|Regions with significant populations|
• India • Pakistan • United Kingdom• Canada • South Africa • United Arab Emirates • Madagascar
|• Gujarati • Urdu • Kutchi|
|• Sunni, Shia, Shia Ismaili, Sufism|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Pakistani people • Pashtuns • Jats • Khoja • Lohanas • Balochs|
The term Gujarati Muslims is usually used to signify an Indian Muslim from the state of Gujarat in North-western coast of India, who speaks the Gujarati language as a mother-tongue (first language) and follows certain customs different from the rest of Indian Muslims. Gujarati Muslims are very prominent in industry and medium-sized businesses, and there is a very large Gujarati Muslim community in Mumbai. Many members of this community migrated to Pakistan in 1947 and have settled in Karachi and Sindh, contributing to the national welfare and economy of Pakistan. Having earned a formidable accolade as some of India's greatest seafaring merchants, the centuries old Gujarati diaspora is found scattered throughout the Near East, Indian Ocean, and Southern Hemisphere regions everywhere in between Africa and Japan with a notable presence in: Hong Kong, Britain, Portugal, Réunion, Dubai, Iran, Oman, Yemen, Mozambique, Aden, Zanzibar, United Arab Emirates, Malaysia, Myanmar, Madagascar, Mauritius, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and East and Southern Africa, comprising historically a movement of free immigrants than contractual labours.
According to the 2001 Census of India, the Gujarati Muslim population was 4,592,854, which is 9.064% of the total population of the state, however significant numbers of Gujarati Muslims are found within the larger context of the Gujarati diaspora that became established throughout all the inhabited continents of the world.
Most Gujarati Muslims have Gujarati language as their mother tongue, but some communities such as the Momin Ansari, Kabuli Pathans, Gujarati Shaikh, Arabs of Surat, and others, have Urdu as their mother tongue. The Gujarati Muslims are further sub-divided into groups, such as the Ismāʿīlī, Khoja, Dawoodi Bohra, Surti, Memon, Ghanchi and Chhipa each with their own customs and traditions. Famous Gujarati Muslims include Badruddin Tyabji, a Congress president and Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the founding father of Pakistan.
Located in the westernmost portion of India, Gujarat includes the region of Kutch, Saurashtra, and the territories between the rivers Banas and Damanganga. Islam came early to Gujarat, with immigrant communities of Arab trading communities settling on the western seacoast of India as early as the 8th Century A.D, spreading Islam as soon as the religion gained a foothold in the Arabian peninsula. They were later joined by Persian traders from Greater Iran. Many of these early merchants were Ismaili Shia, both Mustaali and Nizari. They laid the foundation of the Bohra and Khoja communities. Gujarat at this time was ruled by the Valabhi dynasty. In the thirteenth century, the last Hindu ruler Karna, was defeated by Alauddin Khilji, the Turkic Sultan of Dehli. This episode ushered a period of five centuries of Muslim Turkic and Mughal rule, leading to a conversion of a number of Hindu Gujarati people to Islam, and the creation of new communities such as the Molesalam and Miyana communities.
In the sixteenth century, the Memon community immigrated from Sindh and settled in Kutch and Kathiawar. While in Bharuch and Surat, a schism occurred among the Bohras, and a new community of Sunni Bohras was created. Another Muslim sect, the Mahdawi also settled in Gujarat, and led to the creation of the Tai community. In 1593, the Mughal Emperor Akbar conquered Gujarat, and incorporated Gujarat in the Mughal Empire. This period led to the settlement of the Mughal community. A good many Sayyid and Shaikh families also are said to arrived during the period of Mughal rule. At the same time, the Muslims from various provinces such as Hyderabad Deccan, Kerala, Balochistan, Sindh, Punjab, Gujarat, Kashmir and other parts of South Asia also moved to capitals of Muslim empire in Delhi and Agra. After the death of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, in 1707, Mughal rule began weaken after ruling for a century. Most of Gujarat fell to the Marathas, and this period saw the dispersal of further Pathan and Baluch, who came as mercenaries and were destroyed or defeated by the Marathas. Gujarat fell to British in the late 19th Century.
