]
20.12.2005 [68]




2004
2004
2004
2005
2005
5.5.2006 [69]
1.6.2006 [70]
19.7.2006 [71]
20.12.2006 [72]
2006
Cantiere Navale Intermarine Spa - Sarzana (La Spezia)

 Italy
Pattugliatore Classe Bigliani.jpg 95 t 27 m 43 1 x OTO Melara Hitrole 503 NT 12,7 mm
2 x MG 42/59 7,62 mm
Bigliani class
Batch VIII
(Intermarine MV 85):[73]

G.126 Salvatore De Rosa [74]
G.127 Finanziere Zoccola
G.128 Vicebrigadiere Stanisci
G.129 Finanziere Sottile
G.130 Vicebrigadiere De Falco




29.9.2007 [75]
17.12.2007 [76]
10.4.2008 [77]
27.6.2008
21.10.2008 [78]




/
21.10.2009 [79]
4.3.2010 [80]
21.4.2010 [81]
22.9.2010 [82]
Cantiere Navale Intermarine Spa - Sarzana (La Spezia)

 Italy
98,97 t 28,2 m 40 1 x OTO Melara Hitrole 503 NT 12,7 mm
2 x MG 42/59 7,62 mm
Buratti class:[83]

G.200 Brigadiere Buratti
G.201 Generale De Ianni [84]
G.202 Appuntato Salerno
G.203 Collonnello Rossi
G.204 Giuseppe Garulli
G.205 Gabriele Sanges
G.206 Finanziere Corrias
G.207 Maresciallo Cortile
G.208 Maresciallo Casotti
G.209 Brigadiere Prata
G.210 Finanziere Marra [85]
G.211 Appuntato Gottardi
G.212 Finanziere Lapiccirella
G.213 Finanziere Perissinotto
G.214 Finanziere Rocca
G.215 Finanziere Pertoldi
G.216 Finanziere Verdecchia [86]
G.217 Finanziere De Santis
G.218 Maresciallo Piccinni Leopardi
G.219 Finanziere Bianco
G.220 Finanziere Starace
G.221 Capitano Cultrona
G.222 Sottotenente Benvenuti
G.200 23.7.2007
G.201 31.1.2008
G.202 27.6.2008
G.203 27.6.2008
G.204 21.10.2008
G.200 2007
G.201 6.2.2008
G.202 11.2.2010 [87]
G.203 15.3.2010 [88]
G.204 22.3.2010 [89]
G.205 3.2011
G.206 21.1.2011 [90]
G.207 11.2.2011 [91]
G.208 18.2.2011 [92]
G.209 25.3.2011 [93]
G.211 23.9.2011 [94]
others between 2012/2014
Intermarine Spa, Sarzana (La Spezia) - Rodriguez, Messina
Effebi - Viareggio

 Italy
GC202.jpg


Guardia di Finanza G 214 01.JPG
56 t 22 m 30 1 x Browning M2 HB 12,7 mm
Meattini class:[95]

G.64 Darida
1972/1978 Cantieri Navali Baglietto - Varazze
Cantieri Navali di Chiavari
Italcraft – Lavagna (Genova)
Picchiotti - La Spezia
Navaltecnica - Messina

 Italy
Bateau du guardia di finanza venise.jpg


Guardia di Finanza Silanos Venice.JPG
40 t 20,1 m 35 1 x Browning M2 HB 12,7 mm 57 delivered
on Cantieri Navali Baglietto - Varazze plans

Motorboats[edit]

Ship Launched Commissioned Shipyard
Origin
Picture Displacement Length Max
speed
knots
Weapon Note
Motorboats
5500 class:[96]

V.5503
V.5513
V.5514
V.5521
V.5523
V.5528
V.5534-5535
V.5541
V.5545
V.5549
V.5552
V.5555
V.5560
V.5566
V.5569
V.5573
V.5577
V.5579
1979/1981 Crestitalia Spa - Ameglia (La Spezia)
Italcraft - Gaeta (Latina)

 Italy
Motovedetta V5539.jpg 7,85 t 12,05 m 33 1 x MG 42/59 7,62 mm 82 delivered, all on Crestitalia plans
5800 class:[97]

V.5802
V.5805
V.5812
V.5814-5815
V.5819
V.5826
1979/1984 Motomar Spa - Lavagna (Genova)
Cantiere Navale Ascolani - San Benedetto del Tronto (Ascoli Piceno)
Mericraft - Napoli
Cantieri Balsamo Shipping Srl - Brindisi
Cantieri San Prospero - Anagni (Frosinone)

