|This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2009)|
Panorama view of Guayas River and downtown Malecon waterfront area, from Santa Ana Hill
|Nickname(s): La Perla del Pacífico
English: The Pearl of the Pacific
|Motto: Por Guayaquil Independiente
English: For Independent Guayaquil
|• Mayor||Jaime Nebot|
|• Vice-Mayor||Domenica Tabacchi|
|• City||344.5 km2 (133.01 sq mi)|
|• Land||316.42 km2 (122.17 sq mi)|
|• Water||28.08 km2 (10.84 sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,493.86 km2 (962.88 sq mi)|
|Elevation||4 m (13.2 ft)|
|Population (2010 census)|
|• Density||6,700/km2 (17,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||ECT (UTC-5)|
|Postal code||090101 to 090158|
|Area code(s)||(+593) 4|
Guayaquil (pronounced: [ɡwaʝaˈkil]), officially Santiago de Guayaquil (English: Santiago of Guayaquil) (pronounced: [sanˈtjaɣo ðe ɣwaʝaˈkil]), is the largest and the most populous city in Ecuador, with around 2.69 million people in the metropolitan area, as well as the nation's main port. The city is the capital of the Ecuadorian province of Guayas and the seat of the namesake canton.
Guayaquil is recognized as being founded, by the government, on July 25, 1538 with the name Muy Noble y Muy Leal Ciudad de Santiago de Guayaquil (Most Noble and Most Loyal City of St. James of Guayaquil) by Spanish Conquistador Francisco de Orellana. Even before it was founded by the Spanish, it already existed as a native village.
In 1600 Guayaquil had a population of about 2,000 people; by 1700 the city had a population of over 10,000.
In 1687, Guayaquil was attacked and looted by English and French pirates under the command of George d'Hout (English) and Picard and Groniet (Frenchmen). Of the more than 260 pirates, 35 died and 46 were wounded; 75 defenders of the city died and more than 100 were wounded. The pirates took local women as concubines.
In 1709, the English captains Woodes Rogers, Etienne Courtney, and William Dampier along with a crew of 110, looted Guayaquil and demanded ransom; however, they suddenly departed without collecting the ransom after an epidemic of yellow fever broke out.
On October 9, 1820, almost without bloodshed, a group of civilians, supported by soldiers from the "Granaderos de Reserva", a battalion quartered in Guayaquil, overwhelmed the resistance of the Royalist guards and arrested the Spanish authorities. Guayaquil declared independence from Spain, becoming Provincia Libre de Guayaquil, and José Joaquín de Olmedo was named Jefe Civil (Civilian Chief) of Guayaquil. This would prove to be a key victory for the Ecuadorian War of Independence.
In 1829, the city was invaded by the Peruvian Army, which occupied it for seven months.
In 1860, the city was the site of the Battle of Guayaquil, the last of a series of military conflicts between the forces of the Provisional Government, led by Gabriel García Moreno and General Juan José Flores, and the forces of the Supreme Chief of Guayas, General Guillermo Franco, whose government was recognized as possessing sovereignty over the Ecuadorian territory by Peruvian president Ramón Castilla.
Large portions of the city were destroyed by a major fire in 1896.
On July 8, 1898, the Guayaquil City Hall "Muy Ilustre Municipalidad de Guayaquil" officially recognized the anthem written by José Joaquín de Olmedo in 1821, with the music composed by Ana Villamil Ycaza in 1895, as the "Himno al 9 de Octubre" Canción al Nueve de Octubre, most widely known now as the "Himno a Guayaquil" (Guayaquil Anthem).
|This section requires expansion. (April 2012)|
Guayaquileños' main sources of income are: formal and informal trade, business, agriculture and aquaculture. Most commerce consists of small and medium businesses, adding an important informal economy occupation that gives thousands of guayaquileños employment.
Ongoing projects seek urban regeneration as a principal objective to the growth of the city's commercial districts, as the increase of capital produces income. These projects in the city driven by the recent mayors have achieved this goal after investing large sums of money. The current municipal administration aims to convert Guayaquil into a place for first-class international tourism and business multinationals.
Guayaquil maintains an infrastructure for import and export of products with international standards. Among its major trading points are the Seaport, the largest in Ecuador and one of the biggest influx of shipping on the shores of the Pacific and José Joaquín de Olmedo International Airport. Additionally, it has an infrastructure of roads to other cities and provinces, which are considered among the best in the country.
