Gulf of Mannar
|Gulf of Mannar|
|Basin countries||India, Sri Lanka|
|Max. length||160 km (99 mi)|
|Max. width||130–275 km (81–171 mi)|
|Average depth||1,335 m (4,380 ft)|
The Gulf of Mannar (Tamil: மன்னார் வளைகுடா) (Sinhala: මන්නාරමි බොක්ක is a large shallow bay forming part of the Laccadive Sea in the Indian Ocean. It lies between the southeastern tip of India and the west coast of Sri Lanka. A chain of low islands and reefs known as Adam's Bridge, also called Ramsethu, which includes Mannar Island, separates the Gulf of Mannar from Palk Bay, which lies to the north between India and Sri Lanka. The estuaries of Thamirabarani River of south India and the Malvathu Oya (Malvathu River) of Sri Lanka drain into the Gulf.
Located on the southeastern tip of the subcontinent, the Gulf of Mannar is known to harbour over 3,600 species of flora and fauna, making it one of the richest coastal regions in Asia. 117 hard coral species have been recorded in the Gulf of Mannar. Sea turtles are frequent visitors to the gulf as are sharks, dugongs, and dolphins. However, the combined effects of 47 villages, with a total population of around 50,000 has meant that overharvesting of marine species has become a problem. Fish catches have declined, as have pearl oyster, gorgonian coral, and acorn worm populations. Local fishermen rely on the reef to feed their families, but destructive fishing methods combined with the stress of pollution and coral mining have meant both nearshore and offshore catches have decreased. Endangered species include dolphins, dugongs, whales and sea cucumbers.
In 1986, a group of 21 islets lying off the Tamil Nadu coast between Thoothukudi and Dhanushkodi were declared the Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park. The park and its 10 km buffer zone were declared a Biosphere Reserve in 1989.
The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve covers an area of 10,500 km² of ocean, islands and the adjoining coastline. The islets and coastal buffer zone includes beaches, estuaries, and tropical dry broadleaf forests, while the marine environments include seaweed communities, sea grass communities, coral reefs, salt marshes and mangrove forests.
The Gulf of Mannar is known for its pearl banks of Pinctada radiata and Pinctada fucata for at least two thousand years. Pliny the Elder (23–79) praised the pearl fishery of the gulf as most productive in the world. Although extraction of natural pearls is considered too expensive in most parts of the world, it is still conducted in the gulf.
The chief seaports on the Gulf of Mannar are Thoothukudi (Tuticorin) in Tamil Nadu, and Colombo in Sri Lanka. While these ports can accommodate deep-draft vessels, the shallow Palk Strait can only accommodate small shallow-draft vessels. In July 2005, the Indian Government took preliminary steps to go ahead with the Sethusamudram Shipping Canal Project, which would create a deep channel linking the Gulf of Mannar to the Bay of Bengal. Project boosters emphasize the benefits of a direct shipping route that connects India's east and west coasts without the long trip around Sri Lanka; environmentalists have warned against the grave damage such a project could cause to the sea life and fisheries of the Palk Strait and the Gulf.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gulf of Mannar.|
- J. Sacratees, R. Karthigarani (2008). Environment impact assessment. APH Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 81-313-0407-8.
- Gulf of Mannar, Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian)
- Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri. (1979). South India and South-East Asia: studies in their history and culture. Geetha Book House.
- UNDP Project brief: "Conservation and Sustainable-use of the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve's Coastal Biodiversity", New York, 1994 UNDP Project Brief
- R. Raghu Prasad and P. V. Ramachandran Nair (1973). "India and the Indian Ocean Fisheries". Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India 15: 1–19.
- Arnold Wright (1999). Twentieth century impressions of Ceylon: its history, people, commerce, industries, and resources. p. 227. ISBN 81-206-1335-X.
- James Hornell (2009). The Indian Pearl Fisheries of the Gulf of Manar and Palk Bay. BiblioBazaar. p. 6. ISBN 1-110-87096-5.
- Michael O'Donoghue (2006). Gems: their sources, descriptions and identification. Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 566. ISBN 0-7506-5856-8.