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Gun fu, a portmanteau of gun and kung fu, is the style of sophisticated close-quarters gunplay seen in Hong Kong action cinema and in Western films influenced by it. It often resembles a martial arts battle played out with firearms instead of traditional weapons. It may also be described by other terms such as bullet ballet, gun kata, or gymnastic gunplay.
The focus of gun fu is both style and the usage of firearms in ways that they were not designed to be used. Shooting a gun from each hand, shots from behind the back, as well as the use of guns as melee weapons are all common. Other moves can involve shotguns, submachine guns, rocket launchers, and just about anything else that can be worked into a cinematic shot. It is often mixed with hand-to-hand combat maneuvers.
"Gun fu" has become a staple factor in modern action films due to its visually appealing nature (regardless of its actual practicality in a real-life combat situation). This is a contrast to American action movies of the 1980s which focused more on heavy weaponry and outright brute-force in firearm-based combat.
Heroic bloodshed and gun fu 
Director John Woo originated the style in the Hong Kong film A Better Tomorrow in 1986. The film launched the "heroic bloodshed" genre in Hong Kong, and "gun fu" action sequences became a regular feature in many of the subsequent heroic bloodshed films. John Woo continued to make several classic heroic bloodshed films, all featuring gun fu, and all starring leading man Chow Yun-fat. Chow wielding a gun in each hand became an iconic cinema image around the world.
Anthony Leong wrote of the gunfights in A Better Tomorrow,
|“||Before 1986, Hong Kong cinema was firmly rooted in two genres: the martial arts film and the comedy. Gunplay was not terribly popular because audiences had considered it boring, compared to fancy kung-fu moves or graceful swordplay of the wu shu epics. What moviegoers needed was a new way to present gunplay-- to show it as a skill that could be honed, integrating the acrobatics and grace of the traditional martial arts. And that's exactly what John Woo did. Using all of the visual techniques available to him (tracking shots, dolly-ins, slo-mo), Woo created beautifully surrealistic action sequences that were a 'guilty pleasure' to watch. There is also intimacy found in the gunplay-- typically, his protagonists and antagonists will have a profound understanding of one another and will meet face-to-face, in a tense Mexican standoff where they each point their weapons at one another and trade words.||”|
|“||Woo saw gunfights in musical terms: His primary conceit was the shootout as dance number, with great attention paid to choreography, the movement of both actors within the frame. He loved to send his shooters flying through the air in surprising ways, far more poetically than in any real-life scenario. He frequently diverted to slow motion and he specialized in shooting not merely to kill, but to riddle -- his shooters often blast their opponents five and six times.||”|
Other Hong Kong directors also began using gun fu sequences in films that were not strictly heroic bloodshed films, such as Wong Jing's God of Gamblers (1989). There were several heroic bloodshed films that did not feature gun fu, but opted for more realistic combat, such as Ringo Lam's City on Fire (1987).
Spread to the West 
The popularity of John Woo's films, and the heroic bloodshed genre in general, in the West helped give the gun fu style greater visibility. Film-makers like Robert Rodriguez were inspired to create action sequences modelled on the Hong Kong style. One of the first to demonstrate this was Rodriguez's Desperado (1995). The Matrix (1999) played a part in making "gun fu" the most popular form of firearm-based combat in cinema worldwide; since then, the style has become a staple of modern Western action films.
One classic gun fu move consists of reloading two pistols simultaneously by releasing the empty magazines, pointing the guns to the ground, dropping two fresh magazines out of one's jacket sleeves, or strapped to one's legs, into the guns, and then carrying on shooting. In the film Bulletproof Monk (2003), The Monk With No Name (portrayed by Chow Yun-fat) empties two pistols, ejects the magazines and spins to kick the empty magazines at his assailants. In The Rundown (2003), Beck (Dwayne Johnson) fires two shotguns, flips both to be up-side down and pointing backwards, and snaps them between his arms and torso to reload them in an instant. The style is also featured (albeit in a small way and with the assistance of gadgets) in the Lara Croft: Tomb Raider movies. In Wanted (2008), assassins belonging to The Fraternity possess the skill of "bending" bullets around obstacles; in a gunfight early in the film, one assassin knocks another bullet out of the air with his own round. In X-Men Origins: Wolverine (2009), Agent Zero (Daniel Henney) reloads his handguns by throwing them into the air and catching them with the magazines he's holding in his hands.
1992 saw the introduction of gun fu to the horror movie script. In Sam Raimi's cult classic Army of Darkness (1993), Ash (Bruce Campbell) uses a 12 gauge Remington double-barreled stage coach gun as both a close combat weapon and as the gun it is. Many scenes show Ash doing flips over the various undead, landing, shooting over his shoulder, even throwing the weapon and catching it only to continue to fire.