Guayaquil's current mayor is Jaime Nebot, a well-known member of the political party Partido Social Cristiano. Jaime Nebot began a campaign of construction projects for the city in the late 1990s to attract tourism, that included the "urban regeneration", which reconstructed the city in all levels including sidewalks, parks, sewer system, it took the power and telephone lines underground, it saw a lot of reconstruction of the city's chaotic transit system with the construction of multiple infrastructures (streets, speedways, overhead passages, tunnels, etc.).
In August 2006, the city's first bus rapid transit system, Metrovia, opened to provide a quicker, high-capacity service. One of the main projects was called Malecón 2000 [maleˈkon doz ˈmil], the renovation of the promenade (malecón) along the Guayas River with the addition of a boardwalk in 2000. Another project was the creation of the Nuevo Parque Histórico, a park in a housing development area that is called Entre Ríos because it lies between the Daule and Babahoyo rivers (which confluence to form the Guayas river), in a mangrove wetland area. The park cost the city about 7 million dollars.
Guayaquil, Ecuador, the nation's largest city and the capital of Guayas Province. It is on the Guayas River about 40 miles (64 km) north of the Gulf of Guayaquil, near the Equator. Guayaquil is Ecuador's chief port and principal commercial and manufacturing center. An international airport and the only railway to the nation's interior serve the city.
Landmarks include the cathedral and the church of San Francisco.
Guayaquil city sectors
|Guayaquil City Territorial Organization
Number of the sector in reference with the City Map
|1||9 de Octubre Este||25||Febres Cordero||49||Prosperina|
|2||9 de Octubre Oeste||26||Floresta||50||Puerto Azul Norte|
|3||Abel Gilbert||27||La Florida||51||Puerto Azul Sur|
|4||Acuarela||28||García Moreno||52||Puerto Lisa|
|5||Los Álamos||29||Garzota||53||Quinto Guayas Este|
|6||Alborada Este||30||Guangala||54||Quinto Guayas Oeste|
|7||Alborada Oeste||31||Guasmo Este||55||Río Guayas|
|8||Los Almendros||32||Guasmo Oeste||56||Roca|
|10||Atarazana||34||Isla Trinitaria||58||La Saiba|
|12||Bastión Popular||36||Letamendi||60||San Eduardo|
|13||Batallón del Suburbio||37||Luz del Guayas||61||Los Sauces|
|16||Los Ceibos||40||Monte Bello||64||Sucre|
|18||Cerro del Carmen||42||Las Orquídeas Este||66||Unión|
|19||Cóndor||43||Las Orquídeas Oeste||67||Urdenor|
|22||Estero Salado||46||Pedro Carbo||70||Los Vergeles|
|23||Los Esteros||47||Las Peñas||71||Ximena|
|24||La FAE||48||La Pradera||72||Mirador Norte|
|Historical Populations Guayaquil City
Compared with Guayas Province, Canton of Guayaquil, and Guayaquil City
|Census||Guayas Province||Canton of Guayaquil||Guayaquil City|
|Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas y Censos|
|Percentage Population Growth of Guayaquil City
Compared with Guayas Province, Canton of Guayaquil, and Guayaquil City.
|Census||Guayas Province||Canton of Guayaquil||Guayaquil City|
|Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas y Censos|
Guayaquil features a tropical savanna climate. Between January and April the climate is hot and humid with heavy rainfall, especially during El Niño years when it increases dramatically and flooding usually occurs. The rest of the year (from May through December) however, rainfall is minimal due to the cooling influence of the Humboldt Current, with usually cloudy mornings and very agreeable afternoon and evening breezes.
|Climate data for Guayaquil|
|Average high °C (°F)||31
|Average low °C (°F)||22
|Rainfall mm (inches)||230.3
|Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)||18||20||20||14||6||2||1||0||0||1||1||4||87|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||102.3||101.7||139.5||150.0||167.4||123.0||127.1||133.3||144.0||136.4||120.0||136.4||1,581.1|
|Source: Climate & Temperature|
Typical Guayaquil cuisine includes mostly seafood dishes such as encebollado and ceviche. The most traditional dish of Guayaquil is Arroz con Menestra y Carne Asada (Rice with lentils and grilled beef). Churrasco is also a staple food of Guayaquil.
During breakfast, Patacones and Bolon de Verde (fried plantain with cheese mashed and given a rounded shape) play a big role. Pan de yuca is a typical snack in Guayaquil. Local cuisine is heavily influenced by the diversity of Guayaquil's ethnic groups which includes Italian, Spanish and Eastern African origins.