Gujarati Muslim merchants played a historically important role in facilitating the Portuguese discovery of "the East Indies", in spreading and propagating Islam to the Far East, and in promoting the British discovery of Africa. Surti merchants in particular also pioneered the use of scientific concepts, and invented structural and mechanical advances in technology for the nationbuilding of Mauritius, such as introducing hydro-electric power to the people of Mauritius.
Gujarati Muslim society has a unique custom known as Jamat Bandi, literally meaning communal solidarity. This system is the traditional expression of communal solidarity. It is designed to regulate the affairs of the community and apply sanctions against infractions of the communal code. Almost all the main Gujarat communities, such as the Ismāʿīlī, Khoja, Dawoodi Bohra, Chhipa, and Sunni Bohra have caste associations, known as jamats. Social organization at the Jamat Bandi level varies from community to community. In some communities, the Jamat simply runs a mosque and attached rest house, and a madrasah. Some larger communities, such as the Khoja and Memon have developed elaborate and highly formalized systems with written and registered constitutions. Their organizations own large properties, undertake housing projects and schools, dispensaries and weekly newspapers.
Historically, each of the Muslim communities are endogamous. Gujarati Muslims in the United Kingdom have shown that endogamy remains important with the existence of matrimonial services specifically dedicated to the Gujarati Muslim community. However, this is not the case with Gujarati Muslim communities in the USA, where marriages outside the community are becoming increasingly common. This can be largely attributed to there being a much smaller community in the USA when compared to the size of the community in the UK.
The region of Kutch has always been historically distinct, with the Muslims there accounting for about twenty percent of the population. This region is characterised by salt desserts, such as the Rann of Kutch. Because of this landscape, the Kutch Muslims are Maldhari pastoral nomads found in the Banni region of Kutch. Most of them are said to have originated in Sindh, and speak a dialect of Kutchi which has many Sindhi loanwords. Major Maldhari communities include the Jats, Halaypotra, Hingora, Hingorja, Juneja and Samma tribes.
The Baloch muslim community of Gujarat, who migrated from Baluchistan on the invitation of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, established power with the Khadiya Darbar estate of Junagadh formally started by nawab Mohammad Hafez Khanji Baluch, who was awarded land for the traits of excellence and bravery shown at his throne at Baluchistan. Earlier Baloch settlers of Gujarat came with Fateh Khan Baloch, who was given the jagir of Radhanpur and Sami by Sultan Ahmad Shah II of Gujarat. Qadir Bukhsh Rind Baloch alias Kadu Makrani, a 19th-century archetypal hero of Gujarat's Muslims, often remembered as the Robin Hood of the East, was born and brought up in Makran, Balochistan and rose to become a skilled insurgent in Kathiawar fighting against British imperialism.
The Gujarat coastline is also home to significant numbers of Siddi, otherwise known as Zanji or Habshi, descendants of Bantu peoples from Southeast Africa that were brought to the Indian subcontinent as slaves by the Portuguese and Arab merchants. Siddis are primarily Sufi Muslims, although some are Hindus and others Roman Catholic Christians. Malik Ambar, a prominent military figure in Indian history at large, remains a figure of veneration to the Siddis of Gujarat.
There is historical evidence of Arabs and Persians settling along the Konkan-Gujarat coast as early as the 9th, 8th and perhaps 7th century. Arab traders landed at Ghogha (located just across the narrow Gulf of Cambay from Surat) around the early seventh century and built a masjid there facing Jeruselum. Thus Gujarat has the oldest mosque in India built between 624-626 AD by the Arabs who settled there. These Arabs and others who settled in Bharuch and Surat were sailors, merchants and nakhudas, who belonged to various South Arabian coastal tribes while others were from the Persian Gulf and Mediterranean, and large numbers married local women, adopting the local Gujarati language and customs over time.