The character John Preston (Christian Bale) demonstrates a system of martial arts called Gun Kata in writer/director Kurt Wimmer's Equilibrium (2002). Gun Kata is differentiated from other Gun Fu styles by a focus on rote memorization of probabilities, instead of feats of pure reflex. Through repeated simulations and practice, practitioners are able to fire at their attacker's position, while moving out of their attacker's most likely return fire trajectory and essentially dispatching their enemy while dodging their enemies' bullets. Preston also has special devices mounted into his sleeves/wrists that feed magazines smoothly into his weapon, but the Gun Kata itself provides him with optimum firing angles as well as defensive postures and movements. The 2006 film Ultraviolet, also written and directed by Wimmer, featured much-anticipated "Gun Kata 2.0" scenes, which utilized a super-powered protagonist and futuristic technology to expand on the Gun Kata ideas created in Equilibrium.
In the 2012 film, "Django Unchained", the climactic shootout in Candieland is very John Woo inspired even to the point replicating scenes from "the Killer" shot-by-shot.
Video games 
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The Half-Life game modification "The Specialists" is one of the very few examples of multiplayer "Gun Fu". The mod features melee and gun combat, with encounters often resulting in frenzied exchanges involving both types of attack. Dual-wielding weapons, slow motion, and advanced melee are popular features of the mod which still has a loyal following years after the final version was announced. Another Half-Life mod, "The Opera", is named after Hong Kong blood operas, and features akimbo-wielded handguns and stylized gunplay - players are awarded cash for stylish kills performed during flips, cartwheels, and other martial-arts inspired maneuvers.
"Gun fu" moves, closely tied with a slo-mo concept essential to their execution, appear in the video game Max Payne, along with dual-wielding various weapons, including semi-automatic pistols and machine pistols such as the Uzi and the Ingram MAC-10. The game, itself heavily influenced by Hong Kong action cinema, arguably signified the advent of extensive slo-mo as an interactive device in videogames.
Shadow Hearts: From the New World features a character, Natan, whose special skill is labeled "Gun Fu" and is designed to resemble the martial art.
Dante, from the Devil May Cry series, employs "gun fu" using a variety of firearms, the wielding of dual pistols being his trademark.
In 2007, Stranglehold, a game sequel to John Woo's cult film Hard Boiled was released, which featured the protagonist Police Inspector Tequila on another blood driven conquest.
Noel Vermillion from the fighting game BlazBlue also uses gun kata with her two Nox Nyctores pistols, Arcus Diabolus Bolverk.
In 2009, Cryptic Studios released Champions Online which features a "munitions" class that contains several abilities that utilize dual-wielding pistols. Many of the powers combine firing with martial arts, including a "Bullet Ballet" power and a high level ability called "Lead Tempest". Likewise, the similar game City of Heroes incorporated a Dual Pistols power set into the game in the expansion pack, Going Rogue, which involves switching between ammunition types mid-combat and various trick shots.
The Ranger/Desperado class in Dungeon Fighter Online has several "gun fu" style abilities.
The 2012 video game, The Darkness II, has "gun kata" as one of the abilities that can be purchased.
Other media 
Gun Fu is also the name of a series of comic books by Howard M. Shum and Joey Mason, about a Hong Kong police officer in the 1930s who employs a combination of gun-play and martial arts. In the Iron Fist comic books, the character Orson Randall uses his Iron Fist power with his two fire-arms, which a colleague jokingly refers to as "Gun-Fu".[volume & issue needed]
In the Buffyverse role-playing games, gun fu is the name for the firearms skill, but this is more likely meant to be humorous rather than to imply characters practice an actual firearm-based martial art.
In the Ninjas and Superspies supplement Mystic China, Gun Fu is the Triad Assassin Training and is a martial arts skill that can be available to player characters. It primarily emphasizes the use of paired 9mm pistols.
See also 
- Lisa Morton (2001). The Cinema of Tsui Hark. McFarland. p. 203. ISBN 0-7864-0990-8.
- Sean Axmaker (Friday, December 6, 2002). Just saying no to drugs in the fascist future. Seattle Post Intelligencer
- Leong, Anthony (1998). "The Films of John Woo and the Art of Heroic Bloodshed". Archived from the original on November 30, 2007. Retrieved February 19, 2009.
- Hunter, Stephen (April 20, 2007). "Cinematic Clues To Understand The Slaughter". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 19, 2009.
- Comic book series