Gujarati language

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Gujarati
ગુજરાતી Gujarātī
Pronunciation /ɡudʒ(ə)ˈɾat̪i/
Native to India
Region Gujarat
Ethnicity Gujaratis
Native speakers
50 million  (2007)[1]
Gujarati alphabet (Brahmic)
Gujarati Braille
Arabic script
Devanagari (historical)
Official status
Official language in
Gujarat ( India)[3]
Daman and Diu ( India)
Dadra and Nagar Haveli ( India)
Language codes
ISO 639-1 gu
ISO 639-2 guj
ISO 639-3 guj
Glottolog guja1252[4]
{{{mapalt}}}
Distribution of native Gujarati speakers in India

Gujarati /ɡʊəˈrɑːti/[5] (ગુજરાતી Gujarātī [ɡudʑəraːt̪i]) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the west Indian region of Gujarat. It is part of the greater Indo-European language family. Gujarati is descended from Old Gujarati (c. 1100 – 1500 AD), which is also the ancestor of modern Rajasthani. In India, it is the chief language in the state of Gujarat, as well as an official language in the union territories of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli.

According to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 4.5% of population of India (1.21 billion according to 2011 census) speaks Gujarati, which amounts to 54.6 million speakers in India.[6] There are about 65.5 million speakers of Gujarati worldwide, making it the 26th most spoken native language in the world.[citation needed] Along with Romany and Sindhi, it is among the most western of Indo-Aryan languages. Gujarati was the first language of Mahatma Gandhi and Vallabhbhai Patel, the "Iron Man of India". Other prominent personalities whose first language is or was Gujarati include Swami Dayananda Saraswati, Morarji Desai, Narsinh Mehta, Dhirubhai Ambani, J. R. D. Tata, Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi and Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the "Father of the Nation of Pakistan."

History[edit]

Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Mahatma Gandhi sharing a laugh together in Bombay in 1944, for ill-fated political talks. These two prime political figures of the Indian subcontinent in the 20th century were Gujaratis and thus native speakers of the Gujarati language. For Jinnah, Gujarati did not factor beyond that of a mother tongue. He was neither born nor raised in Gujarat,[7] and Gujarat did not end up a part of Pakistan, the state he espoused. He went on to advocate for solely Urdu in his politics. For Gandhi, Gujarati served as a medium of literary expression. He helped to inspire a renewal in its literature,[8] and in 1936 he introduced the current spelling convention at the Gujarati Literary Society's 12th meeting.[9]

Gujarati (also having been variously spelled as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, Guujaratee, Gujrathi, and Gujerathi[10][11]) is a modern IA (Indo-Aryan) language evolved from Sanskrit. The traditional practice is to differentiate the IA languages on the basis of three historical stages:[11]

  1. Old IA (Vedic and Classical Sanskrit)
  2. Middle IA (various Prakrits and Apabhramshas)
  3. New IA (modern languages such as Hindi, Punjabi, Bengali, etc..)

Another view accords successive family, tree splits, in which Gujarati is assumed to have separated from other IA languages in four stages:[12]

  1. IA languages split into Northern, Eastern, and Western divisions based on the innovate characteristics such as plosives becoming voiced in the Northern (Skt. danta "tooth" > Punj. dānd) and dental and retroflex sibilants merging with the palatal in the Eastern (Skt. sandhya "evening" > Beng. śājh).[13]
  2. Western, into Central and Southern.
  3. Central, in Gujarati/Rajasthani, Western Hindi, and Punjabi/Lahanda/Sindhi, on the basis of innovation of auxiliary verbs and postpositions in Gujarati/Rajasthani.[11]
  4. Gujarati/Rajasthani into Gujarati and Rajasthani through development of such characteristics as auxiliary ch- and the possessive marker -n- during the 15th century.[14]

The principal changes from Sanskrit are the following:[12]

English Sanskrit Prakrit Gujarati Ref
hand hasta hattha hāth [15]
seven sapta satta sāt [16]
eight aṣṭā aṭṭha āṭh [17]
snake sarpa sappa sāp [18]

Gujarati is then customarily divided into the following three historical stages:[11]

Old Gujarātī (જૂની ગુજરાતી; also called ગુજરાતી ભાખા Gujarātī bhākhā or ગુર્જર અપભ્રંશ Gurjar apabhraṃśa, AD 1100–1500), the ancestor of modern Gujarati and Rajasthani,[8] was spoken by the Gurjars, who were residing and ruling in Punjab, Rajputana, central India and various parts of Gujarat at that time.[19][20] The language was used as literary language as early as 12th century. Texts of this era display characteristic Gujarati features such as direct/oblique noun forms, postpositions, and auxiliary verbs.[12] It had 3 genders as Gujarati does today, and by around the time of 1300 CE a fairly standardized form of this language emerged. While generally known as Old Gujarati, some scholars prefer the name of Old Western Rajasthani, based on the argument that Gujarati and Rajasthani were not yet distinct at the time. Also factoring into this preference was the belief that modern Rajasthani sporadically expressed a neuter gender, based on the incorrect conclusion that the [ũ] that came to be pronounced in some areas for masculine [o] after a nasal consonant was analogous to Gujarati's neuter [ũ].[21] A formal grammar of the precursor to this language, Prakrita Vyakarana, was written by Jain monk and eminent scholar Hemachandra Suri in the reign of Solanki king Siddharaj Jayasinh of Anhilwara (Patan).[22]