Over the course of history, a number of famous Arab travelers, scholars, Sufi-saints and geographers who visited India, have alluded to thriving Arab-Muslim communities scattered along the Konkan-Gujarat coast. Suleiman of Basra who reached Thana in 841 AD, observed that the Rashtrakuta kingdom which extended from Bharuch to Chaul during his time, was on friendly terms with the Arabs, and Balhara kings appointed Arab merchant princes as governors and administrators in their vast kingdom. Ibn Hawqal, a 10th-century Muslim Arab geographer and chronicler while on his travels observed that mosques flourished in four cities of Gujarat that had Hindu kings, with mosques being found in Cambay, Kutch, Saymur and Patan, alluding to an atmosphere where Muslim foreigners were assimilated into the local milieu of medieval Gujarati societies. His well known Iranian contemporary Estakhri, the Persian medieval geographer who traveled to Cambay and other regions of Gujarat during the same period echoed the words spoken by his predecessors in his itineraries.
Al-Masudi, an Arab historian from Baghdad who was a descendant of Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud, a companion of Muhammad traveled to Gujarat in 918 C.E, and bore written witness account that more than 10,000 Arab Muslims from Siraf (Persia), Oman, Hadhramaut, Basra, Baghdad, and other cities in the Middle East, had settled in the sea-port of Chamoor, a port close to Bharuch. The 19th century European Gazetteer by George Newenham Wright, corroborates this cultural contact through the ages as he points out that the Arab inhabitants of Al Mukalla, capital city of the Hadhramaut coastal region in Yemen, were known to intermarry with the Mohammedans of Kathiawar and those from other areas of Gujarat.
Arabic sources speak of the warm reception of the significant immigration of Hadhrami sāda (descendants of the prophet Muhammed) who settled in Surat during the Gujarat Sultanate. Prominent and well respected Sāda who claimed noble descent through Abu Bakr al-Aydarus ("Patron Saint of Aden"), were held in high esteem among the people and became established as Arab religious leaderships of local Muslims. Intermarriages with Indian Muslim women were highly sought which led to a creole Hadhrami-Indian community to flourish in Gujarat by the 17th century.
|“||Cambay is one of the most beautiful cities as regards the artistic architecture of its houses and the construction of its mosques. The reason is that the majority of its inhabitants are foreign merchants, who continually build their beautiful houses and wonderful mosques - an achievement in which they endeavor to surpass each other.||”|
In the 17th century, the eminent city of Surat, famous for its cargo export of silk and diamonds had come on a par with contemporary Venice and Beijing which were some of the great mercantile cities of Europe and Asia, and earned the distinguished title, Bab al-Makkah (Gate of Mecca). The Surat port (the only Indian port facing westwards) then became the principal port of India during Mughal rule to gain widespread international repute, which encouraged a period of further immigration and settlement of Muslim pilgrims from countries such as Iran, Iraq, Hejaz, Turkey, Egypt, Syria, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, China, and Russia who assembled in great numbers to make the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca from the ports of Surat, Veraval and Mandvi with the royal patronage of the Mughals.
- Islam in India
- Gujarat Sultanate
- Pathans of Gujarat
- Arabs in India
- Ibn Batuta
- Nuruddin ar-Raniri
- Abu Bakr al-Aydarus
- Ba 'Alawi sada
- Shah e Alam
- Wajihuddin Alvi
- List of ziyarat locations
- "Gujarātī". Onmiglot: online encyclopaedia of writing systems and languages. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- Patel, edited by Sujata; Masselos, Jim (2003). Bombay and Mumbai : the city in transition. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195663179.
- Laurent Gayer (2014). Karachi : ordered disorder and the struggle for the city. p. 300. ISBN 978-0-19-935444-3. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
Out of Pakistan's forty-two largest industrial groups, thirty-six were in the hands of Karachi-based businessmen - generally members of the Gujarati/Kutchi/Kathiawari trading castes/sects, both Sunni (Memon) and Shia (Khojas, Bohras, etc.) Whereas they accounted for 0.4 per cent of Pakistan's total population, Gujarati trading castes (which were subsumed under the Muhajir label although many of their members were already settled in Karachi long before Partition) controlled 43 per cent of the country's industrial capital. Halai Memons alone (0.3 per cent of the national population) owned 27 per cent of these industries. And while he patronised Pashtun entrepreneurs in Karachi, Ayub Khan also relied upon Gujarati businessmen to finance his electoral campaign in 1964, while facilitating the entry into politics of some Muhajir entrepreneurs, such as Sadiq Dawood, a Memon industrialist who became an MNA, and the Treasurer of Ayub's Convention Muslim League.