Ecuador is known for its artists and its place in art history. Many of them were born in Guayaquil, such as:
- Alfredo Pareja Diezcanseco (1908, Guayaquil - d. 1993, Quito)
- Araceli Gilbert (b. 1913, Guayaquil – d. 1993, Quito)
- Demetrio Aguilera Malta (b. 1909, Guayaquil - d. 1981, Mexico)
- Enrique Gil Gilbert (1912, Guayaquil - d. 1973, Guayaquil)
- Enrique Tábara (b. 1930, Guayaquil)
- Eugenia Viteri (b. 1928, Guayaquil)
- Félix Arauz (b. 1935, Guayaquil)
- Joaquín Gallegos Lara (b. 1909, Guayaquil – d. 1947, Guayaquil)
- Jorge Velarde (b. 1960, Guayaquil)
- Jorge Queirolo B. (b. 1963, Guayaquil)
- José de la Cuadra (1903, Guayaquil - d. 1941, Guayaquil)
- José Martínez Queirolo (b. 1931, Guayaquil – d. 2008, Guayaquil)
- Juan Villafuerte (b. 1945, Guayaquil; d. 1977, Barcelona, Spain)
- Julio Jaramillo (b. 1935, Guayaquil – d. 1978, Guayaquil)
- Luis Burgos Flor (b. 1939, Guayaquil)
- Luis Miranda (b. 1932, Guayaquil)
- Luis Molinari (b. 1929, Guayaquil)
- Numa Pompilio Llona (b. 1832, Guayaquil – d. 1907, Guayaquil)
- Theo Constanté (b. 1934, Guayaquil)
- Víctor Manuel Rendón (b. 1859, Guayaquil – d. 1940, Guayaquil)
- Xavier Blum Pinto (b. 1957, Guayaquil)
- Osvaldo Sánchez Maciaz (b. 1988, Guayaquil)
Other notable people from Guayaquil include:
- Fernanda Cornejo, Miss Ecuador International 2011, Miss International 2011
- Olga Álava, Miss Ecuador Earth 2011, Miss Earth 2011
- Sir Frederick Ashton, British choreographer and dancer
- Novelist Demetrio Aguilera Malta
- Animator Mike Judge
- Poets José Joaquín de Olmedo, Karina Galvez and Adalberto Ortiz
- Writer/historian Jenny Estrada
- color commentator for the WWE Spanish team and former professional wrestler Hugo Savinovich
- Scholar Benjamín Urrutia
- Former world's oldest person María Capovilla
- Archeologist Presley Norton Yoder
- Violinist Alex Jimbo Viteri
- Violinist Jorge Saade
- Writer Pedro Jorge Vera
- Actor Albert Paulsen
- Operatic soprano Beatriz Parra Durango
- rapper Gerardo Mejía, made famous during the early 90s for his song "Rico Suave"
- Tennis player Pancho Segura who in 1950 and 1952 was the world's Co-No. 1 player
- Tennis player Andrés Gómez, who won the ATP Championship of Roland Garros in Paris, France in 1990
- Swimmer Jorge Delgado 4th in the 1972 Munich Olympic Games, multiple times South American champion (19), Gold Medal 1975 Panamerican champion.
- Striker Felipe Caicedo, who is currently playing for Lokomotiv Moscow.
- Striker Joao Plata, who is currently playing for Real Salt Lake.
- Carolina Aguirre, Miss Universe 2012 Candidate
- Prima ballerina and choreographer Noralma Vera Arrata
- Writer and feminist Rosa Borja de Ycaza
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (April 2009)|
As in many other cities from Ecuador, Guayaquil inherited the catholic organization from the colonial Spanish times and was divided in parishes. Nonetheless, many of the original religious and historic buildings tied to those parishes were destroyed by fires and the attack of English, French, and Dutch pirates. Today, very few remains of religious colonial architecture are present and in all cases have been altered without preserving their originality. The oldest church of Guayaquil, rebuilt many times though, is the "Iglesia de Santo Domingo".
Guayaquil has a cathedral and many other Roman Catholic churches. Approximately 80% of Guayaquileños are Catholics, however, several Protestant groups are also present, such as the Evangelical Church with about 150,000 members.
Many other faiths and religions are represented throughout the city. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) has many meetinghouses and the Guayaquil Ecuador Temple located in the area. There is a small Jewish community, composed mostly of Israeli citizens, and German immigrants who fled Germany during the Second World War.
Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil (Municipal Library of Guayaquil) serves as the public library of Guayaquil. The city has several universities, including the University of Guayaquil (founded in 1867), the Universidad Catolica de Santiago de Guayaquil and the Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral (ESPOL)
There are two major soccer clubs; the Barcelona Sporting Club and the Club Sport Emelec. Both clubs have their own stadiums; the Estadio Monumental Banco Pichincha is the home of the "Barcelonistas" while the Estadio George Capwell is the home of the "Emelecistas". These two teams have a long history of rivalry in Guayaquil and when these two teams play against each other the game is called "El Clásico del Astillero". (Emelec is short for "Empresa Electrica del Ecuador" – the team was sponsored by the electric power company when founded.)
The city is the home of Andrés Gómez and Nicolás Lapentti, Ecuador's two most famous tennis players, now both retired. The "Abierto de Tenis Ciudad de Guayaquil" is a tennis tournament organised in Guayaquil by Gómez and Luis Morejon, and held annually in November.
Another major event in the city is the Guayaquil Marathon, organised by DM3, which is held every year on the first weekend of October since 2005. These race is certified by the (AIMS) Association of International Marathons and Distance Races.
Some of Guayaquil's main universities are:
- Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral
- Universidad de Especialidades Espíritu Santo
- University of Guayaquil
- Universidad Católica de Santiago de Guayaquil
- Universidad Laica Vicente Rocafuerte
- Universidad Casa Grande
- Universidad Santa Maria
- Blue Hill College
- Universidad Del Pacífico – Ecuador
- Institute of Graphics Arts and Digital Science
- Universidad Politécnica Salesiana
The Palacio Municipal is located in front of the Malecón and holds the political offices of city and provincial officials. Built in a neoclassical style, it is considered one of the most important architectural works in the country.
Las Peñas is a neighbourhood in the northeast corner of the city centre; is the artistic centre of the city. Many of the area's 400-year-old houses have been converted into art galleries and several notable artists have studios in the area.
The Mercado Artesanal is the largest artisan market in the city. The market is housed in a 240-shop building that takes up the entire block of Baquerizo Avenue, between Loja and Juan Montalvo streets. Its many vendors sell indigenous crafts, jewellery, and paintings.
Parque Centenario is located on Av. 9 de Octubre, between Lorenzo de Garaycoa and Pedro Moncayo. This is the largest park in the town centre, occupying four city blocks. It offers shady refuge from the equatorial sun, with large trees arching over the walkways and lawns. A large Statue of Liberty dominates the central area of the park.
Parque Seminario (also known as Parque de Las Iguanas or Iguana Park) located on 10 de Agosto Avenue and Chile Avenue, is home to many iguanas (Iguana iguana), some of which approach 5 feet in length. Tourists and locals alike often feed the iguanas mango slices from park vendors. There is also a pond filled with colourful Japanese Tilapia. An equestrian statue of Simón Bolívar is located in the centre of the park.
Urdesa is a traditional neighborhood, for restaurants, stores.
Bahia is a popular marketplace for toys, clothing, electronic goods, DVDs, and CDs.
The city's new airport, José Joaquín de Olmedo International Airport (IATA airport code: GYE), though using the same runways, had its passenger terminal completely rebuilt in 2006 and was renamed. The old passenger terminal, Simon Bolivar, is now a convention centre.
- July 25, is a legal holiday in Guayaquil. Historians have not yet reached a consensus about the date of Guayaquil's foundation or founder. The city might have been founded more than once. Another possible founder might be Diego de Almagro.
- Guayaquil y como el mercado siempre aparece: El retorno de los ‘informales’, Diario Expreso
- Proyecto de Regeneración Urbana de Guayaquil, artículo «¿Por qué Guayaquil requería regeneración urbana?» de la M. I. Municipalidad de Guayaquil
- Evolución de la población de la provincia, Cantón Guayaquil, y de la Ciudad de Guayaquil – Guayas, Censo 2001, Según el Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas y Censos
- "Guayaquil Climate Guide to the Average Weather & Temperatures with Graphs Elucidating Sunshine and Rainfall Data & Information about Wind Speeds & Humidity:".
- achnolt. "El orgullo del pais es la musica". YouTube. Retrieved April 17, 2010.
- "Canción al Nueve de Octubre – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". En.wikipedia.org. March 25, 2010. Retrieved April 17, 2010.
- "Inicio." Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil. Retrieved on April 7, 2009.
- University of Guayaquil Web site  retrieved on December 25, 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Guayaquil.|
- Municipalidad de Guayaquil
- Guayaquil at Google Maps
- Guayaquil Photo
- Barrio De Paz – A documentary about gang culture in Guayaquil on OneWorldTV