Major works were written in various genres, for the most part in verse form, such as:[23]

  • rāsa, predominantly didactic narrative, of which the earliest known is Śālibhadrasūri's Bhārateśvarabāhubali (1185).
  • phāgu, in which spring time is celebrated, of which the earliest is Jinapadmasūri's Sirithūlibadda (ca. 1335). The most famous is the Vasantavilāsa, of unknown scholarship, which is undeterminedly dated to somewhere in 14th or 15th century, or possibly earlier.
  • bārmāsī, describing natural beauty during each of the twelve months.
  • ākhyāna, in which different sections are each in a single metre.

Narsinh Mehta (c. 1414 – 1480) is traditionally viewed as the father of modern Gujarati poetry. By virtue of its early age and good editing, an important prose work is the 14th-century commentary of Taruṇaprabha, the Ṣaḍāvaśyakabālabodhavr̥tti.[23]

Middle Gujarati (AD 1500–1800), split off from Rajasthani, and developed the phonemes ɛ and ɔ, the auxiliary stem ch-, and the possessive marker -n-.[24] Major phonological changes characteristic of the transition between Old and Middle Gujarati are:[23]

  • i, u develop to ə in open syllables
  • diphthongs əi, əu change to ɛ and ɔ in initial syllables and to e and o elsewhere
  • əũ develops to ɔ̃ in initial syllables and to ű in final syllables

These developments would have grammatical consequences. For example, Old Gujarati's instrumental-locative singular in -i was leveled and eliminated, having become the same as Old Gujarati's nominative/accusative singular in -ə.[23]

Modern Gujarati (AD 1800 — ). A major phonological change was the deletion of final ə's, such that the modern language has consonant-final words. Grammatically, a new plural marker of -o developed.[23] In literature, the third quarter of the 19th century saw a series of milestones for Gujarati, which previously had had verse as its dominant mode of literary composition.[25]

  • printing arrived in 1812, the first printed book in 1815.[22]
  • 1822, first Gujarati newspaper, Mumbai Samachar, the oldest surviving newspaper in India still in circulation.[22]
  • 1840s, personal diary composition; Nityanondh, Durgaram Mahetaji.
  • 1851, first essay; Maniaḷī Maḷvāthi thātā Lābh, Narmadashankar Lalshankar Dave.
  • 1866, first novel; Karaṇ Ghelo, Nandashankar Mehta.[22]
  • 1866, first social novel, Sasu Vahu ni Ladai, Mahipatram[22]
  • 1866, first autobiography; Mārī Hakīkat, Narmadashankar Lalshankar Dave.

Demographics and distribution[edit]

Map of Gujarat
India Square, Jersey City, New Jersey, USA. Gujarati has achieved high linguistic prominence in many urban districts worldwide, including the New York City Metropolitan Area.

Of the approximately 46 million speakers of Gujarati in 1997, roughly 45.5 million resided in India, 150,000 in Uganda, 250,000 in Tanzania, 50,000 in Kenya and roughly 100,000 in Karachi, Pakistan, excluding several hundreds of thousands of Memonis who do not self-identify as Gujarati.[10] There is a certain amount of Mauritian population and a large amount of Réunion Island people who are from Gujarati descent among which some of them still speak Gujarati.

A considerable Gujarati-speaking population exists in North America, most particularly in the New York City Metropolitan Area and in the Greater Toronto Area, which have over 100,000 speakers and over 75,000 speakers, respectively, but also throughout the major metropolitan areas of the United States and Canada. According to the 2011 census, Gujarati is the seventeenth most spoken language in the Greater Toronto Area, and the fourth most spoken South Asian language after Urdu, Punjabi and Tamil. The UK has 200,000 speakers, many of them situated in the London area, but also in Birmingham, Manchester, and in Leicester, Coventry, Bradford and the former mill towns within Lancashire. A portion of these numbers consists of East African Gujaratis who, under increasing discrimination and policies of Africanisation in their newly independent resident countries (especially Uganda, where Idi Amin expelled 50,000 Asians), were left with uncertain futures and citizenships. Most, with British passports, settled in the UK.[8][26] Gujarati is offered as a GCSE subject for students in the UK.