- Peck, Amelia. Interwoven Globe: The Worldwide Textile Trade, 1500-1800. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-58839-496-5. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
Of the Asian trading communities the most successful were the Gujaratis, as witnessed not only by Pires and Barbosa but by a variety of other sources. All confirm that merchants from the Gujarati community routinely held the most senior post open to an expatriate trader, that of shah-bandar (controller of maritime trade).
- "Where on earth do they speak Gujarati?". Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- ed. by Robert Bickers (2000). New frontiers : imperialism's new communities in East Asia, 1842-1953 (1. publ. ed.). Manchester [u.a.]: Manchester Univ. Press. p. 67. ISBN 0-7190-5604-7.
The 1889 Hong Kong Directory and Hong List for the Far East lists three Sindhi firms in Hong Kong among a total of thirty-one firms, of which the majority were Parsi and Gujarati Muslim.
- Nandita Dutta. "An Indian Reunion". littleindia.com. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
Raziah Locate is a manager in a hospitality school. Her grandfather Omarjee Ismael embarked on a voyage with his wife in 1870 from Kathor, near Surat, in Gujarat. He came to Reunion Island to seek better opportunities to further his trade in clothing. Her grandfather was one of the 40,000 merchants, traders and artisans from Gujarat who are said to have voluntary migrated to Reunion Island starting in the 1850s. Her grandfather was one of the pioneers who paved the way for other Gujarati Muslims to settle in Reunion, who have built a mosque and a madrasa on the island.
- Hugh Eakin (August 14, 2014). "In the Heart of Mysterious Oman". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- Nafeesa Syeed. "Learning Gujarati in Yemen". indiarealtime.com. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
Mr. Haji, clad in the gold-trimmed, white cap that is standard for Bohra men, was in a flurry on a recent Friday, as he catered to streams of constituents and answered phone calls. He slid effortlessly between Arabic, Urdu, English and Dawat ni zabaan—a strain of Gujarati particular to Bohras that is peppered with Arabic and Persian. He explained that they have other shrines in Yemen, but this is one of the most important. Some 10,000 Bohras, mostly from India but also from their populations in Pakistan, East Africa, the United States, Europe and the Middle East, travel here each year.
- Nazar Abbas. "Pakistanis who have never seen Pakistan". The Friday Times. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
After ties broke down between India and Portugal, Gujarati Muslims stranded in Mozambique were given Pakistani citizenship...Merchants from Diu had settled on the island of Mozambique in early 1800s. Hindus from Diu, Sunni Muslims from Daman, and others from Goa migrated to Mozambique as small traders, construction workers and petty employees. Many Gujaratis moved from South Africa to Mozambique in the latter half of the 19th century.
- Ababu Minda Yimene (2004). An African Indian Community in Hyderabad: Siddi Identity, Its Maintenance and Change. pp. 66, 67. ISBN 3-86537-206-6. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
Some centuries later, the Gujarati merchants established permanent trading posts in Zanzibar, consolidating their influence in the Indian Ocean... Gujarati Muslims, and their Omani partners, engaged in a network of mercantile activities among Oman, Zanzibar and Bombay. Thanks to those mercantile Gujarati, India remained by far the principal trading partner of Zanzibar.
- Dr Asghar Ali Engineer. "Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar and recent riots - an Aman Report". Centre for study of society and secularism. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
Lot of Muslims had gone from Surat and still there is a beautiful Surti mosque. Muslims in Myanmar are highly diverse. There are very few ethnic Burmese Muslims, most of them are migrants from different parts of India when Burma was a part of India. There are large number of Tamil, Gujarati and Bengali and Bohra Muslims and very few Urdu speaking Muslims since Urdu speaking are not in business.
