Guildford

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For the larger local government district, see Guildford (borough).
This article is about the county town of Surrey. For other uses, see Guildford (disambiguation).

Coordinates: 51°14′11″N 0°34′13″W / 51.2365°N 0.5703°W / 51.2365; -0.5703

Guildford
The Guildhall in Guildford
The Guildhall in Guildford
Guildford is located in Surrey
Guildford
Guildford
 Guildford shown within Surrey
Population 74,124 (Mid 2010)[1]
OS grid reference SU9949
District Guildford
Shire county Surrey
Region South East
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town GUILDFORD
Postcode district GU1-4
Dialling code 01483
Police Surrey
Fire Surrey
Ambulance South East Coast
EU Parliament South East England
UK Parliament Guildford
List of places
UK
England
Surrey

Guildford Listeni/ˈɡɪlfəd/[2] is the county town of Surrey, England[3] and the seat of the borough of Guildford. The town is 27 miles (43 km) southwest of central London on the A3 trunk road mid-way between the capital and Portsmouth.[4]

Guildford has Saxon roots[5] and historians attribute its location to the existence of a gap in the North Downs where the River Wey was forded by the Harrow Way[n 1]. The town's access was sufficient[clarification needed] that by AD 978 it was home to an early English Royal Mint.[7] On the building of the Wey Navigation and Basingstoke Canal Guildford was connected to a network of waterways that aided its prosperity.[6] In the 20th century, the University of Surrey and Guildford Cathedral, an Anglican cathedral, were added.[8]

Due to recent development running north from Guildford, and linking to the Woking area, Guildford now officially forms the southwestern tip of the Greater London Built-up Area, as defined by the Office for National Statistics.

History[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The root of the first part may be gold rather than Guild, a society or meeting of tradesmen: the only known 10th century (Saxon) record uses Guldeford and in the 11th century Geldeford[6][n 2]; both meaning gold and ford. Local historians on toponyms cite the lack of gold in the regions's sedimentary rocks and have suggested that this gold may refer to golden flowers by the ford,[9] or the golden sand;[10] several older sources such as Lewis's topological dictionary of 1848 prefer and give an unreferenced assertion there was a guild.[11] There is an old coaching Inn on the Epsom Road previously called the 'Sanford Arms' may derives from 'Sand Ford', adding weight to the suggestion that the first part of Guildford and its many historic predecessors may refer to the very distinctive golden sand showing on the banks of the River Wey where it cuts through the sandy outcrop just south of the town.[12]

Early settlement[edit]

In Sir Thomas Malory's early 1485 fictional series Le Morte d'Arthur, Guildford is identified with Astolat of Arthurian renown.[7] however only rural Celtic Bronze Age pieces have been found in the town.[13] Continuing the Arthurian connection, there is a local public house, the Astolat,[14]

Some of the tiles built into Guildford Castle may be Roman, and a Roman villa has been found on Broad Street Common[6] at the end of Roman Farm Road just west of Guildford's Park Barn neighbourhood.[15]

The Dark and Middle Ages[edit]

It is proven by archaeology and contemporary accounts that Guildford was established as a small town by Saxon settlers shortly after Roman authority had been removed from Britain[n 3]. The settlement was likely expanded because of the Harrow Way (an ancient trackway including the ancient cities of Winchester and Canterbury crosses the River Wey at this point, via a ford).

Alfred the Great, the first Anglo-Saxon king of unified England named the town in his will[6] and from 978 until a change of location part-way through the reign of William the Conqueror, Guildford was the location of the Royal Mint.[6][7]

Guildford Castle is of Norman design, although there are no documents about its earliest years.[8] Its situation overlooks the pass through the hills taken by the Pilgrims' Way, and also, presumably, once overlooked the ancient ford across the Wey, thus giving a key point of military control of this hardy long distance way across the country.[6] [n 4].

Guildford appears in Domesday Book of 1086 as Geldeford and Gildeford, a holding of William the Conqueror. The King officially held the 75 hagæ (houses enclosed in fences or closes) wherein lived 175 homagers (heads of household) and the town rendered £32.[16] Stoke, a suburb within today's Guildford, appears in the Book as Stoch and was also held by William. Its domesday assets were: 1 church, 2 mills worth 5s, 16 ploughlands with two Lord's plough teams and 20 mens plough teams, 16 acres (65,000 m2) of meadow, and woodland worth 40 hogs. Stoke was listed as being in the King's park, with a rendering of £15.[17][18]

William the Conqueror used the Harrow Way when he sacked the countryside, including Guildford, after his victory at the Battle of Hastings.[citation needed] He then had the castle built in the classic Norman style, the keep of which still stands. A major purpose of Norman castle building was to overawe the conquered population and it had the considerable improvements sum of £26 spent on it in 1173 under the regency of the young Henry II.[19] As the threat of invasion and insurrection declined the castle's status was demoted to that of a royal hunting lodge as Guildford was, at that time, at the edge of Windsor Great Park. It was visited on several occasions by King John, Eleanor of Aquitaine and King Henry III.[7] In 1611 the castle was granted to Francis Carter[20] whose grandson's initials EC and the year 1699 were above the entrance way.[11] The surviving parts of the castle were restored in Victorian times and then in 2004; the rest of the grounds became a pleasant public garden.[21][22]

In 1995, a chamber was discovered in the High Street, which is considered to be the remains of the 12th century Guildford Synagogue.[23][24] While this remains a matter of contention, it is likely to be the oldest remaining synagogue in Western Europe.[24]

Guildford elected two members to the Unreformed House of Commons.[25] From the 14th century to the 18th century the borough corporation prospered with the wool trade.[26]

In the 14th century the Guildhall was constructed and still stands today as a noticeable landmark of Guildford. The north end was extended in 1589 and the Council Chamber was added in 1683. It was in 1683 when a projecting clock was made for the front of the building and can be seen throughout the High Street.

