Gumnaam Vikramaditya

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गुमनाम विक्रमादित्य
Original title Gumnaam Vikramaditya
Country India
Language Hindi
Genre Khandakavya (Minor Poem)
Publisher Aseem Publication, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh,
Publication date
December 2011
Media type Print (Hardcover)
Pages 136 pp (first edition)
ISBN 978-81-922655-1-3

Gumnaam Vikramaditya (Hindi: गुमनाम विक्रमादित्य) (2011), literally Unknown Vikramaditya, is a historical Hindi minor poem (Khandakavya) composed by Prem Nirmal (born 1938), former Hindi lecturer of SSV Inter College Hapur. The work is divided in 7 cantos (Sargas) and verses are composed in the Doha and free metre.

The protagonist of the poem is Hemu Vikramaditya (also known as Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, Hemu Bakkal) (1501–6 November 1556), last Hindu emperor of India, who re-established Hindu Kingdom in North India after over 350 years of foreign rule. But due to the prejudicial writing of Indian history by pro-Mughal historians, his achievements were belittled during the glorification of Mughal rulers and hence he remained unknown.

The poem brings Hemu's patriotism, prowess and mettle to fore portraying the major events of his life including the battles with Afghan rebels and Mughal army, his coronation (rajyabhishek) on the throne of Delhi, his unfortunate defeat in Second Battle of Panipat and his brutal decapitation by Bairam Khan.

A copy of the poem was published by Aseem Publication, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh. The book was released in December 2011.

Narrative[edit]

Sources[edit]

For depicting the true incidents concerning the life of Hemu, the poet has minutely examined the works of many historians.

Hemu's Caste[edit]

Though, the caste of Hemu is still disputable, some claiming him Vaishya Bania and others as Brahmin and Jat, the poet has presented him as Vaishya in this poem. For justifying his point, he has cited the references of well-known historians.

  1. Ishwari Prasad has called Hemu in The history of India (Hindi), an ordinary bania of Rewari, Mewat.[1]
  2. Ashirbadi Lal Srivastava has written in The history of India that Hemu was born in the clan of Dhusar Vaishya and would sell salt.[2] Dhusar is a cast of Bania according to a dictionary Nalanda Vishal Shabad Sagar (Hindi: नालन्दा विशाल शब्द सागर).[3]
  3. KK Bhardwaj writes in Hemu: Napoleon of medieval India [4] and Hemu- A forgotten Hero of Indian History,[5] that Hemu was born at Qutabpur near Rewari into Dhusar Vaishya or Baniya family.
  4. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar has written in "Himu-A forgotten Hindu" in the appendix of 'The Mughul Empire' that Hemu was born in the dhansar section of bania caste.[6]
  5. Indo-Persian historian Abd-ul-Qadir Bada'uni has called Hemu a baniya bakkala (Bakkal i.e. merchant in Persian language) in his Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh (Selection of Chronicles) or Tarikh-i-Bada'uni (Bada'uni's History) written in 1595.
  6. British historian Vincent Arthur Smith has called Hemu a clever Hindu baniya of Mewat in The Oxford Student's History Of India[7] and a trader or Baniya by birth in The Oxford History Of India[8]
  7. John F Richards has termed Hemu a Hindu Vaishya or member of literate mercantile caste in his historical work The New Cambridge History of India, The Mughal Emperor [9]
  8. G.P.Tate calls Hemu Dhusar, a Hindu of the trading caste in his book The Kingdom of Afghanistan[10]
  9. N Nirakar says in his book Glorious Contribution of 'Backward Classes' to Hinduism and India, that Hemu was dhansar, a backward Hindu vaishya caste[11]
  10. Dr. Rameshwar Dayal Gupt, professor at Shambhu Dayal Post Graduate College, Ghaziabad has written in The history of Vaishya Community that Hemu was born in a Dhusar vaishya family, which was the follower of Vaishnavism. Due to foreigners' attack, the family left Agroha (the origin land of Agarwal) in 759, reached Rewari of Gurgaon district in Haryana and settled on a hill named Dhore Dhusri, hence was called as Dhussi or Dhusariya vaishya.[12]
  11. Novelist Kamal Shukl has mentioned Hemu as Bania in his historical novel Three wounds of Panipat (Hindi: पानीपत के तीन घाव).[13]
  12. Hemu is also claimed as Sarthavaha Vaishya and Rouniyar (Raun=battle, har=looser) Vaishya by the respective castes.[14] In 2008, Rouniyar Vaishya Sabha, Delhi had expressed protest against Ashutosh Gowariker's movie Jodhaa Akbar for turning a blind eye towards Hemu.[15]

The poet has also written in the introductory article "The Saga Emerged from the discrimination towards a patriot" (Hindi: एक देशभक्त की उपेक्षा से उपजी शौर्य-गाथा)[16] that Hemu was the descendant of Chandragupta Vikramaditya, who was also a vaishya. Hence, Hemu assumed the title of Vikramaditya.