Besides being spoken by the Gujarati people, non-Gujarati residents of and migrants to the state of Gujarat also count as speakers, among them the Kutchis (as a literary language),[8] the Parsis (adopted as a mother tongue), and Hindu Sindhi refugees from Pakistan. A distribution of the geographical area can be found in 'Linguistic Survey of India' by George A. Grierson.

Official status[edit]

Gujarati is one of the twenty-two official languages and fourteen regional languages of India. It is officially recognized in the state of Gujarat, India.

Dialects[edit]

A book extract written in Parsi Gujarati, in or before 1892. It is about Englishmen who speak French.[27]

Ethnologue lists the following dialects:[10]

  • Gamadia (Ahmedabad, Vadodari)
  • Kakari
  • Kathiyawadi (Saurastra)
  • Kharwa
  • Parsi
  • Standard Gujarati
  • Tarimuki
  • Surati (South Gujarat)

Major dialects[edit]

In A simplified grammar of the Gujarati language (1892) by William Tisdall, major dialects of Gujarati are mentioned. These are explained below.

Hindu Gujarati[edit]

Ahmedabad School, Notice Board Gujarati letters

Hindu Gujarati, adopted by the Government as standard, is taught in schools.

Parsi Gujarati[edit]

Parsi Gujarati, the language as spoken and written by the Zoroastrian Parsis. This differs from ordinary Gujarati in that it admits pure Persian words in considerable numbers, especially in connection with religious matters, besides a host of Arabic and other words taken from the Persian language.

Diasporic dialects of Gujarati[edit]

Words used by the native languages of areas where the Gujarati people have become a diaspora community, such as East Africa (Swahili) which they migrated to, have become loanwords in local dialects of Gujarati.[28]

Closely related languages[edit]

Main article: Gujarati languages

Kutchi, also known as Khojki, is often referred to as a dialect of Gujarati, but most linguists consider it closer to Sindhi. In addition, a mixture between Sindhi, Gujarati, and Kutchi called Memoni is related to Gujarati, albeit distantly.[citation needed].

Phonology[edit]

Main article: Gujarati phonology
Vowels
Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e o
ɛ ə ɔ
Open ɑ
Consonants
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental/
Alveolar
Retroflex Post-alv./
Palatal
Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɳ
Plosive p
b

t̪ʰ

d̪ʱ
ʈ
ʈʰ
ɖ
ɖʱ
k
ɡ
ɡʱ
Affricate
tʃʰ

dʒʱ
Fricative s ʃ ɦ
Tap or Flap ɾ
Approximant ʋ l [29] j

Writing system[edit]

Similar to other Nāgarī writing systems, the Gujarati script is an abugida. It is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages. It is a variant of Devanāgarī script differentiated by the loss of the characteristic horizontal line running above the letters and by a small number of modifications in the remaining characters.

Gujarati and closely related languages, including Kutchi, can be written in the Arabic or Persian scripts. This is traditionally done by many in Gujarat's Kutch district.

Vocabulary[edit]

Categorisation and sources[edit]

These are the three general categories of words in modern Indo-Aryan: tatsam, tadbhav, and loanwords.[30]

Tadbhav[edit]

તદ્ભવ tadbhava, "of the nature of that". Gujarati is a modern Indo-Aryan language descended from Sanskrit (old Indo-Aryan), and this category pertains exactly to that: words of Sanskritic origin that have demonstratively undergone change over the ages, ending up characteristic of modern Indo-Aryan languages specifically as well as in general. Thus the "that" in "of the nature of that" refers to Sanskrit. They tend to be non-technical, everyday, crucial words; part of the spoken vernacular. Below is a table of a few Gujarati tadbhav words and their Old Indo-Aryan sources:

Old Indo-Aryan Gujarati Ref
I aham [31]
falls, slips khasati khasvũ to move [32]
causes to move arpayati āpvũ to give [33]
school nayaśālā niśāḷ [34]
attains to, obtains prāpnoti pāmvũ [35]
tiger vyāghra vāgh [36]
equal, alike, level sama samũ right, sound [37]
all sarva sau [38]

Tatsam[edit]

તત્સમ tatsama, "same as that". While Sanskrit eventually stopped being spoken vernacularly, in that it changed into Middle Indo-Aryan, it was nonetheless standardized and retained as a literary and liturgical language for long after. This category consists of these borrowed words of (more or less) pure Sanskrit character. They serve to enrich Gujarati and modern Indo-Aryan in its formal, technical, and religious vocabulary. They are recognizable by their Sanskrit inflections and markings; they are thus often treated as a separate grammatical category unto themselves.

Tatsam English Gujarati
lekhak writer lakhnār
vijetā winner jītnār
vikǎsit developed vikǎselũ
jāgǎraṇ awakening jāgvānũ

Many old tatsam words have changed their meanings or have had their meanings adopted for modern times. પ્રસારણ prasāraṇ means "spreading", but now it is used for "broadcasting". In addition to this are neologisms, often being calques. An example is telephone, which is Greek for "far talk", translated as દુરભાષ durbhāṣ. Though most people just use ફોન phon and thus neo-Sanskrit has varying degrees of acceptance.

