Guettarda speciosa

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Guettarda speciosa
Guettardia2.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Gentianales
Family: Rubiaceae
Genus: Guettarda
Species: G. speciosa
Binomial name
Guettarda speciosa
L.

Guettarda speciosa, with common names beach gardenia,[citation needed] sea randa,[1] or zebra wood,[1] is a species of shrub in the family Rubiaceae found in coastal habitats in tropical areas around the Pacific Ocean, including the coastline of central and northern Queensland and Northern Territory in Australia, and Pacific Islands, including Micronesia, French Polynesia and Fiji, Malaysia and Indonesia and the east coast of Africa. It reaches 6 m in height, has fragrant white flowers, and large green prominently-veined leaves. It grows in sand above the high tide mark.

Taxonomy and naming[edit]

Alternate names in the Cook Islands include 'Ano, Hano, Fano, and Puapua. The last is also used in Samoa, and the similar Puopua in Tonga.[2] It is known as Utilomar in the Marshall Islands.

It was originally described by Carl Linnaeus. The genus was named in honour of the 18th century French naturalist Jean-Étienne Guettard, while the specific epithet is derived from the Latin speciosus 'showy'.[3]

Description[edit]

It is a perennial shrub or small tree 2–6 m (7–20 ft) tall by 1–3 m (3–10 ft) wide with smooth creamy grey bark. The large oval-shaped leaves are 15–23 cm (6–9 in) long by 10–18 cm (4–7 in) wide. Dark green and smooth above with prominent paler veins, they are finely hairy underneath. Flowering is from October to May, the fragrant white flowers are 2.5–3 cm (1–1½ in) long with 4–9 lobes. These are followed by sweet-smelling globular hard fruit, measuring 2.5–2.8 × 2.2–2.5 cm (1 × 1 in), which mature September to March.[4][5]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Guettarda speciosa is found in coastal habitats in tropical areas around the Pacific Ocean, including the coastline of central and northern Queensland and Northern Territory in Australia, and Pacific Islands, including Micronesia, French Polynesia and Fiji, Malaysia and Indonesia and the east coast of Africa. As its name suggests, the beach gardenia grows on beaches and sandy places above the high tide level.[4]

Ecology[edit]

The Mariana Fruit Bat (Pteropus mariannus) feeds on the fruit and flowers, acting as a vector for the dispersal of seeds.

Human use[edit]

Use by indigenous cultures[edit]

The large leaves were used in various ways by the indigenous people of northern Australia; they could hold food, and when heated, they were given to relieve headaches and aches in limbs. The stems could be used to make Macassan pipes.[6] The flowers were used to scent coconut oil on the Cook Islands, and the wood for dwellings and canoes.[2]

Cultivation[edit]

A very useful plant for seaside planting in tropical climates, it needs a sunny aspect and well-drained soil. It has proven difficult to propagate, as this must be done by seed which may take months to germinate.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "USDA GRIN Taxonomy". Retrieved 21 November 2014. 
  2. ^ a b McCormack G (2007). "Guettarda speciosa". Bishop Museum: Cook Islands Biodiversity Database. Bishop Museum. Retrieved 2008-06-01. 
  3. ^ Simpson DP (1979). Cassell's Latin Dictionary (5th ed.). London: Cassell Ltd. p. 883. ISBN 0-304-52257-0. 
  4. ^ a b c Elliot, Rodger W.; Jones, David L.; Blake, Trevor (1990). Encyclopaedia of Australian Plants Suitable for Cultivation: Vol. 5. Port Melbourne: Lothian Press. p. 162. ISBN 0-85091-285-7. 
  5. ^ Brock, John (2001) [1988]. Native plants of northern Australia. Frenchs Forest, New South Wales: New Holland Press. p. 211. ISBN 1-876334-67-3. 
  6. ^ Levitt, Dulcie (1981). Plants and People: Aboriginal Uses of Plants on Groote Eylandt. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. ISBN 0-391-02205-9.