Hemu's Rule[edit]

As per poet, the Hemu ruled on Delhi for 5 months 7 days, which is based upon the Indraprastha Prabandh, a Sanskrit work composed in the 18th century, which mentions the name of all Delhi rulers since Yudhisthira of Mahabharata period.[17]

Hemu's social environment[edit]

The events related to foreign invaders are profusely available in many historical works and these have been meticulously mentioned by poet making this poem a chronicle of 16th century medieval India.

Use of imagination[edit]

Some portions are the original compositions of poet, which include Hemu's dialogue with his wife Rajvati (Canto 2), Hemu's dream of Bharat Mata (Canto-5), mother Satyvati's aspiration to free country from the clutches of foreigners (Canto-5) and Hemu-Akbar dialogue (Canto-7).

Synopsis[edit]

The poet starts the work first invoking the blessings of Saraswati, Ganesha and Guru in manglacharan. He further sings the glory of Bharat Mata (Desh Vandna) and her true devotee Hemu (Hemu Vandna), principal character of this work. Then he starts narrating the plot of Hemu in 7 cantos, which are summarized as below.

1. First Canto: This canto presents the political scenario prevalent at the time of Hemu. It starts with the foundation of Mughal dynasty by Babur in 1526 ensuing slay of Afghan Ibrahim Lodi. After Babur's death in 1530, his 23-year-old son Humayun is coronated on Delhi kingdom. He partitions the won kingdoms including Kabul, Kandhar etc. to his three brothers.

But, he is defeated in 1540 in the battles of Chausa and Kannauj by Sher Shah Suri, an Afghan commander of the Lodis and loses Delhi kingdom. As, his three brothers don't support him, he has to take refuge in Amarkot, where Akbar is born. Akbar is brought up there, but ensuing the death of his mother after one year, he is sent to Kabul.

After capturing Delhi, Suri pursues Humayun and drives the Mughals out of India. Hence, Humayun has to flee to the refuge of Iran's king Shah Tahmasp. Bairam Khan also follows him. For taking the military support of Shah Tahmasp, Humayun becomes Shiya from Sunni and then attacks on Kabul and thus repossesses kingdom from his own brother.

2. Second Canto: This canto starts revealing the feuds among the descendants of Sher Shah Suri. After Sher Shah’s death in 1543, his son Islam Shah Suri ascended to the seat. After his death, Islam Shah’s 12 year old son Firuz Shah Suri succeeds to him. But, Firuz is killed by his maternal uncle Muhammad Adil Shah for usurping the throne. Just after becoming king in 1553, Adil Shah appoints Hemu as his Wazir (Prime Minister) as well as Military Chief. But Adil Shah doesn't prove a competent ruler because of his debauchery and neglecting his responsibilities.

Discontented with the murder of Firuz and indolence of Adil Shah, many Afghans including Ibrahim Shah Suri, Shamsuddin Muhammad Shah conspire to rebel against him. Witnessing this scenario, Hemu once returns his home with disappointed state-of-mind. To the query of his wife, he spills the beans and expresses sorrow over the passivity of Rajput and all other Hindu kings, who have not till now awaken to free Bharat Mata from the yoke of foreign aggressors and set up Hindu Kingdom.

Hemu's wife Rajvati inspires him not to do slavery of Afghans, who have occupied India. With the precepts of Bhagavad Gita, she exhorts upon her husband to struggle against both Mughals and Afghans for the freedom of Bharat Mata and re-establishing Hindu republic.

Suddenly, countrywide revolt amid Afghan governors erupts and they declare themselves the kings of various states refusing to comply with the order of Adil Shah. At this critical juncture, Hemu gets golden chance to prove his mettle by suppressing the rebellion. He commands Adil Shah’s army and fights several battles defeating each rebelling governor in various states.

In the meantime, Adil Sah shifts his capital to Chunar and Sikandar Shah Suri holds the command of Delhi.

3. Third Canto: Realizing the prevailing Afghan revolt and general anarchy, Humayun decides to take the advantage of this situation. He once again invades India and easily defeats Sikandar Suri. He is reinstated to the Delhi throne on 22 June 1555. He announces Akbar as his heir and appoints Bairam Khan as his guardian. But, Humayun enjoys this victory just for a short time span, as he slips while climbing down the steps of his library and dies on 26 January 1556. At this time, Hemu was in Bengal.

4. Fourth Canto: Subsequent to the death of Humayun, 13-year-old Akbar is enthroned as Delhi king in 1556. Afghans, Rajputs and Hemu decide to chase the Mughals out of India. Some Mughals also conspire to rebel for occupying Delhi throne. Sensing the situation, Mughals suggest Akbar to return to Kabul; however Bairam Khan rejects this proposal. At this time, Jizya tax was imposed upon Hindus and they were treated as Kafir. The northern India was struck with drought and agriculture was devastated from wars.