- Pedro Machado. Ocean of Trade. Cambridge University Press. p. 232. ISBN 978-1-107-07026-4.
Gujarati merchants may also have financed slave voyages to Madagascar in the nineteenth century. They sailed to its west coast from the mid 1810s to the mid 1820s but do not appear to have become extensively involved in this trafficking, either as shippers or as financiers. This is likely explained by the increasing presence in coastal Madagascar of Khoja and Bohra Shi'ia merchants from Kutch who, together with the Bhatiya merchants, established a significant presence there as financiers of the slave trade from the second decade of the nineteenth century.
- Kannan Arunasalam. "From Merchant Prince to Akbar Brothers: Inayat Akbarally and the Bohras of Sri Lanka". groundviews.org. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
Inayet Akbarally tells the remarkable story of his great grandfather Careemjee Jafferjee and how he became the first member of the Dawoodi Bohra community to set foot in Ceylon believed to be around 1830.
- Indian Diaspora: Socio-Cultural and Religious Worlds. pp. 161, 162. ISBN 978-90-04-28806-5.
Caste in Natal was mainly practiced by Gujarati speaking Hindus. They arrived in Natal in the late 1890s and early 1900s. They together with Gujarati speaking Muslims, were known as "passenger" Indians, because they had paid for their own fares on board steamships bound for Natal. They arrived not as contractual labours, but as free Indians under normal immigration laws.
- Rai, edited by Rajesh; Reeves, Peter (2009). The South Asian diaspora transnational networks and changing identities. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-203-89235-6.
Gujarat has maintained commercial contacts with the outside world since ancient times. The tradition of sea-faring and overseas contacts goes back many centuries and the Gujarati diaspora was a logical outcome of such a tradition. The Gujarati merchant diaspora can still be found in the littoral cities of West Asia and Africa on the one hand, and in Southeast Asia on the other.
- Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Gujarat Population: Musalmans and Parsis, Volume IX pages 13 to 14 Government Central Press, Bombay
- People of India Gujarat Volume XXII Part One Editors R. B Lal, P.B.S.V Padmanabham, G Krishnan and M Azeez Mohideen pages 74 to 77
- name="Indian Census 2001 - Religion" Indian Census 2001 - Religion
- "Making Britain: Discover how South Asians shaped the nation, 1870-1950". The Open University. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
Badruddin Tyabji was the son of Cambay merchant, Tyab Ali, and his wife, Ameena, the daughter of a rich mullah, Meher Ali.
- "Jinnah didn't know Urdu, was fluent in Gujarati". Times of India. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
But Jinnah was fluent in Gujarati. He could read as well as write Gujarati, his mother tongue. Jinnah was a native of Paneli — not far from Gandhiji's birthplace Porbandar. It is often said the issue of Partition boiled down to these two Kathiawadis.
- Gokhale. Surat In The Seventeenth Century. Popular Prakashan. p. 28. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
Islam was introduced into Gujarat in the 7th century A.D. The first Arab raid came in 635 when the Governor of Bahrain sent an expedition against Broach. Then through the centuries colonies of Arab and Persian merchants began sprouting in the port cities of Gujarat, such as Cambay, Broach and Surat.
- Muslim Peoples: A World Ethnographic Survey editor Richard V Weekes pages 294 to 297
- "Gujarati showed Vasco 'da' way". The Times of India. Oct 3, 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
Historians have differed over the identity of the sailor, calling him a Christian, a Muslim and a Gujarati. According to another account, he was the famous Arab navigator Ibn Majid. Some historians suggest Majid could not have been near the vicinity at the time. German author Justus says it was Malam who accompanied Vasco...Italian researcher Sinthia Salvadori too has concluded that it was Malam who showed Gama the way to India. Salvadori has made this observation in her 'We Came In Dhows', an account written after interacting with people in Gujarat.