So, while having unique tadbhav sets, modern IA languages have a common, higher tatsam pool. Also, tatsams and their derived tadbhavs can also co-exist in a language; sometimes of no consequence: dharma-dharam, other times with differences in meaning, with the former holding a "higher" one:

Tatsam Tadbhav
karma Work — Dharmic religious concept of works or deeds whose divine consequences are experienced in this life or the next. kām work [without any religious connotations].
kṣetra Field — Abstract sense, such as a field of knowledge or activity; khāngī kṣetra → private sector. Physical sense, but of higher or special importance; raṇǎkṣetra → battlefield. khetar field [in agricultural sense].

What remains are words of foreign origin (videśī), as well as words of local origin that cannot be pegged as belonging to any of the three prior categories (deśaj). The former consists mainly of Persian, Arabic, and English, with trace elements of Portuguese and Turkish. While the phenomenon of English loanwords is relatively new, Perso-Arabic has a longer history behind it. Both English and Perso-Arabic influences are quite nation-wide phenomena, in a way paralleling tatsam as a common vocabulary set or bank. What's more is how, beyond a transposition into general Indo-Aryan, the Perso-Arabic set has also been assimilated in a manner characteristic and relevant to the specific Indo-Aryan language it is being used in, bringing to mind tadbhav.

Perso-Arabic[edit]

India was ruled for many a century by Persian-speaking Muslims. As a consequence Indian languages were changed greatly, with the large scale entry of Persian and its many Arabic loans into the Gujarati lexicon. One fundamental adoption was Persian's conjunction "that", ke. Also, while tatsam or Sanskrit is etymologically continuous to Gujarati, it is essentially of a differing grammar (or language), and that in comparison while Perso-Arabic is etymologically foreign, it has been in certain instances and to varying degrees grammatically indigenized. Owing to centuries of situation and the end of Persian education and power, (1) Perso-Arabic loans are quite unlikely to be thought of or known as loans, and (2) more importantly, these loans have often been Gujarati-ized. dāvo - claim, fāydo - benefit, natījo - result, and hamlo - attack, all carry Gujarati's masculine gender marker, o. khānũ - compartment, has the neuter ũ. Aside from easy slotting with the auxiliary karvũ, a few words have made a complete transition of verbification: kabūlvũ - to admit (fault), kharīdvũ - to buy, kharǎcvũ - to spend (money), gujarvũ - to pass. The last three are definite part and parcel.

Below is a table displaying a number of these loans. Currently some of the etymologies are being referenced to an Urdu dictionary, so it should be noted that Gujarati's singular masculine o corresponds to Urdu ā, neuter ũ groups into ā as Urdu has no neuter gender, and Urdu's Persian z is not upheld in Gujarati and corresponds to j or jh. In contrast to modern Persian, the pronunciation of these loans into Gujarati and other Indo-Aryan languages, as well as that of Indian-recited Persian, seems to be in line with Persian spoken in Afghanistan and Central Asia, perhaps 500 years ago.[39]

NOUNS ADJECTIVES
MASC NEU FEM
fāydo gain, advantage, benefit A [40] khānũ compartment P [41] kharīdī purchase(s), shopping P [42] tājũ fresh P [43]
humlo attack A [44] makān house, building A [45] śardī common cold P [46] judũ different, separate P [47]
dāvo claim A [48] nasīb luck A [49] bāju side P [50] najīk near P [51]
natījo result, outcome A [52] śaher city P [53] cījh thing P [54] kharāb bad A [55]
gusso anger P [56] medān plain P [57] jindgī life P [58] lāl red P [59]

Lastly, Persian, being part of the Indo-Iranian language family as Sanskrit and Gujarati are, met up in some instances with its cognates:[60]

Persian INDO-ARYAN English
marǎd martya man, mortal
stān sthān place, land
ī īya (adjectival suffix)
band bandh closed, fastened

Zoroastrian Persian refugees known as Parsis also speak an accordingly Persianized form of Gujarati.[61]

English[edit]

śrī sarasvatī fruṭ jyuś sɛnṭar - "Shri Saraswati fruit juice Centre". Note that "Fruit Juice Centre" is in English. A Gujarati alternative would be phaḷnā ras nu kendra. It (kendra in particular) would however sound quite pedantic and out of place.

With the end of Perso-Arabic inflow, English became the current foreign source of new vocabulary. English had and continues to have a considerable influence over Indian languages. Loanwords include new innovations and concepts, first introduced directly through British colonialism, and then streaming in on the basis of continued Anglosphere dominance in the post-colonial period. Besides the category of new ideas is the category of English words that already have Gujarati counterparts which end up replaced or existed alongside with. The major driving force behind this latter category has to be the continuing role of English in modern India as a language of education, prestige, and mobility. In this way, Indian speech can be sprinkled with English words and expressions, even switches to whole sentences.[62] See Hinglish, Code-switching.