5. Fifth Canto: This canto takes center stage in the entire work, as it unfolds the thrilling events how Hemu, an ordinary man, who used to sell salt on the roads, succeeds in ascending to the throne of Delhi overpowering the fierce Mughal army. Though, Hemu's appointment as Wajir by Adil Suri and Hemu-Rajvati dialogue have already become the subject of Canto-2, the poet aptly pulls in all the scattered threads together in this very canto.

Hemu was born in 1501 in Rewari (Mewat) and his father Lala Puran Mal would supply saltpetre (for gunpowder) to Sher Shah’s army during Suri Empire. Hemu used to know Hindi, Urdu, Arabic and Arithmetic. He was a peddler of salt and was called as Hemu Lala.

However, it was the love towards Bharat Mata, rooted in the deepest core of his heart, which used to constantly propel Hemu to liberate her from the foreigner invaders. Once, Bharat Mata comes in the dreams of Hemu and urges him to take weapons in his hands for her freedom. On the advice of his mother Satyavati, Hemu decides to join the army. Recognizing his caliber, Sher Shah permits him into his army in 1523, where Hemu gets rigorous military training.

After Sher Shah, Islam Shah appoints Hemu as Market Superintendent (Persian word Shahang-i-Bazar). By dint of his hard work and daring spirit, he is soon promoted to the post of Chief of Intelligence (Daroga-i-Chowki).

When Adil Shah usurps Delhi throne, he makes Hemu as his Prime Minister and Military Chief. Befitting to his position, Hemu attains success in curbing Afghan revolt thus greatly strengthening his master Adil Shah.

However, when Adil Shah shifts to Chunar and Delhi is captured by Humayun ensuing the defeat of Sikandar Suri, Hemu starts cherishing the dream of setting up Hindu kingdom. After the death of Humayun, he finds this ideal opportunity and embarks upon his victory march. Hemu's name creates panic in the heart of Mughals and his army captures Agra without a fight. Then, he moves towards Delhi and fights battle in Tughlaqabad with Tardi Beg Khan, Governor of Delhi, who was sent by Mughal general Bairam Khan. But, Hemu also wins victory over him. It was Hemu's 22 consecutive victory in successive battles.

After capturing Delhi, Hemu concluded that in the scenario, when Bharat Mata is surrounded from all sides by foreigner aggressors, it would be better to rule Delhi on his own behalf instead of Adil Shah. Thus, Hemu ascended to Delhi throne in 1556 under the Hindu title of 'Raja Vikramaditya'. He was crowned as the emperor of India amid public rejoicing. On this occasion, Adil Shah sent him a splendid royal dress. The grand coronation ceremony was held at Old Fort (Purana Qila) of Delhi in the presence of numerous pundit of Varanasi and maulvis. It was attended by various Rajput chiefs as well as Afghan governors.

During his Hindu regime, Hemu revitalized the entire administration, rendered all the amenities to public. He also introduced coinage marked with his image.

6. Sixth Canto: Hemu's successive triumphs and coronation alarmed the Mughals. Several Mughal commanders including Tardi Beg, Ali Kuli Khan etc. again suggested Akbar to retreat to Kabul like his father Humayun and wait for an opportune moment to regain control over Delhi. However, Akbar's guardian Bairam Khan got infuriated on this proposal. He killed Tardi beg terming him of pusillanimous heart and accusing him of disheartening the Mughal army. He insisted on Akbar to fight with Hemu.

But, in fact, Bairam Khan was himself panic-struck and hence he and Akbar stayed back seven miles from the battlefield, so that they could rapidly flee to Kabul in case Mughal Army is routed in the war.

On the other hand, Hemu himself commanded his army from atop his elephant named Hawai. His military force consisted of 1 lakh warriors, 1500 war elephants with soldiers wielding guns, uncountable practiced horsemen and 51 canons.

On November 5, 1556, the historic field of Panipat witnessed the ferocious battle between the army of Hemu and Akbar. Showing his indomitable valiance and carrying the heart brimmed with love towards Bharat Mata; Hemu compelled the Mughals to turn their tails. But something else was destined to him. Suddenly, a stray arrow pierced his right eye. Without any delay, undeterred Hemu pulled the arrow out with his hands and again started crushing the army of enemies.

But, due to severe bleeding, Hemu collapsed unconscious in his hauda. Considering Hemu dead, his army lost heart and started to flee. No any commander could muster the courage to lead the army and thus an easy victory turned into a fateful defeat.

Unconscious Hemu is captured by Shah Qulin Khan and is brought in Akbar's camp. Akbar asks Khan to present Hemu tomorrow in his court.

7. Seventh Canto: Enfettered Hemu is brought in the court of Akbar. Seeing him, Bairam khan gets enraged and orders him to bow before Akbar. However, Hemu rejects his behest with dignity. On Akbar's question how to treat with him, Hemu responds with self-respect, as one king treats with another.

Bairam Khan advises Akbar to follow the tradition of his ancestors by getting the holy title of Ghazi through chopping the head of Hemu. He also reminds Akbar that his grandfather Babur was proud of his ancestry from Timur Lane, as Babur's father was a Turk. Babur was also a descendant of Chengiz Khan, as his mother was a Mongol.