Post Renaissance/Dissolution of the Monasteries[edit]

In 1598, a court case referred to a sport called kreckett being played at the Royal Grammar School, Guildford which was built in 1509 and became Royal gaining the patronage of Edward VI in 1552.[11] The Oxford English Dictionary gives this as the first recorded instance of cricket in the English language.[27][28]

The Hospital of the Holy Trinity still has a charitable role

In 1619 George Abbot founded the Hospital of the Holy Trinity,[7] now commonly known as Abbot's Hospital,[29] one of the finest sets of almshouses in the country. It is sited at the top end of the High Street, opposite Holy Trinity church. The brick-built, three-storey entrance tower faces the church; a grand stone archway leads into the courtyard. On each corner of the tower there is an octagonal turret rising an extra floor, with lead ogee domes.[29]

The River Wey in Guildford is canalised into the Wey Navigation

One of the greatest boosts to Guildford’s prosperity came in 1653 with the completion, after many wrangles, of the Wey Navigation. This made it possible for Guildford businesses to access the Thames at Weybridge by boat and predated the major canal building program in Britain by more than a century. In 1764 the navigation was extended as far as Godalming and in 1816 to the sea at Arundel via the Wey and Arun Junction Canal and the Arun Navigation. The Basingstoke Canal also was built to connect with the Wey navigation, putting Guildford in the centre of a network of waterways.

Post Industrial Revolution[edit]

The Chilworth Gunpowder works operated right through the Industrial Revolution, transported much of their wares through Guildford and its toll paid canal network.[30]

A branch of the London and South-Western railway was opened in May 1845, to Guildford; its initial spur from Woking of six miles. In 1846, Acts were passed for making two railways from Guildford one leading to Godalming, and the other to Farnham and Alton; and in the same year, an Act was obtained for a railway from Reading, by Guildford, to Dorking and Reigate.[11] All of these followed in the nineteenth century[6] and remain.[31] The Guildford Union Workhouse Casuals Ward provided accommodation for many of the casual workers on the railways.

In the years from 1820 to 1865 Guildford was the scene of severe outbursts of semi-organised lawlessness commonly known as the “Guy Riots”. The Guys would mass on the edge of the town from daybreak on Guy Fawkes Night, wearing masks or bizarre disguises and armed with clubs and lighted torches. With the onset of nightfall they would enter the town and avenge themselves on those who had crossed them in the preceding year by committing assaults and damaging property, often looting the belongings of victims from their houses and burning them on bonfires in the middle of the street. In later years attempts to suppress the Guys led to the deaths of two police officers. In 1866 and 1868 the Guys were dispersed by cavalry and this seems to have brought an end to the riots. Similar disorder surrounding the St Catherine’s Hill Fair, held just outside the town on the Pilgrims' Way, was suppressed around the same time.[32][33] In 1906 the Guildford Union Workhouse Casuals Ward The Spike was built in Union Lane (Now Warren Road) on the grounds of the Workhouse, not far from the castle and this is today a tourist attraction.[34]

After the 1882 death of their father, brothers Charles Arthur and Leonard Gates took over the running of his shop, which held the local distribution franchise for Gilbey's wines and spirits, and also sold beer. However, in 1885, the brothers were persuaded to join the temperance movement, and hence poured their entire stock into the gutters of the High Street. Left with no livelihood, they converted their now empty shop into a dairy. Using a milk separator, they bought milk from local farmers, and after extracting the cream and whey, sold the skim back to the farmers for pig feed. In 1888 three more of the Gates brothers and their sons joined the business, which led to the formal registration of the company under the name of the West Surrey Central Dairy Company, which after development of its dried milk baby formula in 1906 became Cow & Gate.[35]

20th century[edit]

During World War II, the Borough Council built 18 communal air raid shelters.[36] One of these shelters, known as the Foxenden Quarry deep shelter, was built into the side of a disused chalk quarry. Taking a year to build, it comprised two main tunnels with interconnecting tunnels for the sleeping bunks. It could accommodate 1000 people and provided sanitation and first aid facilities. Having been sealed since decommissioning in 1944, it has survived fairly intact.[36][37][38] The quarry itself is now the site of the York Road car park, but the shelter is preserved and open once a year to the public.

In May 1968 students at Guildford School of Art began a "sit-in" at the School in Stoke Park which lasted until mid-summer.

On 5 October 1974, bombs planted by the Provisional Irish Republican Army went off in two Guildford pubs, killing four off-duty soldiers and a civilian. The pubs were targeted because soldiers from the barracks at Pirbright were known to frequent them.[39] The subsequently arrested suspects, who became known as the Guildford Four, were convicted and sentenced to long prison sentences in October 1975. They claimed to have been tortured by the police and denied involvement in the bombing. In 1989 after a long legal battle, their convictions were overturned and they were released.[40]

Modern Guildford[edit]

The statue of Archbishop George Abbot stands at the top of Guildford High Street
The Friary Centre lies on the site of the old Dominican friary
Castle's tower

In the 21st century Guildford is a bustling English town, with a High Street paved with granite setts often referred to as cobbles,[41] and is one of the most expensive places to buy property in the UK outside of London.[42] Top end shops such as Hugo Boss, Gant, Armani Exchange and Mappin & Webb[41] can be found along the historic high street as well as department stores including House of Fraser, Debenhams and Marks and Spencers.

