Guayaquil

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This article is about the city of Guayaquil. For the canton named after this city, see Guayaquil (canton).
Guayaquil
City
Panorama view of Guayas River and downtown Malecon waterfront area, from Santa Ana Hill
Panorama view of Guayas River and downtown Malecon waterfront area, from Santa Ana Hill
Flag of Guayaquil
Flag
Official seal of Guayaquil
Seal
Nickname(s): La Perla del Pacífico
English: The Pearl of the Pacific
Motto: Por Guayaquil Independiente
English: For Independent Guayaquil
Guayaquil is located in Ecuador
Guayaquil
Guayaquil
Coordinates: 2°11′S 79°53′W / 2.183°S 79.883°W / -2.183; -79.883Coordinates: 2°11′S 79°53′W / 2.183°S 79.883°W / -2.183; -79.883
Country Ecuador
Province Guayas
Canton Guayaquil
Settled 1534
Independence 1820
Government
 • Mayor Jaime Nebot
 • Vice-Mayor Domenica Tabacchi
Area
 • City 344.5 km2 (133.01 sq mi)
 • Land 316.42 km2 (122.17 sq mi)
 • Water 28.08 km2 (10.84 sq mi)
 • Metro 2,493.86 km2 (962.88 sq mi)
Elevation 4 m (13.2 ft)
Population (2010 census)
 • City 2,291,158
 • Density 6,700/km2 (17,000/sq mi)
 • Metro 2,690,000
Demonym Guayaquileño,-ña
Time zone ECT (UTC-5)
Postal code 090101 to 090158
Area code(s) (+593) 4
Vehicle registration G
Website www.guayaquil.gob.ec
Aerial view of Guayaquil

Guayaquil (pronounced: [ɡwaʝaˈkil]), officially Santiago de Guayaquil (English: Santiago of Guayaquil) (pronounced: [sanˈtjaɣo ðe ɣwaʝaˈkil]), is the largest and the most populous city in Ecuador, with around 2.69 million people in the metropolitan area, as well as the nation's main port. The city is the capital of the Ecuadorian province of Guayas and the seat of the namesake canton.

Guayaquil is located on the western bank of the Guayas River, which flows into the Pacific Ocean at the Gulf of Guayaquil.

History[edit]

Guayaquil is recognized as being founded, by the government, on July 25, 1538[1] with the name Muy Noble y Muy Leal Ciudad de Santiago de Guayaquil (Most Noble and Most Loyal City of St. James of Guayaquil) by Spanish Conquistador Francisco de Orellana. Even before it was founded by the Spanish, it already existed as a native village.

In 1600 Guayaquil had a population of about 2,000 people; by 1700 the city had a population of over 10,000.[citation needed]

In 1687, Guayaquil was attacked and looted by English and French pirates under the command of George d'Hout (English) and Picard and Groniet (Frenchmen). Of the more than 260 pirates, 35 died and 46 were wounded; 75 defenders of the city died and more than 100 were wounded. The pirates took local women as concubines.

In 1709, the English captains Woodes Rogers, Etienne Courtney, and William Dampier along with a crew of 110, looted Guayaquil and demanded ransom; however, they suddenly departed without collecting the ransom after an epidemic of yellow fever broke out.

On October 9, 1820, almost without bloodshed, a group of civilians, supported by soldiers from the "Granaderos de Reserva", a battalion quartered in Guayaquil, overwhelmed the resistance of the Royalist guards and arrested the Spanish authorities. Guayaquil declared independence from Spain, becoming Provincia Libre de Guayaquil, and José Joaquín de Olmedo was named Jefe Civil (Civilian Chief) of Guayaquil. This would prove to be a key victory for the Ecuadorian War of Independence.

On July 26, 1822, José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar held a famous conference in Guayaquil to plan for the independence of Spanish South America.

In 1829, the city was invaded by the Peruvian Army, which occupied it for seven months.

In 1860, the city was the site of the Battle of Guayaquil, the last of a series of military conflicts between the forces of the Provisional Government, led by Gabriel García Moreno and General Juan José Flores, and the forces of the Supreme Chief of Guayas, General Guillermo Franco, whose government was recognized as possessing sovereignty over the Ecuadorian territory by Peruvian president Ramón Castilla.

Large portions of the city were destroyed by a major fire in 1896.

On July 8, 1898, the Guayaquil City Hall "Muy Ilustre Municipalidad de Guayaquil" officially recognized the anthem written by José Joaquín de Olmedo in 1821, with the music composed by Ana Villamil Ycaza in 1895, as the "Himno al 9 de Octubre" Canción al Nueve de Octubre, most widely known now as the "Himno a Guayaquil" (Guayaquil Anthem).