While Akbar questions Hemu about his own idea, he intrepidly recites the lesson of Gita, which apparently declares the immortality of soul. Further, Hemu asks Akbar to unshackle him, so that he could drive out the Mughals up to Kabul.

For abiding by the order of his guardian and getting the title of Ghazi, Akbar smites his sabre on Hemu's head. Bairam Khan also steps ahead and beheads him. The chopped head of Hemu shouts out- Hail India (Jai Bharat). The remaining Mughals plung their swords and spears into the bleeding corpse of Hemu in Akbar’s presence. Hemu's head is sent to Kabul as a sign of victory and is hanged outside the Delhi Darwaza. His mutilated torso is hanged on a gibbet outside Purana Quila, Delhi, the place where he was coronated just 2 months ago.

After that, Pir Muhammad reaches Alwar and forces Hemu's father to convert to Islam. On his refusal, he also chops his head. Hemu's wife, who escaped form Delhi, is also caught by Mughals and killed plunging the swords.

Purposes of Gumnaam Vikramaditya[edit]

Exposure of foreign historians' discrimination towards Hemu[edit]

Prem Nirmal mentions in the introductory article "The Saga Emerged from the discrimination towards a patriot" (Hindi: एक देशभक्त की उपेक्षा से उपजी शौर्य-गाथा)[18] that foreign historians have characterized Hemu like an ordinary soldier ignoring his patriotism, valour and conscientiousness, consequently, he got little mention in the annals of India and remained an unknown.

In the prologue[19] of work, he further says that he chose Hemu as the subject of his minor poem, as he intended to raise the curtain, which was willingly drawn on his character by pro-Mughal and pseudo-secular historians.

Devanagari
इतिहासविदों ने पक्षपात
उसकी गाथा से किया सदा
गुणगान किया सब मुगलों का
लेकिन डाला उस पर परदा

Historians have invariably shown discrimination towards the saga of Hemu. They extolled all the Mughals whitewashing their atrocities, but drew curtain on the exclusive personality of Hemu.

In the Addendum (Parishisht) entitled "Prejudice of foreign historians" (Hindi: विदेशी इतिहासकरों का पक्षपात),[20] the poet again slams European and Medieval historians for eulogizing Mughal emperors and barely mentioning the important figures of India including Hemu.

Devanagari
बस झूठा ही इतिहास रचा
निरपेक्ष भला कब हो पाये
जो रहे हड़प्पू आक्रांता
उनको महान कहते आये
उपहास सदा करते आये
अपने हिन्दू राजाओं का
कब मान किया इतिहासों में
भारतवासी योद्धाओं का

The historians relying upon foreign theories intentionally falsified Indian history and remained unsuccessful in being unbiased. They kept on glorifying greedy invaders terming them greats and constantly bemocked Hindu emperors. When these historians have evinced honour, of which Indian warriors were deserved, while writing history?

The poet also hits at Indian government for paying no heed to this legendary warrior:[21]

Devanagari
भारत के शासक भी कैसे
जो तटस्थता की गाते हैं
बाबर-अकबर उनको भाये
कब हेमू-शिवा सुहाते हैं

How pseudo-seculars are the rulers of India, who sing the paeans of neutrality, shower their love upon Babur and Akbar, but scoff at Hindu warriors like Hemu and Shivaji.

The poet has also elucidated that it is groundless to term Hemu as betrayer. He says that if Hemu were victorious in the battle of Panipat (1556), then surely he would gain much recognition.

Instill patriotism through Hemu's characterization[edit]

In the prologue,[22] poet has clarified that the work aims to unveil the patriotism and matchless prowess of this unsung hero of Indian history, which have till now remained unknown to one and all.

He says in the introductory article "The Saga Emerged from the discrimination towards a patriot":[23] Nowadays, when the movies related to bandits like Phoolan devi and Veerappan are being shown to our new generations, then a question cropped up in my mind, how to recount the tale of martyrs of this nation to these children. This poetry, present before the new generation, is the reply to this question.

Dedicating this work to the children of India, the poet says:[24]

Devanagari
बच्चे मेरे बनें देश के, हेमू-से बलवान
आजादी की खुली हवा में निकलें सीना तान
मातृभूमि के देश-धर्म के रक्षक बनें महान
मिला न पायें जिनसे आँखें, चीन या पाकिस्तान
जिनकी गौरव-गाथा गाये, सारा हिन्दुस्तान

May the children of my country be powerful like Hemu...they walk with pride in the milieu of freedom, they become the great protector of their motherland and religion, whom China and Pakistan could not dare to challenge, whose glorious saga is sung by entire Hindustan.