 Italy
V5800a.jpg 15,6 t 12,57 m 26 1 x MG 42/59 7,62 mm 33 delivered

Motomar Spa project
on hulls "Keith Nelson" type

Inland waters motoboats[edit]

Ship Launched Commissioned Shipyard
Origin
Picture Displacement Length Max
speed
knots
Weapon Note
Inland waters motorboats
V.A.I. 500 class:

VAI 500-506
 Italy
V.A.I. 400 class:

VAI 405
VAI 407-409
 Italy Vedette Guardia di Finanza Venise.jpg
V.A.I. 300 class:[98]

VAI 300-307
 Italy Guardia di finanza in Venice.jpg 3 t 7,8 m 30
V.A.I. 200 class:[99]

VAI 204-206
VAI 210
VAI 217
VAI 220-221
VAI 227-229
VAI 232
VAI 239
VAI 244
VAI 246
VAI 248
VAI 253
VAI 264
VAI 267-268 [100]
VAI 270
Batch I:
44 in 1986
Batch II:
43 in 1990
Cantiere Navale di Baia (Napoli)
FIART Cantieri Navali Italiani - Biaia (Napoli)

 Italy
3,54 t 8,9 m 35
V.A.I. 100 class
Hurricane 920 OB-Cabin [101]
Zodiac

 France
3,3 t 9,14 m 46

Sailing vessels[edit]

Ship Launched
Commissioned
Shipyard
Origin
Picture Displacement
Length
Max
speed
knots
Weapons Note
Sailing vessels
Grifone [102] 2002 2013 Sarasota Shipyards (Florida)

United States
47 t 28,42 m Rivolta 90 type
ex Moorning Star
Confiscated hull in 4.2012

Training ships[edit]

Ship Launched Commissioned Shipyard
Origin
Picture Displacement Length Max
speed
knots
Weapon Note
School ship
Giorgio Cini [103] 11.2.1970 3.11.1984 Cantieri Navali A. Lucchese - Venezia

 Italy
Giorgio Cini training ship, Livorno.jpg 770 t 54 m 13,5 - 1 x Browning M2 HB 12,7 mm
- 1 MG 42/59 x 7,62 mm
Buyed 27.4.1983
Sailing ships
Grifone III
(Barca Vela Grifone Fiamme Gialle III) [104]
1987 Cantiere Navale D'Ambrosi - Lavagna (Genova)

 Italy
24 t 18,29 m 10 Sloop
Launched as White Angel
Confiscated hull
Grifone IV
(Barca Vela Grifone Fiamme Gialle IV) [105]
1991 2001 “Beneteau S.A.” - Saint Hilaire de Riez (Francia)

 France
14 t 15,36 m 8 Oceanis 501 type
ex Trottolina
Confiscated hull in 1995 by Stazione Navale di Genova

References[edit]

  1. ^ (Italian)[1]
  2. ^ http://www.roderickconwaymorris.com/Articles/344.html
  3. ^ http://www.camera.it/parlam/leggi/decreti/03269d3.pdf
  4. ^ "Sequestrati a Chiasso titoli USA per novantasei miliardi di euro". Guardia di Finanza website (in Italian). June 4, 2009. Retrieved June 18, 2009. [dead link]
  5. ^ Owen, Richard (June 16, 2009). "Japanese pair arrested in Italy with US bonds worth $134 billion". Times Online (London). Retrieved June 18, 2009. 
  6. ^ McCarthy, Hannah (June 14, 2009). "$134bn bond scam arrests". The Independent (London). Retrieved June 18, 2009. 
  7. ^ "US government securities seized from Japanese nationals, not clear whether real or fake". AsiaNews.it. June 8, 2009. Retrieved June 18, 2009. 
  8. ^ Guardia di Finanza - Ranks
  9. ^ http://www.gdf.gov.it/repository/contentmanagement/information/p974606329/specifica_di_polizza_assicurativa_e_annesso.pdf?download=1
  10. ^ http://www.marina.difesa.it/documentazione/traffico_mercantile/Documents/SMM2_06_08_2014.pdf
  11. ^ http://newgdf.gdf.gov.it/chi-siamo/organizzazione/specializzazioni/comparto-aeronavale/servizio-navale/chi-siamo/flotta-navale/unita-navali-operative/pattugliatore/scheda-tecnica-nuovo-pattugliatore.pdf
  12. ^ http://www.gaetamedievale.it/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/IMG_4316.jpg
  13. ^ http://www.vittoria.biz/home/it/pdf/p01.pdf
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