In matters of sound, English alveolar consonants map as retroflexes rather than dentals. Two new characters were created in Gujarati to represent English /æ/'s and /ɔ/'s. Levels of Gujarati-ization in sound vary. Some words don't go far beyond this basic transpositional rule, and sound much like their English source, while others differ in ways, one of those ways being the carrying of dentals. See Indian English.

As English loanwards are a relatively new phenomenon, they adhere to English grammar, as tatsam words adhere to Sanskrit. Though that isn't to say that the most basic changes have been underway: many English words are pluralized with Gujarati o over English "s". Also, with Gujarati having 3 genders, genderless English words must take one. Though often inexplicable, gender assignment may follow the same basis as it is expressed in Gujarati: vowel type, and the nature of word meaning.

bâṅk bank phon phone ṭebal table bas bus rabbar rubber (eraser) ṭorc torch dôkṭar doctor (physician) rasīd receipt
helo
halo
hālo
hello hôspiṭal
aspitāl
ispitāl
hospital sṭeśan
ṭeśan
train station sāykal (bi)cycle rum room āis krīm ice cream rôbaṭ robot ṭāym time
aṅkal1 uncle āṇṭī1 auntie pākīṭ wallet kavar envelope noṭ banknote skūl school ṭyuśan tuition esī AC (air conditioning)
minaṭ
miniṭ
minute ṭikiṭ
ṭikaṭ
ticket sleṭ slate hoṭal hotel pārṭī political party ṭren train kalekṭar district collector reḍīyo radio
  • 1 These English forms are often used (prominently by NRIs) for those family friends and elders that aren't actually uncles and aunts but are of the age.

Portuguese[edit]

The smaller foothold the Portuguese had in wider India had linguistic effects. Gujarati took up a number of words, while elsewhere the influence was great enough to the extent that creole languages came to be (see Portuguese India, Portuguese-based creole languages in India and Sri Lanka). Comparatively, the impact of Portuguese has been greater on coastal languages[63] and their loans tend to be closer to the Portuguese originals.[64] The source dialect of these loans imparts an earlier pronunciation of ch as an affricate instead of the current standard of [ʃ].[39]

Gujarati Meaning Portuguese
istrī iron (ing) estirar1
mistrī2 carpenter mestre3
sābu soap sabão (from Arabic sābun)
chāvī key chave
tamāku tobacco tobaco
kobī cabbage couve
kāju cashew caju
pāũ bread pão
baṭāko potato batata
anānas pineapple ananás
pādrī father (in Catholicism) padre
aṅgrej(ī) English (not specifically the language) inglês
nātāl Christmas natal
1 "Lengthen".
2 Common occupational surname.
3 "Master".

Loans into English[edit]

Bungalow

Coolie

Tank

Grammar[edit]

Main article: Gujarati grammar

Gujarati is a head-final, or left-branching language. Adjectives precede nouns, direct objects come before verbs, and there are postpositions. The word order of Gujarati is SOV, and there are three genders and two numbers. There are no definite or indefinite articles. A verb is expressed with its verbal root followed by suffixes marking aspect and agreement in what is called a main form, with a possible proceeding auxiliary form derived from to be, marking tense and mood, and also showing agreement. Causatives (up to double) and passives have morphological basis'.[68]

Sample text[edit]