A glimpse of Hemu's patriotism is clearly manifested in Canto 2, when he puts this question while talking with his wife:[25]

Devanagari
इस क्रूर विदेशी शासन का
क्या हो पायेगा अंत कभी
यदि उलझे रहे स्वार्थों में
इस भारत माँ के पूत सभी

Whether this brutal foreign regime will ever come to end, if the sons of Bharat Mata (Mother India) remain entangled in their selfish ends?

Poetic features[edit]

Rasas[edit]

Vira Rasa[edit]

Vira Rasa deals with the exhibition of heroism, adventure, self-confidence and determination. It is the principal rasa in this work and is displayed through the use of apt language in several contexts concerning with gallant fighter Hemu. Two notable examples of this rasa are presented below from Canto 5 and 6 respectively.[26]

Devanagari
फिर तो सूरी की सेना में
वह जहाँ लड़ा निर्भीक लड़ा
पर्वत समान वह अचल रहा
कर दिया जहाँ भी उसे खड़ा

Then, he (Hemu) fought each battle valorously being the soldier of Suri's force. He stood stable like the mountain, wherever he was stationed.

Devanagari
चिंघाड़ मारते जब रण में
हेमू के हाथी मतवाले
लगता था मानो अम्बर में
फिर गरज उठे बादल काले

When, the intemperate elephants of Hemu's military force would scream in the battle, it seemed as if dark clouds started thundering in the sky.

Vibhatsa Rasa[edit]

Vibhatsa Rasa evokes the emotions of disgust through the portrayal of sickening, coarse and perverted actions. One example of this rasa from Canto-6 is given below.[27]

Devanagari
उड़ गया चिथड़ा जल भुनकर
अंबर में स्याह धुआं छाया

Burnt and grilled shreds of soldiers' body parts flew in the air and dark fume prevailed all across the sky.

Shanta Rasa[edit]

Shanta Rasa calls forth the emotions of serenity and peace. One example of this rasa from Canto 1 is noteworthy here.[28]

Devanagari
यह सच है संकट में अपना
साया तक भी कतराता है
पुरुषार्थ आदमी का केवल
जीवन में साथ निभाता है

Verily, in perils, even one's own shadow edges away. It is alone one's toil, which eventually supports in the life.

Figures of Speech[edit]

The poet has not forcefully used figures of speech in this work; however these have entered spontaneously with the vigorous flow of emotions, lending a poetic appeal in various contexts.

Some remarkable examples of figures of speech used in Gumnaam Vikramaditya are given below.

Simile[edit]

A simile is a figure of speech that compares two objects through connective words, usually "like," "as," "than," or a verb "resembles". The work is interspersed with plethora of beautiful similes here and there. Two examples of simile, steeped with Vira Rasa are given here from Canto-6.[29]

Devanagari
मानो फिर से पानीपत में
ज्वालामुखियों ने मुँह खोले

As if, in the battleground of Panipat, again the volcanoes opened their craters.

Devanagari
थी खड़ग अजगरी मुगलों की
अफगानी नागिन-सी फैली

The python like sword of Mughals was sweeping across the battleground similar to a she-cobra.

Metaphor[edit]

A metaphor is a figure of speech, in which two objects are compared without using the connective words such as "like" or "as". Using the metaphor of sun shining in the sky, the poet describes about the popularity of Hindi poet Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana in the following verse of Canto 3[30] -

Devanagari
इस बैरम का बेटा रहीम
था सूफी संत उदारमना
जो हिन्दी-कविता के नभ में
जगमगा रहा दिनमान बना

Rahim, the son of this Bairam, was a generous-hearted Sufi saint, who is irradiating in the sky of Hindi poetry like a sun.

Another example of metaphor is found in this verse of Canto 2.[31]

Devanagari
यह भी सच है जीवन-पथ में
रोड़े-काँटे भी आते हैं

On the path of life, there veritably emerge numerous stones and thorns.

Personification[edit]

Personification is a figure of speech, in which inanimate object, animal or abstract quality is treated like a human. In the following verse of Canto 6, the historical battlefield of Panipat gives its introduction itself to the readers.[32]

Devanagari
मैं पानीपत भारत भू पर
स्वच्छंद बड़ा स्वाभिमानी
जग भर की दूर बलाओं से
जीवन जीता था मैदानी

I, Panipat, am independent and self-respecting on this land of India and led the life of being a field, distancing myself altogether from all mundane obstacles.

In this verse of Canto 6, the misfortune has been depicted as a human in the garb of a silent enemy.[33]

Devanagari
दुर्भाग्य किन्तु इस जीवन में
कब कहाँ बोलकर आता है
जब भी आता वह दबे पाँव
सब कुछ विनाश कर जाता है

But, misfortune never steps into this life after knocking door. Whenever it arrives, only at close heels and departs wrecking havoc upon one and all.

Onomatopoeia[edit]

Onomatopoeia is a figure of speech, in which a word phonetically imitates the sound of the object, mentioned in the poem. An example of Onomatopoeia used in Canto 6 is here, which emphasizes the ferocity of battle with the sounds of swords.[34]

Devanagari
फिर रक्त पिपासु असुरों के
खड़-खड़-खड़ खाण्डे खड़क उठे

Then, the swords of bloodthirsty devils suddenly started clanking.

