||The examples and perspective in this article or section might have an extensive bias or disproportional coverage towards United States of America. (March 2014)|
Internationally, gun violence may be broadly defined as violence committed with the use of a gun (firearm or small arm). It may or may not be considered criminal. Criminal gun violence includes homicide (except when and where ruled justifiable), assault with a deadly weapon, and suicide, or attempted suicide, depending on jurisdiction. Non-criminal gun violence may include accidental or unintentional injury or death. Included in this subject are statistics regarding military or para-military activities, as well as the actions of civilians.
According to GunPolicy.org, 75 percent of the world's 875 million guns are civilian controlled. Many guns are owned for legitimate reasons, and most are not misused. However, the 875 million guns, including the 25 percent that are government controlled, are used to kill as many as 1,000 people daily. Globally, millions are wounded or denied basic services and human rights through the use of guns.
Levels of gun violence vary greatly among geographical regions, countries, and even subnationally. The United States has the highest rate of gun related deaths per capita among developed countries,:29 though it also has the highest rate of gun ownership and the highest rate of officers.
According to a 2007 paper by Krause and Muggah, there is no internationally agreed upon definition of armed violence. They cite the World Health Organization definition of violence:
The intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment or deprivation.
Krause and Muggah clarify that arms include bladed weapons, blunt objects, explosives, and other instruments, but that guns (in their paper, small arms and light weapons) "are disproportionately used to commit violence" worldwide. They break armed violence into five categories: inter-personal, collective, criminal, conflict, and institutional (or state).
In the United States, the term "gun crime" was common, especially in the years leading up to the passage of the Assault Weapons Ban of 1994, which expired in 2004. Since then, "gun violence" is the commonly used term.
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A 1992 U.S. medical journal report shows an association between household firearm ownership and gun suicide rates, finding that individuals in a firearm owning home are close to five times more likely to commit suicide than those individuals who do not own firearms. However, a 1996 New Zealand study found no significant relationship between household guns and suicide. Assessing data from 14 developed countries where gun ownership levels were known, the Harvard Injury Control Research Center found statistically significant correlations between those levels and suicide rates. However, the parallels were lost when data from additional nations was included.:30 During the 1980s and 1990s, the rate of adolescent suicides with guns caught up with adult rates, and the 75-and-older rate rose above all others.:20-21 The use of firearms in suicides ranges from less than 10 percent in Australia to 50 percent in the United States, where it is the most common method and where suicides outnumber homicides 2-to-1.
According to U.S. criminologist Gary Kleck, studies that try to link gun ownership to victimology often fail to account for the presence of guns owned by other people. Research by economists John Lott of the U.S. and John Whitley of Australia indicates that safe-storage laws do not appear to affect juvenile accidental gun deaths or suicides. A committee of the U.S. National Research Council said ecological studies on violence and firearms ownership provide contradictory evidence. The committee wrote: "[Existing] research studies and data include a wealth of descriptive information on homicide, suicide, and firearms, but, because of the limitations of existing data and methods, do not credibly demonstrate a causal relationship between the ownership of firearms and the causes or prevention of criminal violence or suicide."
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) defines intentional homicide as "acts in which the perpetrator intended to cause death or serious injury by his or her actions." This excludes deaths: related to conflicts (war); caused by recklessness or negligence; or justifiable, such as in self-defense or by law enforcement in the line of duty. A 2009 report by the Geneva Declaration using UNODC data showed that worldwide firearms were used in an average of 60 percent of all homicides.:67 In the U.S. in 2011, 67 percent of homicide victims were killed by a firearm: 66 percent of single-victim homicides and 79 percent of multiple-victim homicides.
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Some gun control advocates say that the strongest evidence linking availability of guns to death and injury is found in domestic violence studies, often referring to those by public health policy analyst Arthur Kellermann. In response to suggestions by some that homeowners would be wise to acquire firearms for protection from home invasions, Kellermann investigated in-home homicides in three cities over five years. He found that the risk of a homicide was in fact slightly higher in homes where a handgun was present. The data showed that the risk of a crime of passion or other domestic dispute ending in a fatal injury was higher when a gun was readily available (essentially loaded and unlocked) compared to when no gun was readily available. Kellerman said this increase in mortality overshadowed any protection a gun might have deterring or defending against burglaries or invasions. He also concluded that further research of domestic violence causes and prevention are needed.