Gujarati sample (Sign about Gandhi's hut)
Gujarati script
ગાંધીજીની ઝૂંપડી-કરાડી
જગ પ્રસિદ્ધ દાંડી કૂચ પછી ગાંધીજીએ અહીં આંબાના વૃક્ષ નીચે ખજૂરી નાં છટિયાંની એક ઝૂંપડીમાં તા.૧૪-૪-૧૯૩૦ થી તા.૪-૫-૧૯૩૦ સુધી નિવાસ કર્યો હતો. દાંડીમાં છઠ્ઠી એપ્રિલે શરૂ કરેલી નિમક કાનૂન (મીઠાના સત્યાગ્રહ) ભંગની લડતને તેમણે અહીંથી વેગ આપી દેશ વ્યાપી બનાવી હતી. અહીંથી જ તેમણે ધરાસણાના મીઠાના અગરો તરફ કૂચ કરવાનો પોતાનો સંકલ્પ બ્રિટિશ વાઈસરૉયને પત્ર લખીને જણાવ્યો હતો.
તા.૪થી મે ૧૯૩૦ની રાતના બાર વાગ્યા પછી આ સ્થળેથી બ્રિટિશ સરકારે તેમની ધરપકડ કરી હતી.
Devanagari script -
गांधीजीनी झूंपडी-कराडी
जग प्रसिद्ध दांडी कूच पछी गांधीजीए अहीं आंबाना वृक्ष नीचे खजूरीनां छटियांनी एक झूंपडीमां ता.१४-४-१९३०थी ता.४-५-१९३० सुधी निवास कर्यो हतो. दांडीमां छठ्ठी एप्रिले शरू करेली निमक कानून भंगनी लडतने तेमणे अहींथी वेग आपी देश व्यापी बनावी हती. अहींथीज तेमणे धरासणाना मीठाना अगरो तरफ कूच करवानो पोतानो संकल्प ब्रिटिश वाईसरॉयने पत्र लखीने जणाव्यो हतो.
ता.४थी मे १९३०नी रातना बार वाग्या पछी आ स्थळेथी ब्रिटिश सरकारे तेमनी धरपकड करी हती.
Transliteration
gāndhījīnī jhū̃pṛī-Karāṛī
jag prasiddh dāṇḍī kūch pachhī gāndhījīe ahī̃ āmbānā vrukṣh nīche khajūrī nā̃ chaṭiyā̃nī ek jhū̃pṛīmā̃ tā.14-4-1930 thī tā.4-5-1930 sudhī nivās karyo hato. dāṇḍīmā̃ chaṭhṭhī april e śharū karelī nimak kānūn bhaṅgnī laṛatne temṇe ahī̃thī veg āpī deśh vyāpī banāvī hatī. ahī̃thīj temṇe dharāsaṇānā mīṭhānā agaro taraph kūch karvāno potāno saṅkalp briṭiśh vāīsarôyne patra lakhīne jaṇāvyo hato.
tā.4thī me 1930nī rātnā bār vāgyā pachī ā sthaḷethī briṭiśh sarkāre temnī dharpakaṛ karī hatī.
Transcription (IPA) —
ɡɑn̪d̪ʱid͡ʒini d͡ʒʱũpɽi-kəɾɑɽi
d͡ʒəɡ pɾəsɪd̪d̪ʱ ɖɑɳɖi kut͡ʃ pət͡ʃʰi ɡɑn̪d̪ʱid͡ʒie ə̤ȷ̃ ɑmbɑnɑ ʋɾʊkʃ nit͡ʃe kʰəd͡ʒuɾnɑ̃ t͡ʃʰəʈijɑ̃ni ek d͡ʒʱũpɽimɑ̃ t̪ɑ _________t̪ʰi t̪ɑ._______ sud̪ʱi niʋɑs kəɾjot̪o. ɖɑɳɖimɑ̃ t͡ʃʰəʈʰʈʰi epɾile ʃəɾu kəɾeli nimək kɑnun bʱəŋɡni ləɽət̪ne t̪ɛmɳe ə̤ȷ̃t̪ʰi ʋeɡ ɑpi deʃ ʋjɑpi bənɑʋit̪i. ə̤ȷ̃t̪ʰid͡ʒ t̪ɛmɳe d̪ʱəɾɑsəɽ̃ɑnɑ miʈʰɑnɑ əɡəɾo t̪əɾəf kut͡ʃ kəɾʋɑno pot̪ɑno səŋkəlp bɾiʈiʃ ʋɑjsəɾɔjne pət̪ɾə ləkʰine d͡ʒəɽ̃ɑʋjot̪o.
t̪ɑ.__t̪ʰi me ____ni ɾɑt̪nɑ bɑɾ ʋɑɡjɑ pət͡ʃʰi ɑ st̪ʰəɭet̪ʰi bɾiʈiʃ səɾkɑɾe t̪ɛmni d̪ʱəɾpəkəɽ kəɾit̪i.
Simple gloss
gandhiji's hut-karadi
world famous dandi march after gandhiji here mango's tree under palm date's bark's one hut-in date.14-4-1930-from date.4-5-1930 until residence done was. dandi-in sixth april-at started done salt law break's fight (-to) he here-from speed gave country wide made was. here-from he dharasana's salt's mounds towards march doing's self's resolve british viceroy-to letter written-having notified was.