Guildford has a general street market held on Fridays and Saturdays. A farmers' market is usually held on the first Tuesday of each month. There is a Tourist Information Office,[43] Guided Walks[44] and various hotels including the historic Angel Hotel which long served as a coaching stop on the main London to Portsmouth stagecoach route.[45] and Radisson Blu Edwardian Hotel.[46] Guildford was voted the 9th best place to live in Britain in 2006[47] but slipped to 12th position in 2007, "largely due to the pollution produced by the numerous cars found on the roads".[48] Guildford is the most attractive and safe shopping destination in the UK, according to the Eve Prime Retail Survey 2004[49] and ranked 27th in the country overall.[50]

Except in winter, The National Trust run short and longer trips on the Wey Navigation, starting from Dapdune Wharf in the town centre,[51] where there is also a visitor centre.[52] The cinemas, theatres, galleries and other cultural attractions of the town stand out among other Surrey towns, see Culture below. An arched and gothic restored medieval storage Undercroft in the High Street is open twice a week.[53] Receiving many grants and local support, the relatively small Guildford Castle has a roof viewing platform, 2003-4 added floor, a model of the fullest original castle[n 5], and interpretation panels.[54] Unusually due to the UK council's later tendency towards indoor swimming pools, Guildford has an Olympic size Lido May-to-September, dating from the 1930s, that is open for public swimming or hired corporate entertainment.

Climate[edit]

As with the rest of the British Isles and Surrey, Guildford experiences a maritime climate with cool summers and mild winters. The nearest Met Office weather station for which records are available is Wisley, about 6.5 miles to the North East of Guildford. Extremes of temperature recorded in the area range from 37.8 °C (100.0 °F) during August 2003[55] down to −15.1 °C (4.8 °F) during January 1982.[56] The weather station also holds the UK July record high of 36.5 °C (97.7 °F)(2006).[57] The lowest temperature reported in recent years was −12.6 °C (9.3 °F) during December 2010.[58]


Climate data for Wisley
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) NA NA NA 27.8
(82)
NA NA 36.5
(97.7)
37.8
(100)
29.2
(84.6)
NA NA NA 37.8
(100)
Average high °C (°F) 7.6
(45.7)
8.0
(46.4)
10.7
(51.3)
13.3
(55.9)
17.2
(63)
19.9
(67.8)
22.5
(72.5)
22.3
(72.1)
19.1
(66.4)
15.0
(59)
10.6
(51.1)
8.4
(47.1)
14.6
(58.3)
Average low °C (°F) 1.8
(35.2)
1.5
(34.7)
3.0
(37.4)
4.0
(39.2)
6.8
(44.2)
9.7
(49.5)
12.0
(53.6)
11.6
(52.9)
9.5
(49.1)
6.8
(44.2)
3.8
(38.8)
2.7
(36.9)
6.1
(43)
Precipitation mm (inches) 62.5
(2.461)
40.6
(1.598)
47.7
(1.878)
47.6
(1.874)
51.1
(2.012)
51.6
(2.031)
39.6
(1.559)
49.4
(1.945)
61.2
(2.409)
71.2
(2.803)
60.3
(2.374)
64.5
(2.539)
647.1
(25.476)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 1 mm) 11.6 8.6 9.6 9.0 9.3 8.3 6.3 7.2 9.1 10.0 10.0 11.2 110.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 52.1 70.6 107.6 152.4 194.4 188.1 203.7 200.6 143.4 112.6 66.6 42.5 1,534.7
Source #1: Record highs for July, August and September from Met Office[59][60][61] and April from The Guardian.[62] Other maximum data is not freely available at this time.
Source #2: All other data from Met Office,[63]


Culture[edit]

Guildford has the most visited Art Gallery in Surrey, Guildford House Gallery, with over 120,000 visitors per annum,[64] in the High Street, in a 17th-century Grade I Listed Town House and is run by Guildford Borough Council. Its own art collection includes works of Guildford and the surrounding area, and work by Guildford Artists, most notably John Russell R.A. Also run by the borough Council is Guildford Museum housing archaeology, local history and needlework displays. Smaller private fine art galleries share the High Street with the art gallery.[65]

The town's principal commercial theatre is the Yvonne Arnaud Theatre which sometimes shows productions before[citation needed] and frequently after they have spent time in London's West End. The Electric Theatre opened in 1997 to host performances by musicians and amateur drama groups.[66] It also hosts regular film, family and music festivals as well as comedy and has a Riverside Cafe Bar and Terrace. The boileroom hosts new and established folk, pop and rock acts.[67]

Guildford also has an Odeon cinema multiplex, which is as of June 2007 the only cinema in the world showing digital 4K films to the public .[68] Guildford Civic Hall was the town's main arts and entertainment venue. It closed in January 2004[69] and has been replaced by a new venue, G Live, which opened in September 2011.[70] In 2009 the Mill Studio in Guildford featured the English premiere of the one-woman musical, Estelle Bright, starring actress/singer Sarah Tullamore.[71]

The Guildford Philharmonic Orchestra, founded as the Guildford Municipal Orchestra, received full council funding from 1945 until it was withdrawn in 2012.[72][73][74] The orchestra will disband in Spring 2013. The opportunity to run the council's classical music service with reduced funding from the council is currently being put out to tender.[75]

Stoke Park, the largest park,[76] is the venue for both the Guilfest music festival during the summer and the Surrey County Show – agricultural and general – on the last bank holiday Monday in May. Previous to 2007, the Ambient Picnic was held in Shalford Park, by the River Wey.[77][78]

Guildford is one of notably few places locally to have a model railway club, the Astolat Model Railway Circle, which meets at the National Trust's Dapdune Wharf [79]

Radio stations, Kane 103.7 FM, 96.4 The Eagle, County Sound Radio (1566 AM), GU2 Radio, and BBC Surrey are based in Guildford.

Religion[edit]

Guildford is the meeting place of many denominations of religion.

