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桂林 · Gveilinz
桂林市 · Gveilinz Si
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|• Total||27,809 km2 (10,737 sq mi)|
|Elevation||153 m (502 ft)|
|• Density||170/km2 (440/sq mi)|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|Licence plate prefixes||桂C for Guilin's city proper, Yangshuo, and Lingui; all others 桂H|
Guilin (Chinese: 桂林; Zhuang: Gveilinz) is a prefecture-level city in the northeast of the Guangxi Region of China. It is situated on the west bank of the Li River, and bordering Hunan to the north. Its name means "forest of Sweet Osmanthus", owing to the large number of fragrant Sweet Osmanthus trees located in the city. The city has long been renowned for its scenery of karst topography and is one of China's most popular tourist destinations.
- 1 History
- 2 Administrative divisions
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Transportation
- 7 Colleges and universities
- 8 Scenic spots
- 9 Cuisine
- 10 Quotes
- 11 International relations
- 12 Gallery
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 Further reading
- 16 External links
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (February 2013)|
In 314 BC, a small settlement was established along the banks of the Li River.
In 111 BC, during the reign of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, Shi An County was established, which could be regarded as the beginning of the city.
In 507 AD, the town was renamed Guizhou.
Guilin prospered in the Tang and Song dynasties but remained a county. The city was also a nexus between the central government and the southwest border, and it was where regular armies were placed to guard that border. Canals were built through the city so that food supplies could be directly transported from the food-productive Yangtze plain to the farthest southwestern point of the empire.
In 1921, Guilin became one of the headquarters of the Northern Expeditionary Army led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen.
In 1981, Guilin was listed by the State Council as one of the four cities (the other three being Beijing, Hangzhou and Suzhou) where the protection of historical and cultural heritage, as well as natural scenery, should be treated as a priority project.
Guilin administers 17 county-level divisions:
- Six districts: Xiufeng District (秀峰区), Xiangshan District (象山区), Diecai District (叠彩区), Qixing District (七星区), Yanshan District (雁山区), Lingui District (临桂区).
- Ten counties: Yangshuo County (阳朔), Lingchuan County (灵川), Xing'an County (兴安), Quanzhou County (全州), Yongfu County (永福), Ziyuan County (资源), Guanyang County (灌阳), Pingle County (平乐), Lipu County (荔浦), Linggui County (临桂).
- Two autonomous counties: Gongcheng Yao Autonomous County (恭城瑶族自治县), Longsheng Various Nationalities Autonomous County (龙胜各族自治县).
Guilin is located in northern Guangxi, bordering Liuzhou to the west, Laibin to the southwest, Wuzhou to the south, Hezhou to the southeast, and within neighbouring Hunan, Huaihua to the northwest, Shaoyang to the north, and Yongzhou to the east. It has a total area of 27,809 square kilometres (10,737 sq mi). The topography of the area is marked by karst formations. The Li River flows through the city.
- Hills and Mountains: Diecai Hill (zh:叠彩山), Elephant Trunk Hill, Wave-Subduing Hill (zh:伏波山), Lipu Mountains, Kitten Mountain, the highest peak of Guangxi, and Yao Hill (zh:尧山)
- Cave: Reed Flute Cave, Seven-Star Cave
Guilin has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with short, mild winters, and long, hot, humid summers. Winter begins dry but becomes progressively wetter and cloudier. Spring is generally overcast and often rainy, while summer continues to be rainy though is the sunniest time of year. Autumn is sunny and dry. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 7.9 °C (46.2 °F) in January to 28.0 °C (82.4 °F) in July, and the annual mean is 18.84 °C (65.9 °F). The annual rainfall is just above 1,900 mm (75 in), and is delivered in bulk (~50%) from April to June, when the plum rains occur and often create the risk of flooding. There are 1,487 hours of bright sunshine annually.
|Climate data for Guilin (1971−2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||11.5
|Average low °C (°F)||5.4
|Precipitation mm (inches)||63.4
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||15.1||15.5||18.6||20.2||19.0||17.5||16.1||14.8||8.2||9.7||8.7||9.1||172.5|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||66.9||50.0||51.6||72.6||109.5||131.1||199.4||204.1||193.4||157.1||134.4||117.2||1,487.3|
|Percent possible sunshine||20||16||14||19||27||32||48||51||53||44||41||36||33.4|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration|
- Population: 4,747,963
- Urban population: 975,638
- Ethnic groups: Zhuang, Yao, Hui, Miao, Han and Dong
- The GDP per capita was ¥19435 (ca. US$2858) in 2009, ranked no. 125 among 659 Chinese cities.