Engraving depicting a map of Guayaquil in 1741.
Guayaquil's waterfront around 1920.

Economy[edit]

Guayaquileños' main sources of income are: formal and informal trade, business, agriculture and aquaculture. Most commerce consists of small and medium businesses, adding an important informal economy occupation that gives thousands of guayaquileños employment.[2]

Ongoing projects seek urban regeneration as a principal objective to the growth of the city's commercial districts, as the increase of capital produces income. These projects in the city driven by the recent mayors have achieved this goal after investing large sums of money. The current municipal administration aims to convert Guayaquil into a place for first-class international tourism and business multinationals.[3]

Tower blocks in the city

Transport[edit]

Guayaquil maintains an infrastructure for import and export of products with international standards. Among its major trading points are the Seaport, the largest in Ecuador and one of the biggest influx of shipping on the shores of the Pacific and José Joaquín de Olmedo International Airport. Additionally, it has an infrastructure of roads to other cities and provinces, which are considered among the best in the country.

Government[edit]

Guayaquil's mayor Jaime Nebot and Ecuador's president Rafael Correa.
Guayaquil City Hall.

Guayaquil's current mayor is Jaime Nebot, a well-known member of the political party Partido Social Cristiano. Jaime Nebot began a campaign of construction projects for the city in the late 1990s to attract tourism, that included the "urban regeneration", which reconstructed the city in all levels including sidewalks, parks, sewer system, it took the power and telephone lines underground, it saw a lot of reconstruction of the city's chaotic transit system with the construction of multiple infrastructures (streets, speedways, overhead passages, tunnels, etc.).[citation needed]

In August 2006, the city's first bus rapid transit system, Metrovia, opened to provide a quicker, high-capacity service. One of the main projects was called Malecón 2000 [maleˈkon doz ˈmil], the renovation of the promenade (malecón) along the Guayas River with the addition of a boardwalk in 2000. Another project was the creation of the Nuevo Parque Histórico, a park in a housing development area that is called Entre Ríos because it lies between the Daule and Babahoyo rivers (which confluence to form the Guayas river), in a mangrove wetland area. The park cost the city about 7 million dollars.

Geography[edit]

Gulf of Guayaquil.

Guayaquil, Ecuador, the nation's largest city and the capital of Guayas Province. It is on the Guayas River about 40 miles (64 km) north of the Gulf of Guayaquil, near the Equator. Guayaquil is Ecuador's chief port and principal commercial and manufacturing center. An international airport and the only railway to the nation's interior serve the city.

Landmarks include the cathedral and the church of San Francisco.


Guayaquil city sectors[edit]

Builidings in Puerto Santa Ana.
Historic buildings in the Parque Histórico.
Las Peñas neighborhood.
Guayaquil City Territorial Organization
Number of the sector in reference with the City Map
# Sectors # Sectors # Sectors
1 9 de Octubre Este 25 Febres Cordero 49 Prosperina
2 9 de Octubre Oeste 26 Floresta 50 Puerto Azul Norte
3 Abel Gilbert 27 La Florida 51 Puerto Azul Sur
4 Acuarela 28 García Moreno 52 Puerto Lisa
5 Los Álamos 29 Garzota 53 Quinto Guayas Este
6 Alborada Este 30 Guangala 54 Quinto Guayas Oeste
7 Alborada Oeste 31 Guasmo Este 55 Río Guayas
8 Los Almendros 32 Guasmo Oeste 56 Roca
9 Las Américas 33 Huancavilca 57 Rocafuerte
10 Atarazana 34 Isla Trinitaria 58 La Saiba
11 Ayacucho 35 Kennedy 59 Samanes
12 Bastión Popular 36 Letamendi 60 San Eduardo
13 Batallón del Suburbio 37 Luz del Guayas 61 Los Sauces
14 Bellavista 38 Mapasingue 62 Simón Bolívar
15 Bolívar 39 Miraflores 63 Sopeña
16 Los Ceibos 40 Monte Bello 64 Sucre
17 Centenario 41 Olmedo 65 Tarqui
18 Cerro del Carmen 42 Las Orquídeas Este 66 Unión
19 Cóndor 43 Las Orquídeas Oeste 67 Urdenor
20 Cuba 44 Paraíso 68 Urdaneta
21 Del Astillero 45 Pascuales 69 Urdesa
22 Estero Salado 46 Pedro Carbo 70 Los Vergeles
23 Los Esteros 47 Las Peñas 71 Ximena
24 La FAE 48 La Pradera 72 Mirador Norte