The Church of England Diocese of Guildford was created in 1927, and Guildford Cathedral was consecrated in 1961. Previously, Guildford had been part of the diocese of Winchester; Guildford has eight ecclesiastical parishes – the most historic Grade I listed church buildings are Holy Trinity[80] (in the High Street) St Mary[81] (on the East Bank) and the slightly less significant medieval II* Listed Anglican churches of St John the Evaneglist[82] (in Stoke) and St Nicholas (at the foot of Guildown (the west bank).[83] One breakaway church tied to St Martha's Church on rural St Martha's Hill forms a freestanding church, Christ Church, Guildford.

There are three Roman Catholic churches to St Joseph, St Marys, and St Pius X in one of the largest suburb villages, Merrow.[84] The Catholic order of Franciscan Friars have an Order for the laity both male and female with a fraternity at Chilworth on the outskirts of Guildford, since 1892.[85]

There are two United Reformed Churches,[86] two Baptist Churches[87] a New Life Baptist Church, two Methodist Churches,[88] Bethel Chapel, Brethren Assembly[89] Quaker Friends Meeting House, Church in a Club Stoughton, Elim Penecostal Church, Chinese Christian Fellowship,[89] five Independent Churches [90]

There are two mosques, in Stoke and Merrow and Guildford Islamic Society.[91] Guildford has had a synagogue since the 12th century.[92]

Sport[edit]

Guildford's Spectrum Leisure Centre is a national prizewinning[93][94] sports centre that includes a variety of pools (for leisure and for serious swimming),[95] Ten-pin bowling,[96] a Laser tag[97] area (with a similar facility in the town centre[98]), an ice rink[99] and an athletics track, as well as general halls used for indoor sports including gymnastics and trampolining. The Spectrum is home to several local sports teams, including Guildford City Football Club[100] of the Southern Football League, and the Guildford Flames[101] of the English Premier Ice Hockey League. Guildford International Volleyball Club have managed to win the top of the four division of the National Volleyball League.[102]

The Surrey Sports Park, owned by the University of Surrey, opened its doors to general public on 19 April 2010 and its part of university's Manor Park campus close to the Royal Surrey County Hospital and the Surrey Research Park. It has a 50 metre swimming pool, climbing wall, as well as squash courts, floodlit tennis and pitches.[103] It is now the home of Guildford Heat of the British Basketball League and the Guildford Giants of the Rugby League Conference London & South division.

Guildford Cricket Club play their home matches at the Woodbridge Road ground. Surrey County Cricket Club also play one or two matches a season there. Guildford Hockey Club is based at Broadwater School in Godalming, and the mens 1XI compete in the England Hockey League.[104] Surrey Spartans Hockey Club is based in Guildford at the University of Surrey Sports Park.[105]

Charlotteville Cycling Club is based in Guildford and named after one of the areas of the town. They promote the Guildford Town Centre Cycle Races that take place on the cobbled high street each July. There is a martial arts and fitness centre, AJIMA on Cabell Road in Park Barn.[106] Guildford has two indoor rock climbing centres, Craggy Island on Moorfield Road in the Slyfield Industrial Estate, and a climbing wall at the Surrey Sports Park. Guildford City Boxing Club (formerly Guildford City ABC), the oldest amateur boxing club in Surrey,[citation needed] is based in the Bellfields area of Guildford.[107]

Guildford Crows Aussie Rules FC were founded in 2009 and compete in the AFLGB Southern Division. They train at Stoke Park and play home matches at Effingham and Leatherhead Rugby Club.

Guildford Rowing Club is based in the town and a women's crew won at Henley Ladies in 2012.[108]

Education[edit]

State schools[edit]

As for the rest of Surrey, Guildford's state schools operate a two/three age groups system. Primary schools in the town include Holy Trinity (which merged with Pewley Down in 1995), Burpham, St Thomas of Canterbury (Catholic) and Goldford Grove. Amongst the Junior schools are Bushy Hill, Northmead Junior and Queen Eleanor's C of E. Secondary schools include George Abbot, Guildford County School, St Peter's, King's College and Christ's College.

Independent schools[edit]

The Royal Grammar School is towards the east end of High Street

The best-known school in Guildford itself is the Royal Grammar School. The 'old school' building which was constructed over the turn of the Tudor and Elizabethan periods and houses a chained library, lies towards the top of High Street. The school was established in 1509. Nearby is the prep school Lanesborough School which is the choir school for Guildford Cathedral and has had a long association with the Royal Grammar School. Other private schools include Guildford High School, Tormead School and Rydes Hill Preparatory School.

Higher education[edit]

The campus of the University of Surrey is in Guildford. Battersea College of Technology (previously the Battersea Polytechnic Institute) moved to the town in 1966, gaining a Royal Charter in order to award its own degrees and changing its name to its current title.

The town is home to the inaugural campus of The University of Law[109] and to the Guildford School of Acting. Other institutions in Guildford include Guildford College of Further and Higher Education (which also occupies the site of the former Guildford School of Art), Academy of Contemporary Music and the Italia Conti Arts Centre.

Administration[edit]

The town of Guildford forms part of the larger area administered by the borough of Guildford, which in turn forms part of the county of Surrey. Whilst the rest of the borough's area is split into civil parishes, the urban area of Guildford in unparished. Thus, within the town of Guildford, the Borough Council takes the role of both first and second tier local authority, whilst the County Council forms the third tier of local authority.

Though often referred to as a city Guildford is a town, but has applied for city status several times. Guildford's 2002 application to be granted the status of a city was unsuccessful, losing out to Preston, the only English town that was formally recognised as a city as part of the Queen's Golden Jubilee celebrations. Traditionally, the establishment of a diocesan cathedral in a town conferred city status. Guildford is a significant economic hub in Surrey, a county with no city.