date.4-from May 1930's night's twelve struck after this place-at-from British government his arrest done was.
Transliteration and detailed gloss —
gāndhījī-n-ī jhū̃pṛ-ī-Ø Karāṛī
gandhiji–GEN–FEM hut–FEM–SG karadi
jag prasiddh dāṇḍī kūc pachī gāndhījī-e ahī̃ āmb-ā-Ø-n-ā vṛkṣ nīce
world famous dandi march after gandhiji–ERG here mango–MASC.OBL–SG–GEN–MASC.OBL tree under
khajūr-ī-Ø-n-ā̃ chaṭiy-ā̃-n-ī ek jhū̃pṛ-ī-Ø-mā̃ tā. 14 4 1930thī tā. 4 5 1930 sudhī
palmdate–FEM–SG–GEN–NEUT.OBL bark–NEUT.PL.OBL–GEN–FEM.OBL one hut–FEM–SG–in date 14 4 1930from date until
nivās kar-y-o ha-t-o . dāṇḍī-mā̃ chaṭhṭhī epril-e śarū kar-el-ī nimak
residence.MASC.SG.OBJ.NOM do–PERF–MASC.SG be–PAST–MASC.SG dandi–in sixth April–at started do–PAST.PTCP–FEM salt
kānūn bhaṅg-n-ī laṛat-Ø-ne te-m-ṇe ahī̃-thī veg āp-ī deś vyāpī
law break–GEN–FEM.OBL fight.FEM.OBJ–SG–ACC 3.DIST–HONORIFIC–ERG here–from speed–OBJ give–CONJUNCTIVE country wide
ban-āv-Ø-ī ha-t-ī . ahī̃-thī-j te-m-ṇe dharāsaṇā-n-ā
become–CAUS–PERF–FEM be–PAST–FEM here–from–INTENSIFIER 3.DIST–HONORIFIC–ERG dharasana–GEN–MASC.PL
mīṭh-ā-n-ā agar-o taraph kūc kar-v-ā-n-o potā-n-o
salt–NEUT.SG.OBL–GEN–MASC.PL mound.MASC–PL towards march.MASC.SG do–INF–OBL–GEN–MASC.SG REFL–GEN–MASC.SG
saṅkalp briṭiś vāīsarôy-Ø-ne patra lakh-īne jaṇ-āv-y-o ha-t-o . tā.
resolve.MASC.SG.OBJ.ACC British viceroy.OBJ–SG–DAT letter write–CONJUNCTIVE know–CAUS–PERF–MASC.SG be–PAST–MASC.SG date
4-thī me 1930-n-ī rāt-Ø-n-ā bār vāg-y-ā pachī ā sthaḷ-e-thī briṭiś
4-th may 1930–GEN–FEM.OBL night.FEM–SG–GEN–MASC.OBL twelve strike–PERF–OBL after 3.PROX place–at–from British
sarkār-e te-m-n-ī dharpakaṛ kar-Ø-ī ha-t-ī .
government–ERG 3.DIST–HONORIFIC–GEN–FEM arrest.FEM.SG.OBJ.ACC do–PERF–FEM be–PAST–FEM
Translation
Gandhiji's hut-Karadi
After the world-famous Dandi March Gandhiji resided here in a date palm bark hut underneath a/the mango tree, from 14-4-1930 to 4-5-1930. From here he gave speed to and spread country-wide the anti-Salt Law struggle, started in Dandi on 6 April. From here, writing in a letter, he notified the British Viceroy of his resolve of marching towards the salt mounds of Dharasana.
The British government arrested him at this location, after twelve o'clock on the night of 4 May 1930.