- N. Subrahmanian, Tamil̲an̲pan̲, S. Jeyapragasam (13 Jul 2006). Homage to a Historian: A Festschrift. Dr. N. Subrahmanian 60th Birthday Celebration Committee. p. 62. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- Darwis Khudori (2007). Rethinking solidarity in global society : the challenge of globalisation for social and solidarity movements : 50 years after Bandung Asian-African Conference 1955. Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia: Strategic Information and Research Development Centre. p. 35. ISBN 9789833782130. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- Aritonang, edited by Jan Sihar; Steenbrink, Karel (2008). A history of Christianity in Indonesia. Leiden: Brill. p. 11. ISBN 978-90-04-17026-1. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
The predominant Muslim position in the international trade was also represented by Muslim outposts along the southern coast of the Indian subcontinent. They included Randir, Surat and Cambay (in Gujarat). In fact, they had been supposed to have not only played a significant role in international Muslim trade, but also in the spread of Islam, in supposedly in the Malay-Indonesian archipelago.
- Achyut Yagnik, Suchitra Sheth (2005). The shaping of modern Gujarat : plurality, Hindutva, and beyond. New Delhi: Penguin Books. p. 25. ISBN 0-14400-038-5. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
After the opening up of East Africa in the nineteenth century, they became pioneers of trading activity there, dominating not only the financial world but also the political affairs of the region. Interestingly, it was these Gujarati Muslim traders along with Kutchi Bhatias who provided equipment, rations and financial services to European explorers such as, Stanley, Livingstone, Burton and Cameron, and thus facilitated the 'discovery of Africa'
- Dukhira, Chit. "The genuis: Amode Ibrahim Atchia, (1868-1947)". lexpess.mu.online.
- Atchia, Dr. Michael. "Major Atchia, a model of enterprise". lexpress.mu.online.
- "Muslim communities of Gujarat". TwoCircles.net. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
Muslims of Gujarat are probably the most diverse of Muslim population of any other Indian state. Some of them came from different parts of the Islamic world over a period of thousand years to seek security, employment, trade, and to spread Islam; bringing with them their culture, knowledge, and their own versions of Islam. Though there has been much interaction with different Muslim groups, the differences have survived to make Gujarati Muslims a very diverse ummah...First came the Arabs; within the first 100 years of revelation of Quran, there were a number of Muslim towns along the coast of Gujarat. They were followed by Iranians, Africans, and Central Asians. Earlier Muslims came as traders; some came with the invading armies and settled down. Many others came seeking better employment opportunities, while some like Bohras came here fleeing persecution.
- Gujarati Muslim Marriage, a dedicated service to assist Gujarati Muslims to marry within the community.
- People of India Gujarat Volume XXI Part Two edited by R.B Lal, P.B.S.V Padmanabham, G Krishnan & M Azeez Mohideen pages 487-491
- "Baloch of India Khadiya Estate : A Seven Salute State". balochhistory11.blogspot.co.uk. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
It was the stage in the regime of K.S Moh. Fahte Khanji - II, Independence of Indian nation was declared and all the royal authorities were forced to surrender the throne where the Nawab of Junagadh has left his throne and left for Pakistan but the Late K.S Moh. Fahte Khanji - II did not left Junagadh because of the the faithfulness towards the soil of Junagadh and the country he stayed back and died within few years after independence. Today at present the sons of Late Khan Shree Moh. Fahte Khanji - II, Late Khan Shree Mohammad Iqbal Khanji Baluch and Khan Shree Mohammad Khanji Baluch who is Member of Legislative Assembly government of gujarat from Veraval are governing their estate.
- "Baloch of India". History of Baloch and Balochistan. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
In the 18th century, the Gohil Rajput rulers of Bhavnagar invited a number of Baloch to serve as their bodyguards. They were granted the jagir in Sehor.
- "Qadir Bukhsh Rind Baloch alias Kadu Makrani". History of Baloch and Balochistan. Retrieved 12 February 2015.
When life became hard for the working classes in Makran, Balochistan due to British colonists, Kadu Makrani, with his tribe, migrated to Kathiawar, Gujarat in mid of 19th century. Due to their courage and bravery, Nawabs of Kathiawar acquired their services to eliminate dacoits of Kathiawar. Kadu Makrani and people of his tribe earned territories and properties as rewards of their services. The rise of Kadu Makrani was disturbing to British imperialists. They were looking for an excuse to disarm Kadu Makrani and his tribe to break their power.