Guildford Cathedral

Even though Guildford is the county town for Surrey, the council itself has its administrative base in Kingston upon Thames[110] which, although formerly in Surrey, is now in Greater London. Public sector organisations of note that have headquarters in Guildford include Surrey Police, the South East England Development Agency and the Government Office for the South East.

Politically, the constituency of Guildford is thought of as a traditional Conservative seat. However, for the first time in over ninety years, the 2001 general election returned a Liberal Democrat Member of Parliament, Sue Doughty. The 2003 Borough Elections returned a majority council for the Conservative party, replacing the Liberal Democrat-controlled council. In the 2005 general election Guildford returned a Conservative Party MP, Anne Milton – by a narrow margin (0.7% of the voting electorate, or 347 votes) and despite a 0.5% rise in the Liberal Democrat vote. The Conservatives also held the council majority in the local elections of 2007.[111]

Business[edit]

The Surrey Advertiser offices are next to the A3 and River Wey

Guildford is a thriving commercial town with the 2011 Financial Times annual list of Top 500 Global Companies listing five major businesses with a significant presence in the town[112] – the list includes Philips Electronics, Ericsson, Colgate-Palmolive, Allianz and Sanofi. Electronic Arts (formerly Bullfrog Productions), Media Molecule, Lionhead Studios (acquired by Microsoft Game Studios) and also Criterion Games have helped the town become a centre for video game production.[113]

The bus chassis factory of the Alexander Dennis (established as Dennis Specialist Vehicles) and fire engine bodywork factory John Dennis Coachbuilders are also in the town as well as military vehicle builders Automotive Technik. The Surrey Research Park contains a number of world leading companies[114] including satellite manufacturers Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd and BOC, part of The Linde Group the largest provider of industrial, medical and specialist gases in the UK and Ireland.

Localities[edit]

Bellfields[edit]

Bellfields is a suburb in the north of Guildford lying adjacent to Slyfield Industrial Estate and Stoughton. The area includes private estates as well as current and former social housing estates. Christ's College, Guildford's senior school and Pond Meadow special needs school are in Bellfields. The neighbourhood includes St Peter's Shared Church. Guildford Children's Centre is here and has many pupils.[115] Bellfields has its own local newsletter.

Burpham[edit]

This now very large village attached to Guildford has its own article, see Burpham

Charlotteville[edit]

Charlotteville is the area south-east of the town. It is loosely bound between Shalford Road and Sydenham Road, and encompasses the beauty spot of Pewley Down. A number of public footpaths lead from the town through Charlotteville to the downs and towards St Martha's Hill and Albury. It houses great many cottages and a few large, mostly privately owned properties and has the town's main cycling club founded in 1903. Guildford's mayor was its first president. The estate was funded by a wealthy doctor, Thomas Sells, laid out by the Guildford architect Henry Peak in 1862, and named after Sells's wife, Charlotte.

Workhouse[edit]

Uniquely the Union Workhouse Casual Ward has been converted into a remarkable community centre and is a hub of activity day and night, home to the Montessori School, the centre for all manner of activities; physical, artistic, musical and creative. The adjacent St Luke’s surgery and Boots the Chemist provides Medical care, thus all generations seemingly catered for. The Heritage Centre historically known as the Spike has been restored in part to retell the fate of the vagrant and indeed, the casuals, many of whom had a large part to play in the building of this Town. A strong sense of belonging exists in Charlotteville and just 150 years after the village was founded it continues to flourish as a community.

Conservation Area[edit]

The official designation of the heart of Charlotteville as a Conservation Area means that most of Peak’s work will survive.

Socially, the development was a resounding success with institutions like the Cork Club and a cycling club Charlotteville Cycling Club which achieved national reputation and the charity Charlotteville Jubilee Trust formed at the time of the Golden Jubilee and still working hard in the community.

Two modern schools have been established in the village and though they obviously draw on a much wider catchment area it means that local children can walk to school. The very last of the shops closed in 2006, victim of car parking and the supermarket.

Workhouse and Hospital[edit]

1930 hailed the end of the Poor Laws and Guildford Union Workhouse, next to Cooper Road Samuel Cooper (surgeon) was renamed Warren Road Hospital playing a vital role in the war effort it received victims of the London Bombings and specifically Dunkirk and D-Day victims. The Spike, a vagrants and casuals ward, continued as an overnight shelter for the homeless until 1963.

St Luke's Hospital[edit]

With the arrival of the Welfare State the hospital changed its name again, this time to St Luke's Hospital and was soon a leading Cancer and Nurses Teaching Hospital. Coyle Community Hall was built and shared with the Charlotteville community much to the relief of the community who had lost their Tabernacle. The 1990s saw St Luke’s Hospital moving to the newly built Royal Surrey County Hospital leaving the site to Crest Homes and within days Charlotteville once again found itself without a community centre, financial enterprise had struck at the soul of the community.

The Spike[edit]

Due to be demolished in 2003 and replaced by a new Community Centre the Spike Casual Ward was surprisingly, bestowed with Grade II listing and has been converted into a community and Heritage Centre open to the public. [3]. The Spike retains the only stone breaking cells that can be viewed by the public in the country.

Guildford Park and Dennisville[edit]

These small residential neighbourhoods are immediately south of and generally below Cathedral Hill also known as Stag Hill. Both neighbourhoods are close to Guildford Train station to the southeast and become without division Onslow Village to the south. As the University occupies the top and north of Stag Hill, many residents here study at the University of Surrey.