Demographics[edit]

Historical Populations Guayaquil City
Compared with Guayas Province, Canton of Guayaquil, and Guayaquil City[4]
Census Guayas Province Canton of Guayaquil Guayaquil City
1950 582,144 331,942 258,966
1962 979,223 567,895 510,804
1974 1,512,333 907,013 823,219
1982 2,038,454 1,328,005 1,199,344
1990 2,515,146 1,570,396 1,508,444
2001 4,509,034 2,148,779 1,985,379
Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas y Censos
Percentage Population Growth of Guayaquil City
Compared with Guayas Province, Canton of Guayaquil, and Guayaquil City.[4]
Census Guayas Province Canton of Guayaquil Guayaquil City
1950–1962 4.34% 4.49% 5.67%
1962–1974 3.77% 4.06% 4.14%
1974–1982 3.52% 4.50% 4.44%
1982–1990 2.63% 2.10% 2.87%
1990–2001 2.49% 2.38% 2.50%
Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas y Censos

Climate[edit]

Guayaquil features a tropical savanna climate. Between January and April the climate is hot and humid with heavy rainfall, especially during El Niño years when it increases dramatically and flooding usually occurs. The rest of the year (from May through December) however, rainfall is minimal due to the cooling influence of the Humboldt Current, with usually cloudy mornings and very agreeable afternoon and evening breezes.

Climate data for Guayaquil
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 31
(88)
30
(86)
31
(88)
31
(88)
30
(86)
29
(84)
28
(82)
29
(84)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
29.9
(85.8)
Average low °C (°F) 22
(72)
22
(72)
23
(73)
22
(72)
22
(72)
21
(70)
20
(68)
20
(68)
20
(68)
20
(68)
21
(70)
22
(72)
21.3
(70.4)
Rainfall mm (inches) 195
(7.68)
261
(10.28)
237
(9.33)
157
(6.18)
31
(1.22)
6
(0.24)
5
(0.2)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.04)
2
(0.08)
22
(0.87)
917
(36.12)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 18 20 20 14 6 2 1 0 0 1 1 4 87
 % humidity 76 81 80 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 70 75.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 102.3 101.7 139.5 150.0 167.4 123.0 127.1 133.3 144.0 136.4 120.0 136.4 1,581.1
Source: Climate & Temperature[5]

Food[edit]

Ecuadorian ceviche, made of shrimp, lime and tomato sauce

Typical Guayaquil cuisine includes mostly seafood dishes such as encebollado and ceviche. The most traditional dish of Guayaquil is Arroz con Menestra y Carne Asada (Rice with lentils and grilled beef).[6] Churrasco is also a staple food of Guayaquil.

During breakfast, Patacones and Bolon de Verde (fried plantain with cheese mashed and given a rounded shape) play a big role. Pan de yuca is a typical snack in Guayaquil. Local cuisine is heavily influenced by the diversity of Guayaquil's ethnic groups which includes Italian, Spanish and Eastern African origins.[citation needed]

Notable people[edit]

Artists[edit]

Ecuador is known for its artists and its place in art history. Many of them were born in Guayaquil, such as:

Others[edit]

Other notable people from Guayaquil include:

Religious buildings[edit]

Catedral Metropolitana.

As in many other cities from Ecuador, Guayaquil inherited the catholic organization from the colonial Spanish times and was divided in parishes. Nonetheless, many of the original religious and historic buildings tied to those parishes were destroyed by fires and the attack of English, French, and Dutch pirates. Today, very few remains of religious colonial architecture are present and in all cases have been altered without preserving their originality. The oldest church of Guayaquil, rebuilt many times though, is the "Iglesia de Santo Domingo".

Guayaquil has a cathedral and many other Roman Catholic churches. Approximately 80% of Guayaquileños are Catholics, however, several Protestant groups are also present, such as the Evangelical Church with about 150,000 members.

Many other faiths and religions are represented throughout the city. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) has many meetinghouses and the Guayaquil Ecuador Temple located in the area. There is a small Jewish community, composed mostly of Israeli citizens, and German immigrants who fled Germany during the Second World War.

Education[edit]

Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil (Municipal Library of Guayaquil) serves as the public library of Guayaquil.[9] The city has several universities, including the University of Guayaquil (founded in 1867), the Universidad Catolica de Santiago de Guayaquil and the Escuela Superior Politecnica del Litoral (ESPOL)

Sports[edit]

Barcelona's Stadium Estadio Monumental, the second largest stadium in South America.