- Local industry: pharmaceutical goods, tires, machinery, fertilizer, silk, perfume, wine, tea, cinnamon, herbal medicine
- Local agricultural products: Shatian Pomelo, summer orange, Fructus Momordicae, ginkgo, moon persimmon, Lipu Taro, Sanhua Alcohol, pepper sauce, fermented bean curd, Guilin Rice Noodle, water chestnut, grain, fish and dried bean milk cream in tight rolls
Until 1949 only a thermal power plant, a cement works, and some small textile mills existed as signs of industrialization in Guilin. However, since the 1950s Guilin has electronics, engineering and agricultural equipment, medicine, rubber, and buses, and it also has textile and cotton yarn factories. Food processing, including the processing of local agricultural produce, remains the most important industry. More recent and modern industry feature high technology and the tertiary industry characterized by tourism trading and service.
Budget airlines also operate from the Guilin Liangjiang International Airport - Spring Airlines provides connections to local destinations within China while AirAsia connects passengers to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
- Hunan–Guangxi Railway
- Train: Guilin Train Station
Colleges and universities
- Guilin University of Technology (桂林理工大学)
- Guilin Medical University (桂林医学院)
- Guilin University of Electronic Technology (桂林电子科技大学)
- Guangxi Normal University (广西师范大学)
- Guilin University of Aerospace Technology (桂林航天工业学院)
Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.Guilin University of Aerospace Technology is a newly built university(2012)
Scenic spots around Guilin include:
- Jingjiang Princes City, a royal complex dating from the Ming Dynasty that lies near the center of modern Guilin
- Reed Flute Cave
- Silver Cave (银子岩溶洞)
- Li River
- Seven-Star Cave and Seven Star Park (七星公园)
- Camel Mountain (骆驼山) and Elephant Trunk Hill
- Piled Festoon Hill (堆花彩山)
- Crescent Hill (月牙山)
- Fubo Hill (伏波山)
- Nanxi Hill (南溪山)
- Erlang Gorge (二郎山峡谷）
- Huangbu (Yellow Cloth) Beach (黄埔滩)
- Moon Hill
- Longsheng Rice Terrace
- Daxu Ancient Town (大圩古市镇)
- Xingping Ancient Town (兴坪古镇)
- Duxiu (Solitary Beauty) Peak (独秀峰)
- Liusanjie Landscape Garden (刘三姐景观园)
- Yao Hill (zh:尧山)
Guilin cuisine is known for its snacks and the use of spices, especially chili. Guilin chili sauce (桂林辣椒酱), used widely in cooking by locals, is made of fresh chili, garlic, and fermented soybeans, and is considered one of the city's Three Treasures (桂林三宝). The other two of the Three Treasures are Guilin Sanhua Jiu (桂林三花酒), a variety of rice baijiu, or liquor distilled from rice; and Guilin pickled tofu (桂林豆腐乳).
Guilin rice noodles (桂林米粉) have been the local breakfast staple since the Qin dynasty and are renowned for their delicate taste. Legend has it that when Qin troops suffering from diarrhoea entered this region, a cook created the Guilin rice noodles for the army because they had trouble eating the local food. Specifically, the local specialty is noodles with horse meat, but this dish can also be ordered without the horse meat. Zongzi (粽子; pinyin: zòngzi), a dumpling made from glutinous rice and mung bean paste wrapped in a bamboo or banana leaf is another popular delicacy in Guilin.
- "I often sent pictures of the hills of Guilin which I painted to friends back home, but few believed what they saw."
- 桂林山水甲天下 - "Guilin's scenery is best among all under heaven."
- - popular Chinese saying
Twin towns — Sister cities
Guilin is twinned with:
- - Nishikatsura, Yamanashi, Japan
- - Kumamoto City, Japan
- - Hastings, New Zealand
- - Toruń, Poland
- - Orlando, United States
The Guilin relationship with the New Zealand city Hastings started in 1977, after a research scientist, Dr Stuart Falconer identified a number of common areas of interest between the two cities, including horticulture and their rural-urban mix.
- Foster, Simon (2012). Frommer's China. John Wiley & Sons. p. 612. ISBN 9781118223529.
- "Guilin (China) Encyclopaedia Britannica". Encyclopaedia Britannica (Online). Retrieved 11 July 2013.
- "中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集（1971－2000年）". China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
- http://www.geohive.com/cntry/cn-45.aspx China Census 2010
- "Guilin Economy; china Window". Retrieved 11 July 2013.
- "Miasta bliźniacze Torunia" [Toruń's twin towns]. Urząd Miasta Torunia [City of Toruń Council] (in Polish). Retrieved 2013-08-22.
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