Translation (provided at location) —

Gandhiji's hut-Karadi
Here under the mango tree in the hut made of palm leaves (khajoori) Gandhiji stayed from 14-4-1930 to 4-5-1930 after the world famous Dandi march. From here he gave impetus to the civil disobedience movement for breaking the salt act started on 6 April at Dandi and turned it into a nationwide movement. It was also from this place that he wrote a letter to the British viceroy expressing his firm resolve to march to the salt works at Dharasana.
This is the place from where he was arrested by the British government after midnight on 4 May 1930.

Influence on other languages[edit]

As well as words taken by other languages, Gujarati may have exterted a large influence on Saurashtra, since it is the region of which they are named from and are speculated to have migrated from is a Gujarati speaking area; early Sinhala and Divehi speakers may have migrated from Gujarat; this is supported by a Gujarati contribution in their genetics.

Gujarati also has similarities to Konkani.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nationalencyklopedin "Världens 100 största språk 2007" The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007
  2. ^ Ernst Kausen, 2006. Die Klassifikation der indogermanischen Sprachen (Microsoft Word, 133 KB)
  3. ^ Dwyer 1995, p. 5
  4. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Gujarati". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  5. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh
  6. ^ WWT-Translation-services
  7. ^ Timeline: Personalities, Story of Pakistan. "Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948)". Retrieved 12 May 2007. 
  8. ^ a b c d Dalby 1998, p. 237
  9. ^ Mistry 1997, p. 654
  10. ^ a b c Gujarati language reference at Ethnologue (16th ed., 2009)
  11. ^ a b c d Mistry 2001, pp. 274
  12. ^ a b c Mistry 2003, p. 115
  13. ^ Mistry 1997, pp. 654–655
  14. ^ Mistry 1997, p. 655
  15. ^ Turner 1966, p. 811. Entry 14024.
  16. ^ Turner 1966, p. 760. Entry 13139.
  17. ^ Turner 1966, p. 41. Entry 941.
  18. ^ Turner 1966, p. 766. Entry 13271.
  19. ^ Ajay Mitra Shastri; R. K. Sharma, Devendra Handa (2005), Revealing India's past: recent trends in art and archaeology, Aryan Books International, p. 227, ISBN 8173052875, "It is an established fact that during 10th-11th century.....Interestingly the language was known as the Gujjar Bhakha.." 
  20. ^ K. Ayyappapanicker (1997), Medieval Indian literature: an anthology, Volume 3, Sahitya Akademi, p. 91, ISBN 9788126003655 
  21. ^ Smith, J.D. (2001) "Rajasthani." Facts about the world's languages: An encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present. Ed. Jane Garry, and Carl Rubino: New England Publishing Associates. pp. 591-593.
  22. ^ a b c d e Rita Kothari (8 April 2014). Translating India. Routledge. pp. 73–74. ISBN 978-1-317-64216-9. Retrieved 5 August 2014. 
  23. ^ a b c d e Cardona & Suthar 2003, p. 661
  24. ^ Mistry 2003, pp. 115–116
  25. ^ Yashaschandra, S. (1995) "Towards Hind Svaraj: An Interpretation of the Rise of Prose in 19th-century Gujarati Literature." Social Scientist. Vol. 23, No. 10/12. pp. 41-55.
  26. ^ Dwyer 1995, p. 273
  27. ^ Tisdall 1892, p. 148
  28. ^ Ogilvie, Sarah (2009), "Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World", in Keith Brown, Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World (1st ed.) (Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier), ISBN 9780080877754 
  29. ^ Masica (1991:97)
  30. ^ Snell, R. (2000) Teach Yourself Beginner's Hindi Script. Hodder & Stoughton. pp. 83-86.
  31. ^ Turner 1966, p. 44. Entry 992.
  32. ^ Turner 1966, p. 203. Entry 3856.
  33. ^ Turner 1966, p. 30. Entry 684.
  34. ^ Turner 1966, p. 401. Entry 6969.
  35. ^ Turner 1966, p. 502. Entry 8947.
  36. ^ Turner 1966, p. 706. Entry 12193.
  37. ^ Turner 1966, p. 762. Entry 13173.
  38. ^ Turner 1966, p. 766. Entry 13276.
  39. ^ a b Masica 1991, p. 75
  40. ^ Platts 1884, p. 776
  41. ^ Platts 1884, p. 486
  42. ^ Platts 1884, p. 489
  43. ^ Platts 1884, p. 305
  44. ^ Tisdall 1892, p. 168
  45. ^ Platts 1884, p. 1057
  46. ^ Platts 1884, p. 653
  47. ^ Tisdall 1892, p. 170
  48. ^ Platts 1884, p. 519
  49. ^ Platts 1884, p. 1142
  50. ^ Tisdall 1892, p. 160
  51. ^ Tisdall 1892, p. 177
  52. ^ Platts 1884, p. 1123
  53. ^ Tisdall 1892, p. 184
  54. ^ Platts 1884, p. 471
  55. ^ Tisdall 1892, p. 172
  56. ^ Platts 1884, p. 771
  57. ^ Tisdall 1892, p. 175
  58. ^ Tisdall 1892, p. 169
  59. ^ Platts 1884, p. 947
  60. ^ Masica 1991, p. 71
  61. ^ Tisdall 1892, p. 15
  62. ^ Masica 1991, pp. 49–50
  63. ^ Masica 1991, p. 49
  64. ^ Masica 1991, p. 73
  65. ^ Bungalow. Online Etymology Dictionary.
  66. ^ Coolie. Online Etymology Dictionary.
  67. ^ Tank. Online Etymology Dictionary.
  68. ^ Mistry 2001, pp. 276–277

Bibliography[edit]

Dictionaries[edit]

Grammars[edit]

Courses[edit]

  • Dave, Jagdish (1995), Colloquial Gujarati (2004 ed.), Routledge, ISBN 0-415-09196-9 .
  • Gujarati Literary Academy UK (1985), Text Books 1 to 5 (1985 ed.), Navabharat Sahitya Mandir Mumbai .
  • Dwyer, Rachel (1995), Teach Yourself Gujarati, London: Hodder and Stoughton .
  • Lambert, H.M. (1971), Gujarati Language Course, Cambridge University Press .

Phonology[edit]

Overviews[edit]

  • Cardona, George; Suthar, Babu (2003), "Gujarati", in Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5 .
  • Dalby, Andrew (1998), "Gujarati", Dictionary of languages: the definitive reference to more than 400 languages, New York: Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-11568-7 .
  • Mistry, P.J. (2003), "Gujarati", in Frawley, William, International Encyclopedia of Linguistics 2 (2nd ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press .
  • Mistry, P.J. (2001), "Gujarati", in Garry, Jane; Rubino, Carl, An encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present, New England Publishing Associates .

Old Gujarati[edit]

Other[edit]

  • Gajendragadkar, S.N. (1972), Parsi Gujarati, Bombay: University of Bombay .
  • Masica, Colin (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2 .
  • Mistry, P.J. (1996), "Gujarati Writing", in Daniels; Bright, The World's Writing Systems, Oxford University Press .

External links[edit]