Jacobs Well[edit]

Merrow[edit]

This now very large village attached to Guildford has its own article, see Merrow

Onslow Village[edit]

Onslow Village is the sloped suburb on the western outskirts of Guildford. It with one outlying road continuation, forms a wedge between the A3 road and A31 roads south of the junction of the A3 and Egerton Road, Guildford's Cathedral Turn and directly below Henley Fort, an 1880s built London Defence Position and a Scheduled Monument.[116] The area consists of a number of residential streets many of which are characterised by beech hedges. Parts of Onslow Village have been designated as conservation areas,[117] enforcing a number of planning restrictions that are intended to protect the character and identity of the locality. It has the 5th Guildford Scout Group a community news website, a Tennis Club and Onslow Arboretum.

It has a small village centre, with a parade of shops and a village hall. There is a recreational ground, tennis courts, and an arboretum. Onslow has one infant school, Onslow Infant School, as well as Queen Eleanor's School, a primary school. Onslow also has its own church, All Saints.

Onslow Village also has its own football team called Onslow FC established in 1986.

The Village also has a Residents' association, the Onslow Village Residents' Association (OVRA) which was set up in 1956 and whose object is to "safeguard the amenities of Onslow village and to promote the welfare, interests and well-being of the residents".[118] Onslow Village Society formed with the aim to tackle the acute shortage of decent working class housing following the First World War.[119]

Onslow Village Ltd acquired 646 acres (just over one square mile) of land from Richard Onslow, 5th Earl of Onslow in 1920 for approximately one quarter of its market value at the time. The aim was to create a "Garden City" to be modelled on the ideas of Ebenezer Howard's Garden City Movement. It was their intention to build a self-contained community with smallholdings, public buildings, open spaces, recreation grounds, woodland and a railway station, as well as developing sites for churches, hotels and factories. On Saturday 1 May 1920, ten weeks after the formation of the Society, the foundations of the first two houses were laid and by March 1922 ninety-one houses had been built. Unfortunately due to a lack of funding the scheme never reached full completion, with about 600 houses actually being built. Original drawings however showed that there were further plans to develop the farmland at Manor Farm, north of the A3. By the mid-1970s, one third of the properties were still owned by Onslow Village Ltd. Then, in 1984, the company was wound up and many shareholders and tenants had the chance to buy their homes at extremely affordable prices.[119]

Onslow Village never got its railway station, however it did eventually get its woodland: the Onslow arboretum, developed by Guildford Borough Council as a specialist collection of eighty tree species from around the world. The Onslow arboretum is positioned right next to the play area with its own park, a large field, several tennis courts, toilets and a scout hut.[119]

Park Barn[edit]

Park Barn consists of former and present social housing estate in Guildford. It is bordered to the south by the railway line, the east by the A3 and Woodbridge Hill, the north by the Aldershot Road and Rydes Hill, sometimes mapped as part of it but in Worplesdon civil parish, and the west by Broadstreet Common. [120]

The Surrey Advertiser newspaper described Park Barn as "one of the most deprived areas of Surrey" in the 11 September 1998 publication and in October that year reported Park Barn as coming 28th in the county's league table of 30 deprived areas. [121]

Park Barn Estate is home to King's College, a school for 11- to 18-year-olds, whose exams results have improved dramatically. There are also a number of primary schools in the area of Park Barn, including Guildford Grove School, which has a specialist sign-supported rescue base on the site that supports pupils with profound hearing impairments.[122]

Football team Park Barn FC recently started up, playing in League 4 of the Guildford and Woking Alliance League.

Stoughton[edit]

Stoughton is a mainly residential suburb north of Guildford town centre in Surrey.

It is the location of the former Stoughton Barracks (redeveloped for housing in the 1990s and renamed Cardwell's Keep).

Also in Stoughton is The Wooden Bridge pub where both the Rolling Stones and Eric Clapton performed concerts at the early stages of their respective careers. Another pub of historic note was The Royal Hotel in Worplesdon Road, which hosted an early U2 concert and was owned by the former wrestler Mick McManus. This closed its doors in 2009 however, and the building is now host to a Chinese restaurant.

Stoughton has one junior school, Northmead Junior School.

Slyfield[edit]

Is the small mixed land use area north of Guildford that is largely indeterminate from Bellfields, however to its east is Guildford's largest industrial and commercial park, Slyfield Industrial Estate. There was a cattle market held in the south of the industrial area until 2000 which moved to Maidstone, Kent.[123]

Slyfield has a community hall and a school. To the north of Slyfield is the gentle Stoke Hill, on top of which is a park, Stringer's Common, across which is the Jacobs Well neighbourhood which is part of Worplesdon civil parish.

Stoke[edit]

The central northern area of the town contains Stoke Park summarised in Culture, and the historic manor of Stoke at its centre, now the site of Guildford College. Within Stoke is the Guildford Spectrum leisure and sports centre see above. To the south of this mostly residential neighbourhood is London Road railway station, Guildford's secondary railway station.

On Stoke Road here there is a listed hotel, The Stoke,[124] which is just up a gentle slope from the Dapdune Wharf area of Guildford with its visitor centre, water tours mentioned above, many narrowboats and a large public playing field.

Westborough[edit]

Located adjacent to the Park Barn Estate, the Westborough Estate was built in the 1920s due to the growing population at the start of the 20th Century.

Westborough is home to the United Reformed Church and to a Community Primary School located on Southway. Some of the main streets located in Westborough include Southway, Foxburrows Avenue and Woodside Road.

Transport[edit]

Rail[edit]

Two railway stations are in the town. The main station, Guildford, has its own footbridge by the Friary Shopping Centre though on the west side of the River Wey and serves the Portsmouth Direct Line between London Waterloo and Portsmouth Harbour, the town's main station. There are also direct lines to Aldershot, Reading, Gatwick Airport via Dorking and Redhill and alternative London routes which pass through Cobham and Stoke D'Abernon and Epsom.