Kleck proved that few of the homicides that Kellermann studied were committed with guns belonging to the victim or members of his or her household, and that it was implausible that victim household gun ownership contributed to their homicide. Instead, according to Kleck, the association that Kellermann found between gun ownership and victimization reflected that people who live in more dangerous circumstances are more likely to be murdered, but also were more likely to have acquired guns for self-protection.
Robbery and assault
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The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime defines robbery as the theft of property by force or threat of force. Assault is defined as a physical attack against the body of another person resulting in serious bodily injury. In the case of gun violence, the definitions become more specific and include only robbery and assault committed with the use of a firearm. Firearms are used in this threatening capacity four to six times more than firearms used as a means of protection in fighting crime. Hemenway's figures are disputed by other academics, who assert there are many more defensive uses of firearms than criminal uses. See John Lott's "More Guns, Less Crime".
Costs of gun violence
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Violence committed with guns leads to significant monetary costs. Phillip J. Cook estimated that such violence costs the USA $100 billion annually. Emergency medical care is a major contributor to the monetary costs of such violence. It was determined in a study that for every firearm death in the USA for one year from 1 June 1992, an average of three firearm-related injuries were treated in hospital emergency departments.
Psychological costs of violence committed with guns are also clearly documented. Psychologist James Garbarino, who studies children in the U.S. and internationally, found that individuals who experience violence are prone to mental and other health problems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder and sleep deprivation. These problems increase for those who experience violence as children.
- Alpers, Philip; Wilson, Marcus (2013). "Global Impact of Gun Violence". gunpolicy.org. Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- "Global Study on Homicide 2011". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Retrieved December 18, 2012.
- Cook, Philip J.; Ludwig, Jens (2000). Gun Violence: The Real Costs. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195137934. OCLC 45580985.
- Krause, Keith; Muggah, Robert (2007). "Background Note 1: Measuring the Scale and Distribution of Armed Violence". genevadeclaration.org. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- "Targeting Criminals, not Gun Owners". nraila.org. National Rifle Association of America. August 17, 2006.
- "About Brady". bradycampaign.org. Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence. 2013.
- Kellerman, Arthur L.; Rivara, Frederick P. (August 13, 1992). "Suicide in the Home in Relation to Gun Ownership". The New England Journal of Medicine (Massachusetts Medical Society) 327 (7): 467–472. doi:10.1056/NEJM199208133270705. PMID 1308093.
- Beautrais, Annette L.; Joyce, Peter R.; Mulder, Roger T. (December 1996). "Access to firearms and the risk of suicide: a case control study". Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 30 (6): 741–748. doi:10.3109/00048679609065040. Retrieved February 28, 2014.
- Miller, Matthew; Hemenway, David (2001). "Firearm Prevalence and the Risk of Suicide: A Review". Harvard Health Policy Review (Exploring Policy in Health Care (EPIHC)) 2 (2): 29–37. "One study found a statistically significant relationship between gun ownership levels and suicide rate across 14 developed nations (e.g. where survey data on gun ownership levels were available), but the association lost its statistical significance when additional countries were included."
- Ikeda, Robin M.; Gorwitz, Rachel; James, Stephen P.; Powell, Kenneth E.; Mercy, James A. (1997). "Fatal Firearm Injuries in the United States 1962-1994". Violence Surveillance Summary (National Center for Injury Prevention and Control) 3.
- Harrison, James E.; Pointer, Sophie; Elnour, Amr Abou (July 2009). "A review of suicide statistics in Australia" (PDF). aihw.gov.au. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.
- McIntosh, JL; Drapeau, CW (November 28, 2012). "U.S.A. Suicide: 2010 Official Final Data". suicidology.org. American Association of Suicidology. Retrieved February 25, 2014.
- "Twenty Leading Causes of Death Among Persons Ages 10 Years and Older, United States". National Suicide Statistics at a Glance. Centers for Disease Control. 2009. Retrieved February 17, 2013.
- Kleck, Gary (2004). "Measures of Gun Ownership Levels of Macro-Level Crime and Violence Research". Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency (Sage Publications) 41 (1): 3–36. doi:10.1177/0022427803256229. NCJ 203876. "Studies that attempt to link the gun ownership of individuals to their experiences as victims (e.g., Kellermann, et al. 1993) do not effectively determine how an individual's risk of victimization is affected by gun ownership by other people, especially those not living in the gun owner's own household."