- Vijay Prashad (2002), Everybody Was Kung Fu Fighting: Afro-Asian Connections and the Myth of Cultural Purity, Beacon Press, ISBN 0-8070-5011-3,
... since the captains of the African and Arab vessels bore the title Sidi (from Sayyid, or the lineage of the prophet Muhammad), the African settlers on the Indian mainland came to be called Siddis ...
- Shanti Sadiq Ali (1996), The African dispersal in the Deccan, Orient Blackswan, ISBN 81-250-0485-8,
... Among the Siddi families in Karnataka there are Catholics, Hindus and Muslims ... It was a normal procedure for the Portuguese to baptise African slaves ... After living for generations among Hindus they considered themselves to be Hindus ... The Siddi Hindus owe allegiance to Saudmath ...
- Wink, André (1990). Al-Hind, the making of the Indo-Islamic world (2. ed., amended. ed.). Leiden: E.J. Brill. p. 68. ISBN 9004092498. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
Up to about the tenth century the largest settlement of Arabs and Persian Muslim traders are not found in Malabar however but rather more to the north in coastal towns of the Konkan and Gujarat, where in pre-Islamic times the Persians dominated the trade with the west. Here the main impetus to Muslim settlement came from the merchants of the Persian Gulf and Oman, with a minority from Hadramaut.
- Schimmel, Annemarie (1980). Handbuch der Orientalistik. Leiden: Brill. p. 65. ISBN 9004061177. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- Dunn, Ross E. (2005). The adventures of Ibn Battuta, a Muslim traveler of the fourteenth century (Rev. ed. with a new pref. ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24385-4. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
Many of these "foreign merchants" were transient visitors, men of South Arabian and Persian Gulf ports, who migrated in and out of Cambay with the rhythm of the monsoons. But others were men with Arab or Persian patronyms whose families had settled in the town generations, even centuries earlier, intermarrying with Gujarati women, and assimilating everyday customs of the Hindu hinterland
- Boyajian, James C. (2008). Portuguese trade in Asia under the Habsburgs, 1580-1640 (Pbk. ed. ed.). Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-8018-8754-3. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
The history of Indian Ocean trade is a succession of alien merchant diasporas establishing themselves and eventually dominating the region. Gujarat's Muslim community, for example, had originated in settlements of merchants from Turkey, Egypt, Persia and Arabia.
- Rai, edited by Rajesh; Reeves, Peter (2009). The South Asian diaspora transnational networks and changing identities. London: Routledge. p. 33. ISBN 0-203-89235-6. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
The social world of the Muslim merchants was complex. The heterogeneity of the Muslim merchant community was made up by the trade settlers originating from various countries, as well as by those who were itinerant traders, coming from places like Egypt, Syria, Persia, and Afghanistan.
- Ashish Vashi & Harit Mehta. "Gujarat built mosques to draw Arab ships". Times of India. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
The accounts of Arab travellers like Masudi, Istakhari, Ibn Hauqal and others, who visited Gujarat between the 9th and 12th centuries, amply testify to the settlements of Muslims in Cambay and other cities of Gujarat.
- Acyuta Yājñika, Suchitra Sheth (2005). The shaping of modern Gujarat : plurality, Hindutva, and beyond. New Delhi: Penguin Books. p. 42. ISBN 0-14400-038-5. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- Ipgrave, Michael; editors, David Marshall, (2010). Humanity : texts and contexts : Christian and Muslim perspectives : a record of the sixth Building Bridges seminar convened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, National University of Singapore, December 2007. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-1-58901-716-0. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
Memorials can be found in Gujarat honoring Arab Muslims who martyred themselves fighting against Muslim Turks on behalf of Hindu kingdoms. These same kingdoms endowed mosques on behalf of Arab traders.