There is also one daily long-distance service to Newcastle upon Tyne, via Reading, Oxford, Birmingham, Derby, Sheffield, Doncaster and York.

Guildford's other station, London Road, is to the north east of the town centre lying on the New Guildford Line. It is served by stopping services only between Guildford and Waterloo. This station sees four trains an hour both ways, two via Cobham, and two Waterloo services via Epsom. These services are operated by South West Trains.

A low level of peak hour services are operated by Southern terminating at London Bridge via Sutton from both stations.

Road[edit]

Guildford lies at the beginning of the A31 and is bypassed by the A3, which links London and Portsmouth. The M25 is to the north-east of the town.

Bus[edit]

Bus services in Guildford are primarily operated by Arriva with some additional services provided by Buses Excetera, Safeguard and Stagecoach. Most routes are centred on the bus station which is attached to the Friary shopping centre. Many internal bus services within Guildford are loop shaped circulars (starting and ending at the bus station) with different numbers for the clockwise and anticlockwise services. There are also services to many surrounding towns and villages including Woking and Aldershot.

Due to the location of the main railway station on the other side of the river from the bus station, only a small proportion of bus services stop at the railway station leading to poor integration between bus and rail services.[125] To address this issue, the Guildford Shuttle was introduced in 2000. It was a town centre circular service linking up various areas of the town centre. It was free until the borough council withdrew funding for it in August 2008, at which point the route was withdrawn.[125] The operator of the service reintroduced it in January 2009 on a commercial basis, however withdrew it again in May 2010.

There is also a park and ride service, with three main sites at Artington, Merrow and the Spectrum.[126] A fourth park and ride site, close to the Surrey Sports Park, was opened in late 2013.[127]

Coach[edit]

National Express operate coach service 030 between London Victoria Coach Station and Portsmouth and Southsea via Park Barn in Guildford, but not stopping in the town centre.[128]

Bicycle[edit]

The biggest Guildford train operator co-run their only station's self-service folding Brompton Bicycle hire scheme.[129]

Notable residents[edit]

Main category: People from Guildford
Literature

Guildford has been the home of several notable writers. Lewis Carroll, author of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass, had a house in Guildford and is buried in the Mount Cemetery.[130] Edward Carpenter, the socialist poet and homosexuality equality activist, moved to the town after the First World War and lived there until his death in 1929 and is buried in the same hillside cemetery. Other authors from the town include Gerald Seymour, writer of Harry's Game[131] and New York Times film critic Mordaunt Hall.[132] Author and charactacurist P. G. Wodehouse was born prematurely in Guildford in 1881 while his mother was visiting the town.[133] Christian writer and biographer Joyce Reason was a resident of the town,[citation needed] as was novelist Kazuo Ishiguro.[134] Piers Morgan, journalist and TV biographical interviewer was born in Guildford.

Music

In music, Guildford lays claim to rock group The Stranglers, who were based in the town in the early 1970s and were briefly known as "The Guildford Stranglers". Drummer Jet Black ran an off-licence in the town and bass player Jean Jacques Burnel attended the Royal Grammar School.[135] Progressive rock musicians Mike Rutherford, of Genesis and Andrew Latimer of the band Camel, were born in Guildford, as was jazz saxophonist Iain Ballamy. In early 21st century music, drum and bass producers Cause 4 Concern and Sub Focus are from the town.[136][137] Drummer/backing vocalist of Queen, Roger Taylor, currently lives in Guildford.[citation needed]

In stage, screen and the press

Singer and actress Yvonne Arnaud lived in Guildford for many years, and the Yvonne Arnaud Theatre was named in her honour;[138] later the town was the home of comic director, writer and actor Mackenzie Taylor (1978–2010).[139]

Actors Edward Kelsey[citation needed], Stuart Wilson,[140] Lily Collins,[citation needed] and Bonnie Langford are all from the town,[141] and Monty Python member Terry Jones attended the Royal Grammar School.[142]

Sport

Guildford has been home to driver Katherine Legge[143] and sprinter Allan Wells, gold medallist in the 100 metres at the 1980 Olympics. Matt Jarvis, a current football player for West Ham United also grew up in Guildford and attended George Abbot School. WWE wrestler Paul Burchill lives in Guildford.[144]

Others

Cartoonist Piers Baker (made Ollie and Quentin); the model Jodie Kidd, who was born in the town; Holly Samos – radio researcher and presenter lives here. Many of mathematician, logician and cryptographer, Alan Turing's earliest years were in this town where his family lived;[145] Michael Buerk, BBC newsreader;[146] Roger Fry, the English artist, critic and member of the Bloomsbury Group lived in the house (Durbins) he designed and built in the town from 1909 to 1919;.[147] Alfred Smith, recipient of the Victoria Cross, was born in Guildford.

The fictional Ford Prefect from The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy by Douglas Adams, claimed to be from Guildford, though in fact he was from a planet somewhere in the vicinity of Betelgeuse.[148]

Guildford and the media[edit]

Guildford has been captured on film in Carry on Sergeant,[149] which was filmed at the former Queens Barracks, and The Omen, a scene from which was filmed at Guildford Cathedral. Singer-songwriter Robyn Hitchcock has sung about the town in "No, I Don't Remember Guildford", a song from his 1999 album "Jewels for Sophia". The University Hall on the campus of the University of Surrey was the site of the first ever Led Zeppelin gig on 25 October 1968.[150]

Guildford has been associated with the 1863 novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland because of its importance in the life of its author, Lewis Carroll.[151] There are several reminders of this connection throughout the town. Guildford Museum has a collection of items belonging to Carroll, see above. In addition to this, sculptor Jean Argent created two full-size bronze sculptures of Alice passing through the Looking-Glass and Alice and the White Rabbit and can be found in the Castle Grounds and by the River Wey at the partly cobbled street, Millmead respectively.[n 6]

In The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy by Douglas Adams, the character Ford Prefect, actually an alien from Betelgeuse, claims to be an out-of-work actor from Guildford.