Prosody[edit]

Each canto starts with a Doha meter, which is followed by free meters of four lines, each containing 16 matras. However, for fulfilling the requirements of narrative poem (Hindi: प्रबंध काव्य), the meter changes at the end of each canto, and doha replaces the free meter. The last doha of preceding canto is connected with the first doha of next canto, thus ensuring the smooth flow of plot.

But, poet has also composed verses in free metre without any restriction of matra in openings songs, which include Manglacharan, Desh Vandna and Hemu Vandna. In these verses, the feelings of poet's heart have flowed without any bond thus imparting them musicality. One striking example from Hemu Vandana is presented here.[35]

Devanagari
वह जिधर चला निर्भीक चला
वह अपनी लक्षित लीक चला
आँधी ही क्या तूफान प्रबल
हर कोई उससे सीख चला
बाईस युद्धों के महावीर
उस देशभक्त बलिदानी को
शत्-शत् प्रणाम
शत्-शत् प्रणाम
(हेमू-वन्दना)

Hundreds of hails to Hemu, the great warrior of twenty two battles, patriot and sacrificer, who wherever proceeded, dauntlessly marched, who valorously treaded upon his targeted tracks, even vigorous tempests, typhoons and one and all learned from him.

This sort of free meter has also gained space after the end of Canto-7 in the song- Hemu arrived, Hemu arrived. This song is sung by the jubilant public in those historical moments, when victorious Hemu enters Delhi under a royal canopy for his coronation, assuming the title of "Vikramaditya" and re-establishing the Hindu kingdom after 350 years of Islamic rule. One verse from this song is here.[36]

Devanagari
गलियाँ चहकीं, महके बजार, मंगल गीतों के वाद्य बजे
थी सजी देहली दुलहिन-सी, स्वागत में तोरण द्वार सजे
हेमू के विजयोत्सव का, कुछ रंग निराला ही छाया
लो शोर मच गया दिल्ली में, हेमू आया-हेमू आया

The alleys twittered (with the talks of Hemu's victory), markets smelled fragrantly (with flowers and scents), the musical instruments were played in the rhythms of auspicious songs. Delhi was embellished like a bride. The doors were adorned with festoons to extend warm welcome. The peculiar colours of Hemu's victory celebrations swept across the region. In each nook and corner of Delhi, only this noise reverberated- Hemu arrived, Hemu arrived.

According to Sanskrit literature, there are three word-powers, which include Abhidha (literal meaning), Lakshana (metaphoric or indicative meaning) and Vyanjana (suggested meaning). The work has been composed in Abhidha word-power in easily comprehensible vernacular language.

Philosophy[edit]

Verses related to philosophy are also found at many places in the poem. According to historical works, Hemu's father Lala Puran Mal was a staunch follower of Vallabha Sampradaya (also known as Pustimarga Sampradaya) established by Vallabhacharya of Vrindavan. Hence Hemu was brought up in a religious environment. Hemu's wife Rajvati was also well-versed in several Hindu scriptures.

Vallabha Sampradaya is based upon Shuddhadvaita (pure non-dualism) Philosophy and for supporting it, Vallabha considered only four scriptures as proofs (pramans) including Veda, Bhagavad Gita, Brahma Sutras, and Bhagavata Purana (Shrimad Bhagavatam)[37]

Gita being one of the four proofs, the protagonist and his wife of this poem are well-aware of its major principles, like the need to not worry over the past, worship of God through selfless service (Nishkam Karma), eternity of soul and the need to wield weapons against wicked.

While in Canto 2, Hemu pours his heart out before his wife Rajvati about the dire state of Bharat Mata caused by foreign rule, she advises him not to worry about bygone days and take steps for better future.[38]

Devanagari
है गीता का उपदेश यही
जो गया उसे अब क्या रोना
सोचो भविष्य की प्राणेश्वर!
करना है क्या, अब क्या होना

It is the precept of Gita not to lament the past. Oh god of my soul! Rather, reflect upon what is on the anvil, what is to be done!

She further inspires Hemu to punish the perpetrators of unrighteous acts.[39]

Devanagari
जो धरा दूसरों की हड़पे
अपमान करे जो नारी का
कुछ पाप नहीं वध करने में
उस पापी अत्याचारी का

There lies no any sin in slaying the felon and tormentor, who defalcates other's land and affronts other's woman.

In Canto 7, while Bairam Khan pleads Akbar to decapitate Hemu for becoming Ghazi, then Akbar asks from Hemu about it. At this, Hemu proclaims proudly in Akbar's court the immortality of soul, from the fluttering pages of Krishna's Gita.[40]

Devanagari
मैं उसी कृष्ण का आराधक
जिसकी गीता बतलाती है
कब भला आत्मा यह मरती
यह अजर-अमर कहलाती है

Oh Akbar! I am the adorer of Lord Krishna, whose Gita preaches that soul never perishes and hence is termed as ever young and eternal.