- Wink, André (1990). Al-Hind, the making of the Indo-Islamic world (2. ed., amended. ed.). Leiden: E.J. Brill. p. 178. ISBN 90-04-09249-8. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
- Pearson, M. N. (1976). Merchants and rulers in Gujarat : the response to the Portuguese in the sixteenth century. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 25. ISBN 0-520-02809-0. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
Most of these "foreign" Muslims were resident in Gujarat, with their own houses there, and so were in fact subjects of Gujarat, whatever their country of birth, which could be Turkey, Egypt, Arabia or Persia. The heterogeneity of the Muslim population was not confined to merchants, for the sultans made a practice of tempting capable foreigners to Gujarat with handsome salaries, to serve in their armies.
- Satish Chandra Misra (1964). Muslim Communities in Gujarat: Preliminary Studies in Their History and Social Organization. Asia Publishing House,. p. 5. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- Shaykh Gibril Fouad Haddad. "Abul Hasan Ali Al-Masudi". sunnah.org. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
- Cunha, J. Gerson Da (1993). Notes on the history and antiquities of Chaul and Bassein. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. p. 8. ISBN 8120608453. Retrieved 23 February 2015.
The Lar, also called Lardesa, mentioned by Masudi, is evidently the territory of Gujarat and the Northern Konkan, embracing Broach, Thana, and Chaul, and which name is given by Ptolemy as Larike...As regards Balhara, whom Masudi mentions as the reigning prince to whom Saimur was tributary, it has long been identified as the name of the dynasty which reigned at Valabhi (Valabhipura) in Gujarat, and according to Soliman, a merchant and one of the greatest travellers of his age, was in his time the chief of all the greatest princes in India, the latter acknowledging his preeminence; while the Arabs themselves were shown great favours and enjoyed great privileges in his dominions.
- George Newenham Wright. A New and Comprehensive Gazetteer, Volume 5. p. 41. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
The coast of Southern Arabia, was explored in 1833, by Mr. Bird. The people at Mukallah intermarry with the Mohammedans of Katehwar and Gujarat. The sheikh's youngest wife is the daughter of a petty chief in that quarter. The town has rather an imposing appearance as approaching it from the sea.
- José-Marie Bel, Théodore Monod, Aden: Port mythique du Yémen, pg 99
- Ulrike Freitag, William G. Clarence-Smith, ed. by Ulrike Freitag (1997). Hadhrami traders, scholars and statesmen in the Indian Ocean : 1750s - 1960s (illustrated ed.). Leiden [u.a.]: Brill. p. 67. ISBN 9789004107717. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Ho, Engseng (2006). The graves of Tarim genealogy and mobility across the Indian Ocean. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 167. ISBN 9780520938694. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
- Dunn, Ross E. (1986). The adventures of Ibn Battuta, a Muslim traveler of the fourteenth century. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 218. ISBN 9780520057715. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
- Poros, Maritsa V. (2011). Modern migrations : Gujarati Indian networks in New York and London. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-7222-8. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
Indeed, Fernand Braudel likened Surat to some of the great mercantile cities of Europe and Asia, such as Venice and Beijing.... Godinho estimated that Surat's population was more than 100, 000, with people from all over the world residing in the city or frequenting it for business. He even claimed that it surpasses our "Evora in grandeur"
- David Smith (2003). Hinduism and modernity. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 62. ISBN 0-631-20862-3. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
Surat was then the place of embarkation of pilgrims to Mecca; known as Bab al-Makkah or the Gate of Mecca, it was almost a sacred place for the Muslims of India. More to the point it was the main city for foreign imports, where many merchants had their bases, and all the European trading companies were established. Its population was more than 100, 000.
- The journal of Asian studies, Volume 35, Issues 1-2. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
For a pious emperor, Surat had more than economic and political importance; it was the port from which the hajj (pilgrimage) ships left Mughal India for the Red Sea. The port was variously known as Bab-al-Makkah, the Bab-ul-Hajj, the Dar-al-Hajj, and the Bandar-i-Mubarak.
- Simpson, Edward (11 January 2007). Muslim Society and the Western Indian Ocean: The Seafarers of Kachchh. Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-203-09951-3. Retrieved 26 February 2013.