- Lott, John R.; Whitley, John E. (2001). "Safe-Storage Gun Laws: Accidental Deaths, Suicides, and Crime". Journal of Law and Economics 44 (2): 659–689. doi:10.1086/338346. "It is frequently assumed that safe-storage laws reduce accidental gun deaths and total suicides. We find no support that safe-storage laws reduce either juvenile accidental gun deaths or suicides."
- National Research Council (2004). "Executive Summary". In Wellford, Charles F.; Pepper, John V.; Petrie, Carol V. Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-09124-4.
- "Lethal Encounters: Non-conflict Armed Violence". Global Burden of Armed Violence 2008. Geneva, Switzerland: Geneva Declaration Secretariat. September 2008. pp. 67–88. ISBN 978-2-8288-0101-4. by Geneva Declaration editors using UNODC data.
- Cooper, Alexia; Smith, Erica L. (December 30, 2013). "Homicide in the U.S. Known to Law Enforcement, 2011". bjs.gov. U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved February 28, 2014.
- Kellerman, Arthur L.; Rivara, Frederick P. (October 7, 1993). "Gun ownership as a risk factor for homicide in the home". The New England Journal of Medicine (Massachusetts Medical Society) 329 (15): 1084–1091. doi:10.1056/NEJM199310073291506. PMID 8371731.
- Suter, Edgar A. (March 1994). "Guns in the medical literature--a failure of peer review". Journal of the Medical Association of Georgia 83 (13): 133–148. PMID 8201280.
- Kates, Don B.; Schaffer, Henry E.; Lattimer, John K.; Murray, George B.; Cassem, Edwin H. (1995). Kopel, David B., ed. Guns: Who Should Have Them?. New York: Prometheus Books. pp. 233–308. ISBN 9780879759582. in chapter "Bad Medicine: Doctors and Guns." Orig. pub. 1994 in Tennessee Law Review as "Guns and Public Health: Epidemic of Violence or Pandemic of Propaganda?"
- Kleck, Gary (February 2001). "Can Owning a Gun Really Triple the Owner's Chances of being Murdered?". Homicide Studies (SAGE) 5 (1): 64–77. doi:10.1177/1088767901005001005.
- "United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime: Data". unodc.org. UNODC. August 29, 2013. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
- Hemenway, D; David Hemenway, Deborah Azrael (2000). "The Relative Frequency of Offensive and Defensive Gun Uses: Results from a National Survey". Violence and Victims 15 (3): 257–272. PMID 11200101.
- Hemenway, David; Azrael, Deborah; Miller, Matthew (2000). "Gun use in the United States: results from two national surveys". Injury Prevention 6 (4): 263–267. doi:10.1136/ip.6.4.263. PMID 11144624.
- Zimring, Franklin E.; Hawkins, Gordon (1997). Crime Is Not the Problem: Lethal Violence in America. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195131055. OCLC 860399367.
- Annest, Joseph L.; Mercy, James A.; Gibson, Delinda R.; Ryan, George W. (June 14, 1995). "National Estimates of Nonfatal Firearm-Related Injuries: Beyond the Tip of the Iceberg". JAMA (American Medical Association) 273 (22): 1749–54. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03520460031030. PMID 7769767.
- Garbarino, James; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Vorrasi, Joseph A. (2002). Mitigating the Effects of Gun Violence on Children and Youth. "Children, Youth, and Gun Violence". The Future of Children (David and Lucile Packard Foundation) 12 (2). ISSN 1054-8289.
Library resources in your library about gun violence
- Firearm-related deaths in the United States and 35 other high- and upper-middle-income countries Krug, Powell, and Dahlberg (1998)
- Gun ownership, suicide and homicide: An international perspective Killias (1992)
- GunPolicy.org Armed violence and gun laws, country by country
- Guns and suicide: Possible effects of some specific legislation Rich, Young, Fowler et al. (1990)
- Guns, Violent Crime, and Suicide in 21 Countries Killias, van Kesteren, Rindlisbacher (2001)
- State of crime and criminal justice worldwide United Nations (2010)
- World crime trends and emerging issues and responses in the field of crime prevention and criminal justice United Nations (2013)