This verse is inspired from the Gita Shloka 2-20.[41]

The work also mingles the theories of fatalism and karmayoga simultaneously. In Canto 5, while Hemu's mother Satyavati enjoins him to join army for the freedom of India, she highlights the role of fate in the life of a person.[42]

Devanagari
सच है जो भी आता जग में
निज भाग्य लिखाकर ही आता
जाना है जिसको जहाँ उसे
यह भाग्य वहीँ पर ले जाता

Truly, one arrives in this world just after getting its destiny written. The destiny takes one on the place, wherever one is bound to go.

In Canto 2, Rajvati encourages her husband Hemu to espouse the theory of Karmayoga, which is the essence of Gita for the travelers of this path.[43]

Devanagari
वे कर्मशील समरांगण में
कब फल की आशा करते हैं
मरना-जीना विधि के हाथों
निष्काम कर्म ही करते हैं

They industrious persons don't expect the outcome in the ground of battle. They just perform selfless deeds, deliberating that death and life; both are in the hands of God.

This verse hints the same idea, as expounded in the Gita Shloka 2-47.[44]

Dialogues[edit]

Though, the work brings Hemu's life and achievements in light via various facts found in historical works, the poet has also originally composed two conversations, which are its centers of attraction. The language of these dialogues is in compliance with culture of contemporary social environment and is replete with trio-gunas of Hindi poetry Oja, Prasad and Madhurya.

The first dialogue takes place between the Hemu and his wife Rajvati in Canto 2, while once Hemu returns home dispirited owing to ongoing conspiratorial activities amid Afghans to notch the throne. He says:[45]

Devanagari
हेमू बोला यह जगत प्रिये!
कुछ रंग-मंच जैसा ही है
होते हैं यहाँ रोज नाटक
जीवन प्रपंच जैसा ही है

Oh my dear! This world is like a theater stage, where dramas are performed daily. This life seems to be tumultuous, said Hemu.

Aggrieved Hemu expresses pains that Hindu kings are in slumber, while Bharat Mata is beleaguered by foreign assailants. On this, his wife Rajvati spurs him with Gita's sermon to fight against Mughals as well as Afghans for liberating India and re-establishing Hindu rule.[46]

Devanagari
यदि रण में तुम मारे जाओ
तुम पर अभिमान करूंगी मैं
यदि जीत गए, आधारशिला-
हिन्दू-गण-राज्य धरूंगी मैं

If you sacrifice your life in the battle, I will certainly feel proud of you. If you taste the victory, I would lay the cornerstone of Hindu republic.

The second dialogue occurs in Canto 7, when shackled Hemu is brought in Akbar's court. Akbar poses a question before him that how he should treat him. Then, Hemu responds valiantly maintaining his self-respect.[47]

Devanagari
तुम शहंशाह गद्दीनशीन
मैं बिन गद्दी सम्राट बड़ा
यह खेल वक्त का है अकबर
जो तुमने मुझको यूँ जकड़ा
जो राजा एक दूसरे का
सम्मान सदा करते आये
वैसा ही अकबर आप करें
शायद यह बात नहीं भाये

You are enthroned emperor. I'm also a king but now deprived of throne. Oh Akbar! It is the play of destiny, that you have clutched me in this way. Treat me like one king honours others. But, probably, this behaviour doesn't befit your mind.

Reception[edit]

Critical response[edit]

Dr Kunwar Bechain, popular lyricist, and professor at Hindi department of the MMH College, Ghaziabad, writes in his article entitled "This narrative poetry is the chronicle script of inspirational plot attached with national soul" (Hindi: राष्ट्रीय अस्मिता से जुड़े प्रेरणाप्रद कथानक का इतिवृत्तात्मक आलेख है यह प्रबंध-काव्य):

By composing this work, the poet has aimed to introduce to society the personality of a warrior like Hemu, who became the emperor of Delhi despite being an ordinary person, but was not given the due place, for which he was entitled, by historians, though he put his life at stake for enlivening the dignity of India. ..The poet has chosen a significant plot and character, who has been probably become the subject of a poetry first time. ..He has also succeeded in achieving the goal pursued by him.[48]

According to senior journalist, famous writer and president award recipient, Shiva Kumar Goyal, Pilkhuwa:

This historical poetry composition of poet would introduce our new generation that immortal martyr, whose valiance was shrugged off by contemporary historians. This work would certainly prove capable to enkindle the feelings of patriotism in the heart of new generation.[49]

See also[edit]