Twinning[edit]

Guildford is twinned with:

and is linked with:

Notes and references[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ This eastern section of the Harrow Way is also known as the Pilgrims' Way, and in deeds, Via regia, and in the Pipe Roll 4 Ric. I m. 8 d of 1192–3 as Strata regia de Geldedone this being the west hill, Guildown whereas the east hill where Guildford Castle is was Pewsey Down[6]
  2. ^ Geldefort, Geldesfort, Gildeforda, Gildeforde (12th century); Geldeford, Guldeford (13th and 14th centuries); Gylford and Guldeford (15th and 16th centuries); Guildeford, Gildford, Gilford, and Gillford (16th and 18th centuries).[6]
  3. ^ This era was c.410AD
  4. ^ Other regional tall fortress castles include Windsor Castle surveying forces that might take the Bath Road, Farnham Castle one of the same axes, Arundel Castle surveying the Arun and the Tower of London surveying ships moving up the Thames
  5. ^ The model states it is c. 1300
  6. ^ Millmead is from where the visitor attraction, the Guildford Boat house operates May–September
References
  1. ^ "Mid-2010 Urban Area SYOA ests England and Wales". ONS. Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  2. ^ Olausson, Lena; Sangster, Catherine (2006). Oxford BBC guide to pronunciation. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 160. 
  3. ^ OS Explorer map 145:Guildford and Farnham. Scale: 1:25 000. Publisher:Ordnance Survey – Southampton. ISBN 978 0319239261
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  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i H.E. Malden (editor) (1911). "The borough of Guildford: Introduction and castle". A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 3. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 29 October 2012. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Guildford- A Residential Centre. The official Guide of the Corporation of Guildford. 11th Ed. 1946
  8. ^ a b "Guildford Borough Council : History of Guildford Castle". Retrieved 24 December 2011. 
  9. ^ "The Good Move Guide : Guildford History". Retrieved 24 December 2011. 
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  13. ^ Catalogue of Surrey Archaeological Society
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  53. ^ Surrey County Council's tourist pages – The Undercroft
  54. ^ [1] Surrey County Council's tourist pages – Guildford Castle
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  56. ^ "1982 temperature". PlantNetwork. 
  57. ^ "2006 temperature". UKMO. 
  58. ^ "2010 temperature". UKMO. 
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  60. ^ "Monthly temperature records by country". Met Office. Archived from the original on 2012-06-15. Retrieved 15 June 2012. 
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  63. ^ "Met Office: Climate averages 1971-2000". Met Office. Archived from the original on 2012-06-15. 
  64. ^ Guildford House Gallery
  65. ^ Such as Forest Fine Art Gallery and The Harvey Gallery
  66. ^ [2][dead link]
  67. ^ The Boileroom, Guildford's Alternative Music Venue
  68. ^ "Der Spiegel (German): Der 8 Megapixel-Filmpalast". Retrieved 12 June 2007. 
  69. ^ "New £19.5m civic centre approved". BBC News. 14 July 2006. Retrieved 20 August 2008. 
  70. ^ "Your New Venue". G Live. 20 May 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  71. ^ "Never a dull moment with Estelle, article in Get Surrey". 
  72. ^ "Guildford Philharmonic Orchestra". 
  73. ^ "Guildford Philharmonic Orchestra". 
  74. ^ "Guildford Philharmonic loses council funding". BBC News. 9 November 2012. 
  75. ^ "Guildford Philharmonic Orchestra to close after council withdraws funding". 9 November 2012. 
  76. ^ Surrey Council Council's tourist pages – Stoke Park
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  78. ^ "Ambient Picnic Official Website". Retrieved 13 February 2007. 
  79. ^ "Astolat Model Railway Club Website". Retrieved 7 June 2014. 
  80. ^ Church of Holy TrinityEnglish Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1029258)". National Heritage List for England .
  81. ^ St Mary English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1377918)". National Heritage List for England .
  82. ^ St John the Evangelist English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1294008)". National Heritage List for England .
  83. ^ St Nicholas English Heritage. "Details from listed building database (1029291)". National Heritage List for England .
  84. ^ Deaneries in Arundel & Brighton Roman Catholic Diocese
  85. ^ Secular Franciscan Order, Chilworth website stated for the laity both male and female to follow our Blessed Lord in the way of St. Francis of Assisi See also Franciscan Missionaries of the Divine Motherhood at Greccio Convent, 6 Semaphore Road, Guildford and Marymount, 26 Jenner Road, Guildford
  86. ^ Guildford URC Westborough URC
  87. ^ Chertsey Street Baptist Church and Guildford Baptist Church
  88. ^ Guildford Stoughton Methodist Church and Guildford Methodist Church
  89. ^ a b Guildford Churches website
  90. ^ Guildford Park Church Emmanuel Church, Eternity Church and Manor Road Hall
  91. ^ UK Islamic website – Mosques List
  92. ^ Website of Guildford Synagogue
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  101. ^ "Guildford Flames Official Website". Retrieved 13 February 2007. 
  102. ^ Guildford International Volleyball Club
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  105. ^ "Surrey Spartans Hockey Club". Retrieved 16 April 2013. 
  106. ^ Information on AJIMA martial arts and fitness from the official iSurrey Local Directory endorsed by Surrey County Council Retrieved 9 October 2013
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  108. ^ Guildford Rowing Club
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External links[edit]