There are two major soccer clubs; the Barcelona Sporting Club and the Club Sport Emelec. Both clubs have their own stadiums; the Estadio Monumental Banco Pichincha is the home of the "Barcelonistas" while the Estadio George Capwell is the home of the "Emelecistas". These two teams have a long history of rivalry in Guayaquil and when these two teams play against each other the game is called "El Clásico del Astillero". (Emelec is short for "Empresa Electrica del Ecuador" – the team was sponsored by the electric power company when founded.)

The city is the home of Andrés Gómez and Nicolás Lapentti, Ecuador's two most famous tennis players, now both retired. The "Abierto de Tenis Ciudad de Guayaquil" is a tennis tournament organised in Guayaquil by Gómez and Luis Morejon, and held annually in November.

Another major event in the city is the Guayaquil Marathon, organised by DM3, which is held every year on the first weekend of October since 2005. These race is certified by the (AIMS) Association of International Marathons and Distance Races.

Universities[edit]

ESPOL offices at night.

Some of Guayaquil's main universities are:

Notable places[edit]

Malecon 2000
Las Peñas Neighborhood.

The Malecón 2000 is a restoration project of the historic Simón Bolívar Pier. It will be a symbolic centre of the city, a mix of green areas and shopping. The tall ship Guayas has its home base here.

The Palacio Municipal is located in front of the Malecón and holds the political offices of city and provincial officials. Built in a neoclassical style, it is considered one of the most important architectural works in the country.

Las Peñas is a neighbourhood in the northeast corner of the city centre; is the artistic centre of the city. Many of the area's 400-year-old houses have been converted into art galleries and several notable artists have studios in the area.

The Mercado Artesanal is the largest artisan market in the city. The market is housed in a 240-shop building that takes up the entire block of Baquerizo Avenue, between Loja and Juan Montalvo streets. Its many vendors sell indigenous crafts, jewellery, and paintings.

Parque Centenario is located on Av. 9 de Octubre, between Lorenzo de Garaycoa and Pedro Moncayo. This is the largest park in the town centre, occupying four city blocks. It offers shady refuge from the equatorial sun, with large trees arching over the walkways and lawns. A large Statue of Liberty dominates the central area of the park.

Parque Seminario (also known as Parque de Las Iguanas or Iguana Park) located on 10 de Agosto Avenue and Chile Avenue, is home to many iguanas (Iguana iguana),[10] some of which approach 5 feet in length. Tourists and locals alike often feed the iguanas mango slices from park vendors. There is also a pond filled with colourful Japanese Tilapia. An equestrian statue of Simón Bolívar is located in the centre of the park.

Urdesa is a traditional neighborhood, for restaurants, stores.

Bahia is a popular marketplace for toys, clothing, electronic goods, DVDs, and CDs.

Transport[edit]

The city's new airport, José Joaquín de Olmedo International Airport (IATA airport code: GYE), though using the same runways, had its passenger terminal completely rebuilt in 2006 and was renamed. The old passenger terminal, Simon Bolivar, is now a convention centre.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ July 25, is a legal holiday in Guayaquil. Historians have not yet reached a consensus about the date of Guayaquil's foundation or founder. The city might have been founded more than once. Another possible founder might be Diego de Almagro.
  2. ^ Guayaquil y como el mercado siempre aparece: El retorno de los ‘informales’, Diario Expreso
  3. ^ Proyecto de Regeneración Urbana de Guayaquil, artículo «¿Por qué Guayaquil requería regeneración urbana?» de la M. I. Municipalidad de Guayaquil
  4. ^ a b Evolución de la población de la provincia, Cantón Guayaquil, y de la Ciudad de Guayaquil – Guayas, Censo 2001, Según el Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas y Censos
  5. ^ "Guayaquil Climate Guide to the Average Weather & Temperatures with Graphs Elucidating Sunshine and Rainfall Data & Information about Wind Speeds & Humidity:". 
  6. ^ achnolt. "El orgullo del pais es la musica". YouTube. Retrieved April 17, 2010. 
  7. ^ "Canción al Nueve de Octubre – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". En.wikipedia.org. March 25, 2010. Retrieved April 17, 2010. 
  8. ^ http://www.karinagalvez.com/attachments/056_ESE%20SU%20GUAYAQUIL%20VIEJO.pdf
  9. ^ "Inicio." Biblioteca Municipal de Guayaquil. Retrieved on April 7, 2009.
  10. ^ University of Guayaquil Web site [1] retrieved on December 25, 2013.
  11. ^ http://www.expoguayaquil.com/quienes_somos/ubicacion.aspx

External links[edit]