Hemachandra Vikramaditya

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Prasad, Ishwari, The history of India (Hindi), Indian Press Limited, Allahabad, 1949, Chapter-4, p.49
  2. ^ Srivastava, Lal, Ashirbadi, The history of India (Hindi), Chapter-Akbar Mahan
  3. ^ Naval Ji, Nalanda Vishal Shabad Sagar (Hindi), p.652.
  4. ^ Bhardwaj, KK. Hemu: Napoleon of medieval India, p.10. Retrieved April 22, 2013. 
  5. ^ Bhardwaj, KK, Himu : A forgotten Hindu Hero, p.100, Bhartiya Vidya Bhawan
  6. ^ Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra. ‘The Mughul Empire’: Appendix Himu-A forgotten Hindu Hero, Bhartiya Vidya Bhawan. Retrieved April 22, 2013. 
  7. ^ Smit, Vincent A. "The Oxford Student's History Of India". Retrieved April 22, 2013. 
  8. ^ Smit, Vincent A. "The Oxford History Of India, p.430". Retrieved April 22, 2013. 
  9. ^ Richards, John F. The New Cambridge History of India, The Mughal Emperor, p.13. Retrieved April 22, 2013. 
  10. ^ Tate, G.P. "The Kingdom of Afghanistan, p.22". Retrieved April 22, 2013. 
  11. ^ Nirakar, N. "Glorious Contribution of 'Backward Classes' to Hinduism and India". Retrieved April 22, 2013. 
  12. ^ Gupt, Rameshwar Dayal, Vaishya Samuday Ka Itihas, 1985, Chapter-33/2
  13. ^ Shukl, Kamal, Panipat Ke Teen Ghao, p.74, Krishna Sahitya Sadan, New Delhi
  14. ^ "The Napoleon of Medieval India, Vikramaditya Hemu, Rauniyar Vaishya from Sasaram". Retrieved April 22, 2013. 
  15. ^ Sinha, Ashish (Feb 18, 2008). "Vaishyas unhappy over exclusion of their 'hero'". Times Of India. Retrieved April 20, 2013. 
  16. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p. xiv
  17. ^ धूसरस्जाति वणिक् हेमूनामश्च राज्यकृत्। पंच मास दिनं सप्त योगिनीपुर मध्यग:॥ Indraprastha Prabandh, 2011, Chapter-2 Shloka-2, Dr Dashrath Sharma, Rajasthan Oriental Research Institute, Jodhpur
  18. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p. xiii and xiv
  19. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p. 26
  20. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p.130
  21. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p.133
  22. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p. 26
  23. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p. xiii
  24. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011
  25. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p. 48
  26. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p. 81, 108
  27. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p. 106
  28. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p.32
  29. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p. 106, 103
  30. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p. 65
  31. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p. 51
  32. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p. 99
  33. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p. 113
  34. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p. 102
  35. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p. xxi
  36. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p. 134
  37. ^ Lakhani, Shilpa. "The successful transmission of the pustimarga sampradaya from its country of origin to the United States". Retrieved April 22, 2013. 
  38. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p. 51
  39. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p. 52
  40. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p. 123
  41. ^ न जायते म्रियते वा कदाचि- न्नायं भूत्वा भविता वा न भूयः। अजो नित्यः शाश्वतोऽयं पुराणो न हन्यते हन्यमाने शरीरे ॥2-20॥"The Eternal Reality of the Soul's Immortality". Bhagavad-Gita Trust. Retrieved April 23, 2013. 
  42. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p. 76
  43. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p. 51
  44. ^ कर्मण्येवाधिकारस्ते मा फलेषु कदाचन। मा कर्मफलहेतुर्भुर्मा ते संगोऽस्त्वकर्मणि॥2/47॥"The Eternal Reality of the Soul's Immortality". Bhagavad-Gita Trust. Retrieved April 23, 2013. 
  45. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p. 47
  46. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p. 53
  47. ^ Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p. 120
  48. ^ इसमें कवि ने यह चाहा है कि समाज हेमू जैसे एक वीर पुरुष के व्यक्तित्व से परिचित हो जाये, जो एक सामान्य व्यक्ति होकर भी दिल्ली का राजा बना, किन्तु जिसे इतिहासकारों ने वह स्थान नहीं दिया, जिसका कि वह हक़दार था जब कि उसने भारत की अस्मिता को जीवित रखने के लिए अपने प्राण भी न्योछावर कर दिये।...कवि ने एक महत्वपूर्ण कथानक और कथानायक का चुनाव किया जो सम्भवत: पहली बार ही प्रबंध काव्य का विषय बना है।.. वे जिस उद्देश्य को लेकर चले हैं, उसमें सफल भी हुए हैं। Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, p. ix and x
  49. ^ यह ऐतिहासिक काव्य रचना हमारी आने वाली पीढ़ी का परिचय उस अमर शहीद से करायेगी...जिसके शौर्य-कर्म को तत्कालीन इतिहासकारों द्वारा उपेक्षित किया गया।..यह रचना नई पीढ़ी के हृदय में देशभक्ति-भाव को जागृत करने में पूर्णरूपेण सक्षम सिद्ध होगी। Gumnaam Vikramaditya, 2011, last cover page

References[edit]

Nirmal, Prem (December 2011), Gumnaam Vikramaditya (in Hindi), Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, India: Aseem Publication